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Study Guide 1

by: Min-Young Kim

Study Guide 1 BIOL 3040

Min-Young Kim
GPA 4.0

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This study guide simply covers the essential vocabulary necessary for acing the first exam in Dr. Wells' class!
Biology of Plants
Christina Wells
Study Guide
biology of plants
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/09/16
Exam  1  Vocabulary  Terms     -­‐ stromatolite:  nodule-­‐like  secretions  from  cyanobacteria  living  in  warm,   shallow  ocean  waters;  first  fossilized  evidence  of  life  ~3.5  billion  years  ago   -­‐ prokaryote:  cell  lacking  a  membrane-­‐bound  nucleus  and  membrane-­‐bound   organelles;  Bacteria  and  Archaea   -­‐ eukaryote:  cell  that  has  membrane-­‐bound  nucleus,  membrane-­‐bound   organelles,  and  chromosomes  in  which  DNA  is  associated  with  proteins;   organism  composed  of  such  cells.  Plants,  animals,  fungi,  and  protists   -­‐ autotroph:  organism  that  is  able  to  synthesize  the  nutritive  substances  it   requires  from  inorganic  substances  in  its  environment   -­‐ heterotroph:  organism  that  cannot  manufacture  organic  compounds  and  so   must  feed  on  organic  materials  that  originated  in  other  plants  and  animals   -­‐ ozone:  one  consequence  of  new  oxygen-­‐rich  atmosphere;  absorbs  UV   radiation   -­‐ aerobic:  requiring  free  oxygen;  aerobic  respiration  made  possible  with  new   oxygen-­‐rich  environment   -­‐ anaerobic:  referring  to  any  process  that  can  occur  without  oxygen   -­‐ nuclear  envelope:  the  double  membrane  surrounding  the  nucleus  of  the  cell   -­‐ histone:  group  of  five  basic  proteins  associated  with  chromosomes  of  all   eukaryotic  cells   -­‐ ribosome:  small  particle  composed  of  protein  and  RNA;  site  of  protein   synthesis   -­‐ cytoskeleton:  flexible  network  within  cells,  composed  of  microtubules  and   actin  filaments,  or  microfilaments   -­‐ vacuole:  space  or  cavity  within  cytoplasm  filled  with  watery  fluid,  the  cell   sap;  a  lysosomal  compartment   -­‐ tonoplast:  the  cytoplasmic  membrane  surrounding  the  vacuole  in  plant  cells.   Also  called  the  vacuolar  membrane   -­‐ cell  sap:  fluid  contents  of  the  vacuole   -­‐ plastid:  organelle  in  cells  of  certain  groups  of  eukaryotes  that  is  the  site  of   activities  such  as  food  manufacture  and  storage;  bounded  by  two  membranes   -­‐ chloroplast:  plastid  that  contains  chlorophylls;  site  of  photosynthesis;  occur   in  plants  and  algae   -­‐ chromoplasts:  plastid  containing  pigments  other  than  chlorophyll,  usually   yellow  and  orange  carotenoid  pigments   -­‐ amyloplast:  a  leucoplast  (colorless  plastid)  that  forms  starch  grains   -­‐ leucoplast:  colorless  plastid;  leucoplasts  are  commonly  centers  of  starch   formation   -­‐ proplastid:  minute,  self-­‐reproducing  body  in  the  cytoplasm  from  which  a   plastid  develops   -­‐ etioplast:  plastid  of  plant  grown  in  dark  and  containing  a  prolamellar  body   -­‐ mitochondria:  double-­‐membrane-­‐bounded  organelle  found  in  eukaryotic   cells;  major  source  of  ATP  in  nonphotosynthetic  cells   -­‐ cristae:  infoldings  of  inner  mitochondrial  membrane  that  form  a  series  of   crests  or  ridges,  containing  the  electron  transport  chains  involved  in  ATP   formation   -­‐ peroxisome:  spherical,  single-­‐membrane-­‐bounded  organelle,  ranging  in   diameter  from  0.5  to  1.5  micrometers;  some  peroxisomes  are  involved  in   photorespiration,  and  others  (called  glyoxysomes)  with  conversion  of  fats  to   sugars  during  seed  germination.  Also  called  microbody   -­‐ endoplasmic  reticulum:  complex,  3-­‐D  membrane  system  of  indefinite   extent  present  in  eukaryotic  cells,  dividing  the  cytoplasm  into  compartments   and  channels.     -­‐ smooth  ER:  those  portions  with  fewer  or  no  ribosomes   -­‐ rough  ER:  those  portions  that  are  densely  coated  with  ribosomes   -­‐ Golgi  apparatus:  collectively  all  Golgi  bodies  –  in  eukaryotes,  a  group  of  flat,   disk-­‐shaped  sacs  that  are  often  branched  into  tubules  at  their  margins.  