Psych 330: Study Guide for Midterm 1
Psych 330: Study Guide for Midterm 1 PSY 330
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa on Friday January 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 330 at University of Oregon taught by Ted Bell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Psy 330 thinking in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
[Psych 330:Thinking] [PROFESSOR Ted Bell ] [Midterm 1 Studyguide] [Chapter 1 and 2] Evidence for Critical Thinking and Teaching it to Others ● Students who use problem solving and reasoning are more likely to be critical thinkers ● Program in Venezuela tested this using essay questions that required students to think outside the box ● Van Gelder and his teachings on recognizing components of arguments ● Explicit methods provide the best results because it requires the most thinking ● Netherlands and the study of training and transferring that information to use in decision making ● Improvement on multiple choice tests because of the increase in critical thinking ● In realistic situations, students will use the skills they have been taught ● Found that it is possible to use those skills in multiple aspects and made great improvement when taught in various ways What is Transfer of Training? ● Using critical thinking skills in a variety of contexts ● Taking what you have learned in a classroom and using those skills in real life situations What is Metacognition? ● Knowledge of what we know and using this to pursue our learning ● Ex. When making an argument, you start with what you know and you decide whether your reasons are sound and just. Fast vs. Slow Thinking ● Fast thinking is our body’s “reflex” or our intuition about situations and occurrences ○ Tends to come from repeated experiences and routines ○ Can be effective if the person has a vast amount of experience in what they are undergoing ● Slow Thinking is where critical thinking occurs ○ Requires careful thought and rationale Why is memory considered an associative network? ● Our brains are so complex that they are able to associate different objects, people, and places with other parts of our life that we have experienced. ● It is our brain’s way of grouping objects together so that we can better remember certain things ● Ex. When you think of an apple you might think of a teacher or a doctor because students give their teachers apples and there is a saying about an apple a day keeps the doctor away Episodic vs. Semantic Memory ● Both are categorized as declarative memory and are longterm memories ● Episodic: events ● Semantic: facts that have been instilled in us or that we remember What is implicit memory? ● The memory we have but don't have sufficient amount of knowledge about that memory ● Occurs when you have seen something before and then something later activates that past memory but you do not remember seeing it ● “unconscious memory” ● The things we have learned ● Explicit memory:when people know they are being tested and people are tested on consciously recollected ideas What is the illusion of truth? ● When information that was heard before even when you knew it was a lie, makes it more likely that you will believe the information when it is encountered a second time than if you had not been told the original lie ○ If you had not heard the lie before and knew it was a lie now, you would not believe it What is working memory? ● Our conscious thoughts ● Small Capacity ● Where we think What is longterm memory? ● Facts, experiences, routines ● Where everything is stored What is sensory memory? ● Associated with our senses What is the relationship between memory accuracy and memory confidence? ● People tend to believe they are confident in their memories and thus must be accurate. However, most of the time confidence in one’s memories is not very accurate What is Procedural Memory? ● Routine like and similar to motor memory What were Loftus and Palmer’s findings on memory distortion? ● Memory distortion occurs people have trouble distinguishing between their thoughts and what they believe is occurring ● People create false memories in traumatic experiences What is a mnemonic? ● Techniques for organizing and elaborating information so that things will be easier to remember What is distributed learning and why is it advantageous? ● Distributed learning occurs when we space out learning rather than cramming. In doing this, we can keep the information longer. Cramming the information automatically goes into our short term memory and will not be remembered down the road. ● Distributing the learning allows for us to keep the information longer What is Encoding specificity? ● Certain cues our brain associates with information that is being recalled ● Can be done in asking questions like how is the information being learned relevant to other concepts being learned and asking the why rather than merely just what something is What is Chunking? ● Chunking is a form of grouping similar objects into a category to better remember certain things ● Finding the pattern to relate the objects together Confirmation Bias ● Occurs when we tend to agree with sayings or ideas based on what we believe even if it may not be true Availability Heuristic ● Occurs when we use the ease of remembering or what is easily available in memory to make judgements about probability or frequency ● Usually results in overestimates ● Considered a bias Why is attention considered a limited resource? ● Brain cannot comprehend multiple things