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World Geography-bundle of notes of the course of semester

by: Callie Ruth Bridgforth

World Geography-bundle of notes of the course of semester GR 1123

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Geography > GR 1123 > World Geography bundle of notes of the course of semester
Callie Ruth Bridgforth
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These notes cover the entire semester. The final is not comprehensive (test 4 will be your final)
Introduction to World Geography
William Baldwin
Study Guide
World Geography




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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Callie Ruth Bridgforth on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by William Baldwin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 01/09/16
Wednesday, September 9, 2015 World Geo Agrarian Revolution - Began in Europe in the 1750s - Based on new agricultural innovations - Enable increased food production and population Industrial Revolution Spread (1840s) - steam driven engine - use of coal and heat - use of steel - Revolution affected population, London-ground zero - Business and transportation The extent of the Ottoman Empire - Muhammad (571-632 AD) - Quran is the holy book - Five pillars of faith - Repeated expressions of creed - Frequent prayer (5 times per day) - facing Mecca and do not interrupt - considered a direct line to god - Month of daytime fasting (Ramadan) - Alms-giving - Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) - Sunnies vs Shi’ites 1 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - 85% of Muslims are Sunni - Wahhabism-fundamentalist - October 7, 2015-Wednesday World Geo-Notes for powerpoint Russia -largest country in the world-3x the size of Europe -About hundred and forty one million people-18% non Russian -Largest contiguous empire -Northern most populous country Physical Geography -mountain range runs north to south -one ice-free port-Murmansk -tundra-treeless plain along north shore -worlds largest unbroken lowland -Taiga-coniferous forest Farming is very difficult If the world continues to warm, changes to Russia will happen and most of them good -farming could happen -oil drilling could happen Trans-Siberian Railway -good for Russia, bad for East Asia Peter the Great -St Petersburg-the building of the land was deadly- Katherine the Great -1760-lady is the leader of Russia -Expanded Russia-Alaska and all the way down to San Fransisco -problem: it is a very long way from Russia and very difficult to manage When Russia was in debt, they sold Alaska in 1867 for 7 million dollars to the U.S. We had to bend the time zone to make sure Alaska was still in the same time zone as us 2 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 Oct 9, 2015 World Geo-Notes for powerpoint spring of ’86- Chernobyl, Ukraine-nuclear-plant crisis Russia has taken over Ukraine at this point Nuclear facility has had a melt down and radioactive material is everywhere-US didn't tell anyone for two weeks Russia is stuck in war Afghanistan lancaster plan British protecting india via afghan. caught in the middle (50’s-60’s) late 1970 hundreds-thousands of Russian tanks red fire trucks-bombs while Russia is fighting Afghanistan, we are suppling weapons to the rebels there is also a war on the border along with Russian war Oct 14, 2015 Africa • Rift Valley-next to the horn of Africa • A fifth of the earth’s surface • The Plateau Continent 1000-2500 hundred feet • • Seasonal Rainfall apposed to seasons • lots of farming (primitive mainly) • diverse population and geography • tropical diseases-malaria, yellow fever, aids 3 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 The following countries would fit on the continent of Africa:China, India, all of • Europe, Argentina, New Zealand, and the USA-all at the same time with room to spare! • 800 languages-only 10 are spoken by more than a million people • Mount Kilimanjaro • located on the equator • tallest point on equator • takes 5 days to hike to the top • 19,000 feet tall-oxygen problems • tallest free standing mountain-not part of a chain • three volcanoes with two peaks only continent who's lakes are formed from tectonic forces • • 2nd continent with a cluster of great lakes • Islam • government is in the North • resources are in the South • 15% christian, 60% muslim • Sudan is 8% of Africa 3rd largest oil producer in Africa • • 45 million in population-Changes frequently • in the 1980s, the government forced a very strict version of Islamic law- punishment for anyone who wasn't muslim • War breaks out-religious wars are the most dangerous Civil War in Sudan • 1983-2005 • After war-genocides starts happening • Janjaweed-suni government group Oct 16-friday • Test Wednesday and MQ • forum on discussion board 4 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 • War in Sudan • Darfur • rebel groups are fighting to get their land back Reporters have to be escorted into the country • • 2 million people homeless from village raids • The Great Migration • the year long journey of animals in Africa • Shows how the rain season dominates African life • 2 million herbivores, 2.5 million wildebeest(250,000 wont survive migration) 300,000 zebras, 500,000 gazelle • They cross two major rivers • filled with crocodiles that count on the migration for feeding • They migrate for the grasslands • wildebeest-short grass, zebra-long grass-therefor zebras come first then wildebeest Oct 19-Monday • Power point slides • treaty of Westphalia • 1948 universal declaration of Human rights • 3 battles • Normandy largest sea-born invasion • • large number of casualties • Battle of Bulge • heavy attack on US forces • Hitler’s last offensive move 5 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 • bulge in the ally line • d-day • Battle of Berlin WWII slide • • Bay of Pigs • April 17, 1961 • Trans-Siberian Railway • crosses seven times zone • important for its ports • Seward’s folly • alaskan purchase • Mount Kilamanjaro • Rift valley • Islam World Geo Middle East - began being used in WW2 - population 600 million - Mesopotamia • land between rivers • Iraq - Suda Husain - stalin was his hero - raised by uncle in Cairo Egypt - completes high school at 24 6 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - part of a failed assignation at the age of 16 on the leader of Iraq - comes back to Iraq and immediately jailed but only spends 2 years in jail and gets involved with the Iraq military - 1968-he becomes chief of Iraq security forces and becomes very close with the leader - By late 70s he became leader - Cold war during this time - First thing you have to do when becoming in charge is establish dominance - China, North Korea, and Syria support Iran - The Us, Russia, and France support Iraq - Iraq looks (79-89) like its about to win but we don't want them to win • we are just trying to keep everybody distracted so we don't have confrontation with Russia • we decided to sell weapons to Israel who then sell them to Iran who then uses them against Iraq-The Iran Contraband Scandal • Oliver North took the fall-During president Reagan’s presidency - President bush excused him • We had ships parked • We shot down a 230 passenger plan of Iran - Sudan is still in power by 1990 - He invades Kuwait in 1990 which is a huge problem since they are major oil producers - The only objective was to get Sudan Husain out of Kuwait-our objective - When you go to war with the middle east you have to be careful because it can turn into a religious war which is the most dangerous type of war - Sudan fired several missiles into Israel during this war-tried to call it religious war - President Bush told Israel not retaliate so Sudan couldn't establish a religious war Oct 26, 2015 7 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 • We set a deadline for Sudom to get out of Kuwait but he ignored it • War was announced on national news, 1991 • Gulf war syndrome • could have been a combination or weapons used with sudom or chemical warfare • A lot of Iraq natives tried to flee to turkey • The whole war consisted for seven months • When we get to Baghdad we decide its best to let sudom keep power • We have to figure out what to do at the end of the war • two “no fly” zone • couldn't fly north of 36 parallel • couldn't fly should of 33 parallel • He repeatedly violated this rule • He also couldn't fly where the Kurds lived they are remnants of the Ottoman empire • they have some oil so they have to be very careful protecting it • • distinct ethnic group without a nation of their own • Sudom and the Kurds do not have a good relationship • they supported Iran • “the enemy of your enemy is your friend” • Sudom would fly over the kurds and spray them with chemicals • He was always a threat to middle east peace • The united nations • named by FDR • came together in January of 1942 during well • 26 nations originally • we had the league of nations before the united nations 8 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 • to prevent war • becomes official in San Fransisco • 80% of the world population represented • At the end of the Iran revolution, before the Iraq/Iran war, that was when Iran became anti-american • prior to the Iran revolution (1950), post WW2, the Iran government viewed as being communism • Communism scar-the majority of our mistakes • Eisenhower arranged for to overthrow the Iran government-almost worked • Iran find out, they get pissed, • post WW2, we were the superpower • Iran lost all trust in the US • The holocaust • affected pols,jews,homosexuals • The final solution-the gas chambers • Hitler fled to Argentina • Jews want their country back and we give them Israel • which is a disaster anti-Semitism • This is the third time Israel has come together in post WW2 • • they build a temple the first two times they came together • 1st time built; 2nd time reconstructed • May 14, 1948-they get their own state 9 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 Nov 2, 2015 War of Independence • leads to the Suez war-cause by the Suez canal being closed off • The six day war is the last time Israel goes to war with Egypt • less than 800 Israel soldiers died TEST 3 Test 3 Geography: Friday October 23: - Term Middle east began being used in ww2 - Population 600 million - Mesopotamia means land amidst the rivers - 5 pillars - Repeated expressions of creed - 5 prayers a day - month of daytime fasting - Alms giving - Pilgrimage to Mecca - 85% of Muslims are Sunni vs Shi’ites. Shi’ites believe you have to be a blood relative of Muhammad to carry out high positions. Iraq is sunni Iran is Shiites - Sudan Hussain - was raised by his uncle in Cairo, Egypt - Stalin was his hero - He completes high school at age of 24 - Part of a failed assassination at age of 16 on leader of Iraq - Comes back to Iraq and is jailed but only jailed for 2 years and then gets involved with the military - He then becomes chief of Iraq security forces and becomes close to the leader