Golgi   bodies  serve  as  collecting  and  packaging  centers  for  cell  and  are  concerned   with  secretory  activities   -­‐ Exocytosis:  cellular  process  in  which  particulate  matter  or  dissolved   substances  are  enclosed  in  a  vesicle  and  transported  to  the  cell  surface;   there,  membrane  of  vesicle  fuses  with  plasma  membrane,  expelling  vesicle’s   contents  to  outside   -­‐ endomembrane  system:  collectively,  cellular  membranes  that  form  a   continuum  (plasma  membrane,  tonoplast,  endoplasmic  reticulum,  Golgi   bodies,  nuclear  envelope)   -­‐ chromatin:  deeply  staining  complex  of  DNA  and  proteins  that  forms   eukaryotic  chromosomes   -­‐ nucleolus:  small  spherical  body  found  in  nucleus  of  eukaryotic  cells;   composed  chiefly  of  rRNA  that  is  in  the  process  of  being  transcribed  from   copies  of  rRNA  genes;  the  site  of  production  of  ribosomal  subunits   -­‐ haploid:  having  only  one  set  of  chromosomes   -­‐ diploid:  having  two  sets  of  chromosomes;  characteristic  of  sporophyte   generation   -­‐ thylakoid:  saclike  membranous  structure  in  cyanobacteria  and  in   chloroplasts  of  eukaryotic  organisms;  chlorophylls  found  within  thylakoids   -­‐ chloroplast  stroma:  aqueous  space;  fluid  matrix  for  thylakoids  to  float   around   -­‐ grana:  stacks  of  thylakoids   -­‐ microtubules:  narrow,  elongated,  nonmembranous  tubule  of  indefinite   length.  Occur  in  cells  of  eukaryotes;  move  chromosomes  in  cell  division  and   provide  internal  structure  of  cilia  and  flagella   -­‐ alpha  and  beta  tubulin:  one  alpha  and  one  beta  together  form  a  dimer.   Dimers  assemble  into  microtubules   -­‐ microtubule  organizing  center:  structure  from  which  microtubules   emerge;  organize  eukaryotic  cilia  and  flagella,  organize  mitotic  and  meiotic   spindle  apparatus   -­‐ actin:  helical  protein  filament,  5  to  7  nanometers  thick,  composed  of  globular   actin  molecules;  major  constituent  of  cytoskeleton  of  all  eukaryotic  cells;  also   called  microfilament   -­‐ flagellum:  long,  threadlike  organelle  that  protrudes  from  the  surface  of  a   cell.  Bacterial  flagella  are  capable  of  rotary  motion  and  consist  of  a  single   protein  fiber  in  each.  Eukaryotic  flagella,  which  are  used  in  locomotion  and   feeding,  consist  of  an  array  of  microtubules  with  a  characteristic  internal  9+2   microtubule  structure;  capable  of  vibratory  but  not  rotary  motion   -­‐ cilium:  short,  hairlike  flagellum,  usually  numerous  and  arranged  in  rows   -­‐ kinesin:  motor  protein  that  moves  toward  the  +  end  of  microtubule   -­‐ dynein:  motor  protein  that  moves  toward  the  –  end  of  microtubule   -­‐ primary  wall:  wall  layer  deposited  during  period  of  cell  expansion   -­‐ middle  lamella:  layer  of  intercellular  material,  rich  in  pectic  compounds,   cementing  together  the  primary  walls  of  adjacent  cells   -­‐ secondary  wall:  innermost  layer  of  cell  wall,  formed  in  certain  cells  after  cell   elongation  has  ceased;  secondary  walls  have  a  highly  organized  microfibrillar   structure   -­‐ hemicellulose:  polysaccharide  resembling  cellulose  but  more  soluble  and   less  ordered;  found  particularly  in  cell  walls   -­‐ pectin:  highly  hydrophilic  polysaccharide  present  in  intercellular  layer  and   primary  wall  of  plant  cell  walls;  basis  of  fruit  jellies   -­‐ lignin:  one  of  most  important  constituents  of  secondary  wall  of  vascular   plants;  although  not  all  secondary  walls  contain  lignin;  after  cellulose,  most   abundant  plant  polymer   -­‐ plasmodesmata:  minute  cytoplasmic  threads  that  extend  through  openings   in  cell  walls  and  connect  protoplasts  of  adjacent  living  cells   -­‐ desmotubule:  tubule  traversing  a  plasmodesmatal  canal  and  uniting  the   endoplasmic  reticulum  of  one  cell  with  that  of  the  adjacent  cell   -­‐ cellulose  synthase:  enzyme  that  creates  cellulose  from  individual  glucose   monomers;  