Study Guide 1
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/09/16
Exam 1 Vocabulary Terms -‐ stromatolite: nodule-‐like secretions from cyanobacteria living in warm, shallow ocean waters; first fossilized evidence of life ~3.5 billion years ago -‐ prokaryote: cell lacking a membrane-‐bound nucleus and membrane-‐bound organelles; Bacteria and Archaea -‐ eukaryote: cell that has membrane-‐bound nucleus, membrane-‐bound organelles, and chromosomes in which DNA is associated with proteins; organism composed of such cells. Plants, animals, fungi, and protists -‐ autotroph: organism that is able to synthesize the nutritive substances it requires from inorganic substances in its environment -‐ heterotroph: organism that cannot manufacture organic compounds and so must feed on organic materials that originated in other plants and animals -‐ ozone: one consequence of new oxygen-‐rich atmosphere; absorbs UV radiation -‐ aerobic: requiring free oxygen; aerobic respiration made possible with new oxygen-‐rich environment -‐ anaerobic: referring to any process that can occur without oxygen -‐ nuclear envelope: the double membrane surrounding the nucleus of the cell -‐ histone: group of five basic proteins associated with chromosomes of all eukaryotic cells -‐ ribosome: small particle composed of protein and RNA; site of protein synthesis -‐ cytoskeleton: flexible network within cells, composed of microtubules and actin filaments, or microfilaments -‐ vacuole: space or cavity within cytoplasm filled with watery fluid, the cell sap; a lysosomal compartment -‐ tonoplast: the cytoplasmic membrane surrounding the vacuole in plant cells. Also called the vacuolar membrane -‐ cell sap: fluid contents of the vacuole -‐ plastid: organelle in cells of certain groups of eukaryotes that is the site of activities such as food manufacture and storage; bounded by two membranes -‐ chloroplast: plastid that contains chlorophylls; site of photosynthesis; occur in plants and algae -‐ chromoplasts: plastid containing pigments other than chlorophyll, usually yellow and orange carotenoid pigments -‐ amyloplast: a leucoplast (colorless plastid) that forms starch grains -‐ leucoplast: colorless plastid; leucoplasts are commonly centers of starch formation -‐ proplastid: minute, self-‐reproducing body in the cytoplasm from which a plastid develops -‐ etioplast: plastid of plant grown in dark and containing a prolamellar body -‐ mitochondria: double-‐membrane-‐bounded organelle found in eukaryotic cells; major source of ATP in nonphotosynthetic cells -‐ cristae: infoldings of inner mitochondrial membrane that form a series of crests or ridges, containing the electron transport chains involved in ATP formation -‐ peroxisome: spherical, single-‐membrane-‐bounded organelle, ranging in diameter from 0.5 to 1.5 micrometers; some peroxisomes are involved in photorespiration, and others (called glyoxysomes) with conversion of fats to sugars during seed germination. Also called microbody -‐ endoplasmic reticulum: complex, 3-‐D membrane system of indefinite extent present in eukaryotic cells, dividing the cytoplasm into compartments and channels. -‐ smooth ER: those portions with fewer or no ribosomes -‐ rough ER: those portions that are densely coated with ribosomes -‐ Golgi apparatus: collectively all Golgi bodies – in eukaryotes, a group of flat, disk-‐shaped sacs that are often branched into tubules at their margins. Golgi bodies serve as collecting and packaging centers for cell and are concerned with secretory activities -‐ Exocytosis: cellular process in which particulate matter or dissolved substances are enclosed in a vesicle and transported to the cell surface; there, membrane of vesicle fuses with plasma membrane, expelling vesicle’s contents to outside -‐ endomembrane system: collectively, cellular membranes that form a continuum (plasma membrane, tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, nuclear envelope) -‐ chromatin: deeply staining complex of DNA and proteins that forms eukaryotic chromosomes -‐ nucleolus: small spherical body found in nucleus of eukaryotic cells; composed chiefly of rRNA that is in the process of being transcribed from copies of rRNA genes; the site of production of ribosomal subunits -‐ haploid: having only one set of chromosomes -‐ diploid: having two sets of chromosomes; characteristic of sporophyte generation -‐ thylakoid: saclike membranous structure in cyanobacteria and in chloroplasts of eukaryotic organisms; chlorophylls found within thylakoids -‐ chloroplast stroma: aqueous space; fluid matrix for thylakoids to float around -‐ grana: stacks of thylakoids -‐ microtubules: narrow, elongated, nonmembranous tubule of indefinite length. Occur in cells of eukaryotes; move chromosomes in cell division and provide