who became very sick - By 1970 Hussain becomes president of Iraq 10 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - When Hussain comes to power Iran is undergoing a revolution. more rights stripped after revolution. - China, north Korea, and Syria support Iran. - The United states, Russia, and France support Iraq. - Israel decides to support Iran. - Iraq is looking like it may when the war. - The U.S is trying to distract everyone so that we don't have to deal with Russia. - We don't want Iraq to win so we sell weapons to Israel who then sells them to Iran and used them against Iraq. Called the Iran Contraband scandal - Oliver North took the fall for the scandal for president Reagan after Iraq found out about the scandal. - We shot down a 290 passenger plane of Iran because they didn't identify themselves when flying over U.S. ships. This causes war to end. - Hussain is still in power. He decides to invade Kuwait in 1990. - Kuwait is a very significant oil producer which gets our attention. - President Bush is in power and says only goal in war is to remove Hussain out of Kuwait. We were very successful. - Hussain tried to say that it was a Holy war. - He fired several missiles into Israel during this war. Israel contacts president. Bush convinces them not to fire back. Monday October 26: - Hesla had 7 of our hostages. - We set a deadline for Sudam to get out of Kuwait. He was still there past the deadline. - Gulf war syndrome- illnesses after war in iraq - A lot of Iraq people tried to flee to Turkey. Gov finds out and closes border. - We are allied with Saudi Arabia and Turkey so we are able to use their land to invade Baghdad. - Whole war is wrapped up in 7 months. - The United Nations decided to leave Hussain in charge of Iraq so that Iran wont try to invade. - A no fly zone is set so Hussain can only fly between 33rd and 36th parallel. 11 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - Cant go below 33rd which protects Kuwait and cant fly over 36th to protect Kurds. Kurds are remnants of the Ottoman empire. The Kurds and Hussain do not have a good relationship due to Kurds supporting Iran during Iran-Iraq war. - Kurds are a distinct ethnic group with no nation of their own. - Hussain repeatedly violates the no fly zone - Second gulf war is post 9/11. He terrorizes Kurds, violates rules, and we are in search for weapons of mass destruction. - We only cite the suspicion of weapons of mass destruction as the reason for war. - The United Nations was named by FDR. 26 nations pledge. Before the UN we had the League of nations. League of nations was created during world war 1. Purpose of the league was to prevent another world war which obviously didn't work. - The United States didn't join league. - The UN is made official in San Fransisco - 80% of population of the world was represented by UN - At the end of the Iranian revolution Iran becomes anti-American. - Prior to the Iranian revolution (post ww2) it looked like they favored communism. Under Eisenhower administration. He underhandedly arranged for coup (overthrowing a government) of the Iranian government and it almost worked but it didn’t. They find out about this. - Iranians lose all trust in United States and still do today. - Nazis soldiers had to shoot people in the back of the head for execution but a lot of them could not handle it so they killed themselves. The Final Solution involves the gas chambers. - A lot of nazi high ranking officials fled to Argentina after ww2 - Anti semitism- racist towards the Jews. - We give Jews Israel. Palestine is gone. - Paganism- belief in one god. Abraham comes up with this belief. - The 3rd time Israel has come together. The first time was under King Solomon. Every time Israel comes together they build a temple. First time they construct it and the second time they reconstruct it. They have yet to reconstruct it a third time. - One day after the state of Israel a war starts. The countries that go to war with Israel are Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq (surrounding countries). Israel wins war. A few years later Israel closes the Suez canal. People come in to Israel from Egypt and blow stuff up and burn things down. Egypt closing the Suez Canal is an act of war. War lasts a year. Israel wins. 12 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - Instead of coming to the US for help..Israel goes to Britain and France for help with port problem. - Israel, Britain, and France go to war with Egypt. War lasted 100 hours. Israel takes entire sinai peninsula..We make them give it back because Israel did not inform us of anything. - Not only did we make them give it back..we allied with the soviets. - “we shall not enter Palestine with its soil covered in sand. We shall enter it with its soil saturated in blood” - The prime minister of Egypt. - 50% of income in Israel is taxed. - Within one day Israel destroyed the entire Egyptian air force. - Called the 6 day war. Israel takes back Sinai peninsula. - Egypt is mostly Islamic..Prime Minister says from now on everyone must do 5 prayers a day. - The six day war is the last time Israel goes to war with Egypt. - Less that 800 soldiers from Israel die in the 6 day war. - Israel at the end of the 6 day war have the entire peninsula, the west bank, and the Gallen heights. - When you have the Sinai peninsula you get the Suez Canal which is huge real estate. - We tell Egypt and Israel that if Israel gives back peninsula if Egypt recognizes Israel as a state. Egypt recognizes them as