going on at once Why is perception affected by context? ● Different settings call for different responses ● For example, if asked where you lived while in another country the USA would be sufficient but if you were in CA and asked where you were from, you would likely answer the city in which you are from. What is pattern completion? ● Finding how ideas and systems fit together which enable us to better remember certain things ● Using small amounts of information to form a bigger picture ● Involves lower level sensory processing and higher level processing associated with memory For depth of processing, what features make things easier to remember ● Easiest to remember certain things when you put your whole self into learning something; pay attention to what is being learned and do not multitask ● Easier to remember when you have a personal interest in what is being learned ● Find the meaning behind what is being learned ● Do not cram ● Organize yourself and your thoughts ● Practice and repeat ● Find cues or hints that will make it easier to recall Interference in memory ● Tends to occur when trying to learn a subject but other subjects interfere. ● Interference increases when learning similar subjects especially in languages ● In particular interference happens when trying to recall one idea but all you can think about or what is being recalled is something else ● To minimize interference, try learning two similar ideas at different times of the day and use skills learned in retaining memory and information to focus attention on learning one subject at a time ● Proactive vs. Retroactive interference ○ Proactive occurs when old information constantly is recalled such as when trying to recall a new password but the old password is only thing you remember ○ Retroactive: When you learn new information and it suddenly is all you can think about. Relationship between memory and attention ● The more attention we pay in learning something, the more likely we are to remember that information ● Requires our working memory and requires effort; cannot just merely happen ● Implicit memory helps explicit Why is sustaining memory effortful? ● Although certain facts and events are stored in our long term memory and appear to be recalled without effort, to be able to have those long term memories required work and effort. With the repeated practice and attention to specific details, we are able to recall those memories “without effort” ● Requires practice and repetition ● Also difficult because we are constantly faced with a vast amount of information and that information interferes with what we would like to recall at certain points in our life ● Mackworth ‘s experiment ○ Monitoring attention and ability to focus over long periods of time ○ Discovered that attention is selective and that as time increases, we lose focus What is signal enhancement? ● boosting of relevant information Distracter Suppression ● prevention of less relevant information Attention as a filter ● Two types ○ Dichotic listen: when we hear two different sounds but somehow the sound is limited to one side so that it can be processed by both sides ○ Cocktail party phenomenonwhen you hear your name even though you are attempting to focus elsewhere Why is multitasking costly? ● It slows down our reaction time; especially costly in driving and other high risk situations What kinds of sounds are more disruptive to performance? ● Sounds that do not have a constant rhythm or have words Ch. 3 Halpern and Clear Communication ● Tell listeners what you believe they want to know ○ Different questions in different contexts mean there will be different answers ● Don't tell them what they already know because they will zone it out ● Vary communication systems depending on your audience ● Be truthful in your communication ● Do not try to be super complex in your communication; keep it simple ● Clarify what you are saying by using the context of the situation ● Halpern believed in a four part model ○ Skill learning, dispositional change, train for transfer, and explicit metacognitive monitoring Grice’s Principles of conversational pragmatics What is a an analogy? ● When two concepts are compared in a similar way ● Can be used to persuade What is structure mapping? ● Using network like representations of concepts in memory in which underlying structural relationships and physical characteristics are coded along with each concept ● Typically use analogies to do so What is linguistic relativism or determinism and what evidence is there for it? ● Determined by theSapirWhorf Hypothesithat states that there is a strong and weak determinism ○ Strong: language categories dictate categories of perception and cognition ○ Weak but still effective: Culture plays a part in our understanding of language Equivocation ● Meaning of word is changed during the discussion ● Ex ○ Man(humanity) is the only rational animal ○ No woman is a man ○ Together the meaning of man changed from meaning humanity to man as in gender Reification ● When a thought or idea is treated like a physical object ● Mother Nature or someone’s IQ score Euphemism ● Using a different word to make something being said less offensive ● Hospitals use them to describe illnesses to their patients ● Feminine products rather than tampons or pads The effect of framing on our reasoning ● A question is asked in such a way that leads to a specific answer or in the direction that the questioner would like the person to answer ● Most people favor good