internal structure of cilia and flagella -‐ alpha and beta tubulin: one alpha and one beta together form a dimer. Dimers assemble into microtubules -‐ microtubule organizing center: structure from which microtubules emerge; organize eukaryotic cilia and flagella, organize mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus -‐ actin: helical protein filament, 5 to 7 nanometers thick, composed of globular actin molecules; major constituent of cytoskeleton of all eukaryotic cells; also called microfilament -‐ flagellum: long, threadlike organelle that protrudes from the surface of a cell. Bacterial flagella are capable of rotary motion and consist of a single protein fiber in each. Eukaryotic flagella, which are used in locomotion and feeding, consist of an array of microtubules with a characteristic internal 9+2 microtubule structure; capable of vibratory but not rotary motion -‐ cilium: short, hairlike flagellum, usually numerous and arranged in rows -‐ kinesin: motor protein that moves toward the + end of microtubule -‐ dynein: motor protein that moves toward the – end of microtubule -‐ primary wall: wall layer deposited during period of cell expansion -‐ middle lamella: layer of intercellular material, rich in pectic compounds, cementing together the primary walls of adjacent cells -‐ secondary wall: innermost layer of cell wall, formed in certain cells after cell elongation has ceased; secondary walls have a highly organized microfibrillar structure -‐ hemicellulose: polysaccharide resembling cellulose but more soluble and less ordered; found particularly in cell walls -‐ pectin: highly hydrophilic polysaccharide present in intercellular layer and primary wall of plant cell walls; basis of fruit jellies -‐ lignin: one of most important constituents of secondary wall of vascular plants; although not all secondary walls contain lignin; after cellulose, most abundant plant polymer -‐ plasmodesmata: minute cytoplasmic threads that extend through openings in cell walls and connect protoplasts of adjacent living cells -‐ desmotubule: tubule traversing a plasmodesmatal canal and uniting the endoplasmic reticulum of one cell with that of the adjacent cell -‐ cellulose synthase: enzyme that creates cellulose from individual glucose monomers; floating in plasma membrane, moving along girders of microtubules, and extruding linear scaffolds of cellulose to start building wall on outside -‐ binomial nomenclature: Genus species -‐ species epithet: comes after genus, and before authority -‐ phylogeny: hypothesized evolutionary history or genealogical relationships among taxa -‐ phylogenetic tree: how evolutionary relationships among organisms are depicted -‐ Cladogram: form of phylogenetic analysis that attempts to identify monophyletic groups that can be defined by possession of unique characteristics that reflect a common evolutionary origin -‐ homologous feature: condition indicative of same phylogenetic, or evolutionary, origin, but not necessarily the same in present structure and/or function -‐ analogous feature: applied to structures similar in function but different in evolutionary origin -‐ convergent evolution: the independent development of similar structures in organisms that are not directly related; often found in organisms living in similar environments -‐ endosymbiont: symbiotic relationship in which one or more organisms live within the cells or body of a host without doing harm -‐ serial endosymbiont theory: symbiosis of prokaryotic cells were ancestors of eukaryotic cells -‐ protist: all organisms that do not have distinct characteristics of fungi, animals, or plants -‐ algae: traditional term for a series of unrelated groups of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms lacking multicellular sex organs (except for charophytes); the misnamed “blue-‐green algae” are cyanobacteria -‐ Plantae: kingdom of eukaryotes; includes all land plants -‐ Meiosis: two successive nuclear divisions in which the chromosome number is reduced from diploid (2n) to haploid (n) and segregation of the genes occurs; as a result, gametes or spores (in organisms with an alternation of generations) is produced -‐ Mitosis: process during which duplicated chromosomes divide longitudinally and the daughter chromosomes then separate to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei; usually accompanied by cytokinesis -‐ gametic meiosis: meiosis resulting in the formation of haploid gametes from a diploid individual; the gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote that divides to form another diploid individual -‐ sporic meiosis: meiosis resulting in the formation of haploid spores by a diploid individual, or sporophyte. The spores give rise to haploid individuals, or gametophytes, which eventually produce gametes