a state and Israel gives back peninsula. - We say the war lasted 6 days but it really was about 24 hours. Egypt, Syria, and Jordan had their air force wiped out in 24 hours. - The west bank and Gaza strip have lots of poverty. - After 6 day war we see the rise of Yasser Arafat. He becomes the leader of the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization). Their goal is to bring back a Palestine. - Muhammad claims he ascended to Heaven at the Dome of the Rock - It is not acceptable in islam to have pictures in your home because you could worship them. - Israel makes their money off of taxes and tourism. - The Western wall is the remains of the first and second temple. People put prayers in the wall and expect them to come true 13 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 TEST 4 India-Test 4 India - broke away from Africa and connected with Asia continent-making the mountain range - Algebra, Trig, Calculus, and Chess were invented in India - India is the largest democracy in the world and one of the most ancient civilizations - Established their first university in 700 bc • 10,000 students with 60 subjects to study plastic, eye, and brain surgery were all practiced at this time too • - 3rd largest standing army in the world - Huge population so they hold a lot of “largest” titles • they are expected to our populate china • this results in issues with natural disasters, wars, and illnesses - 9th largest economy and fastest growing - up until 1896 they were the only source of diamonds in the world - 200 years they were under British Rule, but were independent before then for thousands of years- - India got their independence in 1947 (at the end of WW2-Britain lost their super power status)-We could have taken over that role but our policy was about giving independence back • it was too far from us • Britain decided too let India go - Very oppressive, only wanted India’s resources (diamonds)-made India very angry with Britain colonization - India is mainly Hindu 14 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 • but there are muslims - BUT BEFORE Britain leaves, they decide to separate India by muslims and hindus-(Bangladesh was East Pakistan at one point) • how gandhi became famous-against Britain forces - Approximately 500,000 people died from the separation trying to transition to a different location • One of the worst things Britain has done-still seeing the consequences today - Mountains in the North-Afgahistan in the west and Iran right next to it-lots of problems - Look at slide for differences between Hindu vs Muslim - India has NEVER started a war, they do not believe in war-always forced in - Hinduism is 3000 years old • worlds largest religion-Christianity is #1 ISIS - U.S troops became an easy target - We had really disabled Al Qaeda before we left Iraq • When we leave Iraq, there is only a hand full left. (by the end of the 2nd gulf war) - syria, iran,iraq • However, the few that are left are very very dangerous and angry • They combined with an Iran group in Syria to form ISIS to attack the west - they hate anything thats not islamic India -East Pakistan becomes Bangladesh -India and Pakistan now possess nuclear weapons •50 to 150 war heads-India 15 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 •10-100 for pakistan -Kashmir •agriculturally rich •majority of the population is muslim -Ghandi •got married at the age 13-arranged marriage impact as a leader of the peace movement in India • •never violent nor endorsed it •average in school •went to England for law school at 18 -his mother passed away at this time and didn't find out till he returned home -his mother said no women,liquor, or meat •He goes to South Africa for a discrimination case -he gets kicked off the train for being India -24 hour work freeze as an act of nonviolent protest •works -Shrilanka •half the size of Alabama •love volley ball •independence-1940 post WW2 •elephant pageant •very agricultural •english is main language due to British colonization •1st female prime minister •cinnamon -Afghanistan’s biggest cash crop is opium 16 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 -China •population is concentrated in the East •Great wall of china is not a continuous wall -5,500 miles long -defense - North and South Korea post ww2-fear is now communism • •North Korea is communist and are backed by China and Russia •South Korea is democratic and are backed by the U.S •Secretary of state omits the Korean peninsula in his address -bad, because the North wants to make the peninsula communism -they invade -we go to support South Korean and the North terribly underestimates our support •we push them all the way to the border of china •China says if you push them any farther then they will push back •last about a year -Cease fire line-we cant say the war officially ended - we have 30,000 troops on the line -36,000 troops are lost in the Korean War -Korea is use for peace keeping for the first time by the UN-1950’s -South is democratic again but North is still communist -Mongolia •Mongols -when they went through the middle east they did a lot of damage-very fierce fighters -they would play dead as a fighting method if they were out numbered 17 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - kamikaze-divine wind in Japanese. What saves them in the fight against the Mongols • a year later, they come back •another kamikaze comes in -Marco Polo-first to see east Asia •13th century 18


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