outcomes so if questions are posed in such a way that it appears that lives will be saved rather than killed they will follow saving people even if it means that people will die regardless What the is the problem with matching individuals with certain learning styles? ● Will not learn how to deal with problems in other contexts or situations and thus will rely on a specific way they were taught. ● Takes away from the variety of critical thinking Why is language considered abbreviated? ● For clear communication, it is important to leave somethings up to interpretation and to avoid being too complex ○ Remember to think of the four principles of conversational pragmatics ■ Quality, quantity, relevance, and manner What would be considered a bad survey question? ● If framing effects lead to the wrong conclusions ● If the order in which questions are asked doesn't bring us to the desirable outcome ● If the question is too complex to understand What are the advantages of using metaphors and analogies? ● They can be used to better understand concepts and they can be used to persuade people to understand certain concept and influence what they think ● Forms a basis for inferences ● Influences representation of a problem ● Compressed and efficient way to communicate ● Can be memorable What makes a bad analogy or metaphor? ● If the two concepts are brought together in such a way that is actually more confusing than helpful ● When there are no connections between the concepts Ch. 4 and 5 What is reasoning? ● using knowledge about one or more related statements that we can reasonably believe are true to determine a conclusion What is epistemology? ● How do you know what you think you know What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? ● Inductive observations are collected that support or suggest a conclusion ○ Can never prove that something is correct but if your premises are true then your conclusion is probably true ● Deductive:begin with statements believed to be true and then infer ○ Allows us to answer question from information stored in memory, to plan according to goals, and to solve puzzles What does criticism mean in the context of reasoning? ● Occurs when we reevaluate what we are thinking What is the anatomy of an argument ● Starting point ○ evidence, observations, assumptions, and premises ● Structures ○ Relevance of starting points to the conclusions ● Conclusions What constitutes a valid deductive argument? ● The “if” premises must be true and the conclusions must be true as well What are some tools for evaluating deductive arguments? ● Look at the linear orderings of the sayings ● Check the if, then statements ● Look at the syllogisms(2 premises and a conclusion) used ● Use circular diagrams Why is it difficult to check our arguments sometimes? ● Sometimes because we believe the conclusion, we automatically accept that the rest of the argument is valid as well ● Complexity makes it hard to find a linear order ● Unreasonable premises What are the best practices for discussion and reasoning in the context of an argument ● Have a plan for your argument, outline thoughts ● Look at the strong counterarguments and be prepared to have a reason for your argument ● Be clear with evidence Why is an analogy not considered an argument ● Compares two ideas but does not follow the same anatomy What makes a sound argument ● Requires consistent and acceptable information and the audience is told all information needed Can an argument be sound with only one reason ● Probably as long as the one reason has a sufficient amount of evidence and thus leaves no questions unanswered What's the difference between an argument and an assertion ● Arguments present the reasoning behind their logic ● Assertions merely make a statement without an explanation ● To evaluate assertions need to consider the evidence, if the assertion is true, and does the conclusion make sense What is explaining as knowing ● Occurrences in which people make judgements about their own knowledge by thinking about how well they can explain a concept ● Argument analysis: examining the strength of the evidence that supports or refutes a particular conclusion What is false dichotomy ● Occurs when people do not consider all possible reasons or parts of an argument What is fallacy ● unsound reasoning techniques used for the purpose of persuasion ● Fallacy fallac When you believe that the person’s conclusion is false because their argument contains a fallacy What is false cause fallacy ● Belief that because two events occurred so close together that one caused the other What is guilt by association ● Idea that if people or events are occurring in the same time period that people will associate them together ● It is possible to have virtue by association as well What are part/whole fallacies ● When you believe something that is said ● Believe the sentence is true because parts of it are true ● In believing parts are true you believe that the entire concept must be true as well What is Myside bias ● a confirmation bias ● When a person attends to the evidence but comes to a conclusion based on their personal beliefs and values How does myside bias relate to intelligence or cognitive ability ● IQ is related only when asked not to focus on their own beliefs ● Able to come up with arguments but were unable to to connect it completely to cognitive ability Can people overcome their myside bias? ● It is possible but takes a lot of effort
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