that fuse to form diploid zygotes; the zygotes develop into sporophytes [alternation of generations] -‐ zygotic meiosis: meiosis in a zygote to form four haploid cells, which divide by mitosis to produce either more haploid cells or a multicellular individual that eventually gives rise to gametes -‐ thallus: type of body that is not differentiated into root, stem, or leaf. Commonly used when fungi and algae were considered to be plants, to distinguish their simple construction, and that of certain gametophytes, from differentiated bodies of plant sporophytes and elaborate gametophytes of bryophytes -‐ gamete: haploid reproductive cell; gametes fuse in pairs to form zygotes, which are diploid -‐ spore: reproductive cell, usually unicellular, capable of developing into an adult without fusion with another cell -‐ gametophyte: in plants that have an alternation of generations, the haploid (n) gamete-‐producing generation, or phase -‐ sporophyte: spore-‐producing, diploid (2n) phase in a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations -‐ zoospore: motile spore, found among algae, Oomycetes, and chytrids -‐ embryo: young sporophyte before the start of a period of rapid growth -‐ isomorphic: identical in form -‐ heteromorphic: describing a life history in which the haploid and diploid generations are dissimilar in form -‐ isogamous: type of sexual reproduction in which the gametes are alike in size; found in some algae and fungi -‐ anisogamous: the condition of having dissimilar motile gametes -‐ oogonium: unicellular female sex organ that contains one or several eggs -‐ zygote: the diploid (2n) cell resulting from fusion of male and female gametes -‐ sporangium: hollow unicellular or multicellular structure in which spores are produced -‐ gametangium: a cell or multicellular structure in which gametes are formed -‐ multilayered structure: similarity between Coleochaetales and Charales; structure associated with flagellar base -‐ phytochrome: phycobilinlike pigment, found in the cytoplasm of plants and a few green algae, that is associated with the absorption of light; photoreceptor for red and far-‐red light; involved in a number of timing processes, such as flowering, dormancy, leaf formation, and seed germination -‐ flavonoid: phenolic compounds; water-‐soluble pigments present in the vacuoles of plant cells; those found in red wines and grape juice have been reported to lower cholesterol levels in the blood -‐ anthocyanin: water-‐soluble blue or red pigment found in the cell sap -‐ charophytes: division of freshwater green algae -‐ synaptomorphy: characters that arose in the common ancestor of the group and are present in all its members -‐ sporopollenin: the tough substance of which the exine, or outer wall, of spores and pollen grains is composed; a cyclic alcohol highly resistant to decay -‐ sterile jacket layer: surround venter which surrounds egg in archegonium, and surrounds numerous spermatogenous cells in bryophyte antheridium -‐ stalk: antheridiophore – stalk that houses the antheridia -‐ venter: enlarged basal portion of an archegonium containing the egg -‐ neck canal cells: 6 vertical rows of cells called neck cells enclose 4-‐8 neck canal cells; disappear as archegonium matures; produces passage for entry of sperm -‐ calyptra: the hood or cap that partly or entirely covers the capsule of some species of mosses; formed from the expanded archegonial wall -‐ Hepatophyta – liverworts: 6000 species; gametophyte generation dominant -‐ Anthocerophyta – hornworts -‐ Bryophyta – mosses -‐ thalloid liverwort: 20% of liverworts; flat, undifferentiated tissue, branches dichotomously -‐ leafy liverwort: 80% of liverworts; especially abundant in humid tropics and subtropics; often found growing as epiphytes; “leaves” are single layer of undifferentiated cells -‐ rhizoid: root-‐hair-‐like structures in liverworts, mosses, and some vascular plants, occurring on free-‐living gametophytes -‐ Bryidae – true mosses: -‐ Sphangnidae – sphagnum mosses: -‐ Protonema: the first stage in development of gametophyte of mosses and certain liverworts; protonemata may be filamentous or platelike -‐ Hydroid: water-‐conducting cells of moss hadrom; they resemble the tracheary elements of vascular plants, except for their lack of specialized wall thickenings -‐ Leptoid: food-‐conducting cells associated with the hydroids of some moss gametophytes and sporophytes; they resemble the sieve elements of some seedless vascular plants -‐ Parenchyma: living, generally thin-‐walled plant cell of variable size and form; the most abundant kind of cell in plants -‐ Peristome: in mosses, a fringe of teeth around the opening of the sporangium -‐ Operculum: in mosses, the lid of the sporangium
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