floating  in  plasma  membrane,  moving  along  girders  of   microtubules,  and  extruding  linear  scaffolds  of  cellulose  to  start  building  wall   on  outside   -­‐ binomial  nomenclature:  Genus  species   -­‐ species  epithet:  comes  after  genus,  and  before  authority   -­‐ phylogeny:  hypothesized  evolutionary  history  or  genealogical  relationships   among  taxa   -­‐ phylogenetic  tree:  how  evolutionary  relationships  among  organisms  are   depicted   -­‐ Cladogram:  form  of  phylogenetic  analysis  that  attempts  to  identify   monophyletic  groups  that  can  be  defined  by  possession  of  unique   characteristics  that  reflect  a  common  evolutionary  origin   -­‐ homologous  feature:  condition  indicative  of  same  phylogenetic,  or   evolutionary,  origin,  but  not  necessarily  the  same  in  present  structure   and/or  function   -­‐ analogous  feature:  applied  to  structures  similar  in  function  but  different  in   evolutionary  origin   -­‐ convergent  evolution:  the  independent  development  of  similar  structures   in  organisms  that  are  not  directly  related;  often  found  in  organisms  living  in   similar  environments   -­‐ endosymbiont:  symbiotic  relationship  in  which  one  or  more  organisms  live   within  the  cells  or  body  of  a  host  without  doing  harm   -­‐ serial  endosymbiont  theory:  symbiosis  of  prokaryotic  cells  were  ancestors   of  eukaryotic  cells   -­‐ protist:  all  organisms  that  do  not  have  distinct  characteristics  of  fungi,   animals,  or  plants   -­‐ algae:  traditional  term  for  a  series  of  unrelated  groups  of  photosynthetic   eukaryotic  organisms  lacking  multicellular  sex  organs  (except  for   charophytes);  the  misnamed  “blue-­‐green  algae”  are  cyanobacteria   -­‐ Plantae:  kingdom  of  eukaryotes;  includes  all  land  plants   -­‐ Meiosis:  two  successive  nuclear  divisions  in  which  the  chromosome  number   is  reduced  from  diploid  (2n)  to  haploid  (n)  and  segregation  of  the  genes   occurs;  as  a  result,  gametes  or  spores  (in  organisms  with  an  alternation  of   generations)  is  produced   -­‐ Mitosis:  process  during  which  duplicated  chromosomes  divide   longitudinally  and  the  daughter  chromosomes  then  separate  to  form  two   genetically  identical  daughter  nuclei;  usually  accompanied  by  cytokinesis   -­‐ gametic  meiosis:  meiosis  resulting  in  the  formation  of  haploid  gametes  from   a  diploid  individual;  the  gametes  fuse  to  form  a  diploid  zygote  that  divides  to   form  another  diploid  individual   -­‐ sporic  meiosis:  meiosis  resulting  in  the  formation  of  haploid  spores  by  a   diploid  individual,  or  sporophyte.  The  spores  give  rise  to  haploid  individuals,   or  gametophytes,  which  eventually  produce  gametes  that  fuse  to  form   diploid  zygotes;  the  zygotes  develop  into  sporophytes  [alternation  of   generations]   -­‐ zygotic  meiosis:  meiosis  in  a  zygote  to  form  four  haploid  cells,  which  divide   by  mitosis  to  produce  either  more  haploid  cells  or  a  multicellular  individual   that  eventually  gives  rise  to  gametes   -­‐ thallus:  type  of  body  that  is  not  differentiated  into  root,  stem,  or  leaf.   Commonly  used  when  fungi  and  algae  were  considered  to  be  plants,  to   distinguish  their  simple  construction,  and  that  of  certain  gametophytes,  from   differentiated  bodies  of  plant  sporophytes  and  elaborate  gametophytes  of   bryophytes   -­‐ gamete:  haploid  reproductive  cell;  gametes  fuse  in  pairs  to  form  zygotes,   which  are  diploid   -­‐ spore:  reproductive  cell,  usually  unicellular,  capable  of  developing  into  an   adult  without  fusion  with  another  cell   -­‐ gametophyte:  in  plants  that  have  an  alternation  of  generations,  the  haploid   (n)  gamete-­‐producing  generation,  or  phase   -­‐ sporophyte:  spore-­‐producing,  diploid  (2n)  phase  in  a  life  cycle  characterized   by  alternation  of  generations   -­‐ zoospore:  motile  spore,  found  among  algae,  Oomycetes,  and  chytrids   -­‐ embryo:  young  sporophyte  before  the  start  of  a  period  of  rapid  growth   -­‐ isomorphic:  identical  in  form   -­‐ heteromorphic:  describing  a  life  history  in  which  the  haploid  and  diploid   generations  are  dissimilar  in  form   -­‐ isogamous:  type  of  sexual  reproduction  in  which  the  gametes  are  alike  in   size;  found  in  some  algae  and  fungi   -­‐ anisogamous:  the  condition  of  having  dissimilar  motile  gametes   -­‐ oogonium:  unicellular  female  sex  organ  that  contains  one  or  several  eggs   -­‐ zygote:  the  diploid  (2n)  cell  resulting  from  fusion  of  male  and  female   gametes   -­‐ sporangium:  hollow  unicellular  or  multicellular  structure  in  which  spores   are  produced   -­‐ gametangium:  a  cell  or  multicellular  structure  in  which  gametes  are  formed   -­‐ multilayered  structure:  similarity  between  Coleochaetales  and  Charales;   structure  associated  with  flagellar  base     -­‐ phytochrome:  phycobilinlike  pigment,  found  in  the  cytoplasm  of  plants  and   a  few  green  algae,  that  is  associated  with  the  absorption  of  light;   photoreceptor  for  red  and  far-­‐red  light;  involved  in  a  number  of  timing   processes,  such  as  flowering,  dormancy,  leaf  formation,  and  seed  germination   -­‐ flavonoid:  phenolic  compounds;  water-­‐soluble  pigments  present  in  the   vacuoles  of  plant  cells;  those  found  in  red  wines  and  grape  juice  have  been   reported  to  lower  cholesterol  levels  in  the  blood   -­‐ anthocyanin:  water-­‐soluble  blue  or  red  pigment  found  in  the  cell  sap   -­‐ charophytes:  division  of  freshwater  green  algae   -­‐ synaptomorphy:  characters  that  arose  in  the  common  ancestor  of  the  group   and  are  present  in  all  its  members   -­‐ sporopollenin:  the  tough  substance  of  which  the  exine,  or  outer  wall,  of   spores  and  pollen  grains  is  composed;  a  cyclic  alcohol  highly  resistant  to   decay   -­‐ sterile  jacket  layer:  surround  venter  which  surrounds  egg  in  archegonium,   and  surrounds  numerous  spermatogenous  cells  in  bryophyte  antheridium   -­‐ stalk:  antheridiophore  –  stalk  that  houses  the  antheridia   -­‐ venter:  enlarged  basal  portion  of  an  archegonium  containing  the  egg   -­‐ neck  canal  cells:  6  vertical  rows  of  cells  called  neck  cells  enclose  4-­‐8  neck   canal  cells;  disappear  as  archegonium  matures;  produces  passage  for  entry  of   sperm   -­‐ calyptra:  the  hood  or  cap  that  partly  or  entirely  covers  the  capsule  of  some   species  of  mosses;  formed  from  the  expanded  archegonial  wall   -­‐ Hepatophyta  –  liverworts:  6000  species;  gametophyte  generation   dominant   -­‐ Anthocerophyta  –  hornworts   -­‐ Bryophyta  –  mosses   -­‐ thalloid  liverwort:  20%  of  liverworts;  flat,  undifferentiated  tissue,  branches   dichotomously     -­‐ leafy  liverwort:  80%  of  liverworts;  especially  abundant  in  humid  tropics   and  subtropics;  often  found  growing  as  epiphytes;  “leaves”  are  single  layer  of   undifferentiated  cells   -­‐ rhizoid:  root-­‐hair-­‐like  structures  in  liverworts,  mosses,  and  some  vascular   plants,  occurring  on  free-­‐living  gametophytes   -­‐ Bryidae  –  true  mosses:   -­‐ Sphangnidae  –  sphagnum  mosses:   -­‐ Protonema:  the  first  stage  in  development  of  gametophyte  of  mosses  and   certain  liverworts;  protonemata  may  be  filamentous  or  platelike   -­‐ Hydroid:  water-­‐conducting  cells  of  moss  hadrom;  they  resemble  the   tracheary  elements  of  vascular  plants,  except  for  their  lack  of  specialized  wall   thickenings   -­‐ Leptoid:  food-­‐conducting  cells  associated  with  the  hydroids  of  some  moss   gametophytes  and  sporophytes;  they  resemble  the  sieve  elements  of  some   seedless  vascular  plants   -­‐ Parenchyma:  living,  generally  thin-­‐walled  plant  cell  of  variable  size  and   form;  the  most  abundant  kind  of  cell  in  plants   -­‐ Peristome:  in  mosses,  a  fringe  of  teeth  around  the  opening  of  the   sporangium   -­‐ Operculum:  in  mosses,  the  lid  of  the  sporangium  


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StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.