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CLEMSON / Chemistry / CH 1020 / When is spontaneity observed in a process?

When is spontaneity observed in a process?

When is spontaneity observed in a process?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Thomas hickman
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 25
Name: CH1020 Chapter 12 Thermo notes 1/7/2016
Description: These notes are what were covered the first day of class on 1/7/2016.
Uploaded: 01/10/2016
5 Pages 357 Views 3 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1,lower-latin) ".) "}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3 0}.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5,lower-roman) ") "}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-6}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2,lower-roman) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0 0}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-3 0}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-2 0}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-4}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-4 0}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-8 0}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jfcqv84xuxi5-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7 0}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7 0}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-8 0}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-4 0}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4 0}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-7 0}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-6 0}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5,lower-roman) ") "}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-2}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-8}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6 0}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-5 0}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8 0}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-5 0}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0 0}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-5}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-3 0}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-0 0}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6 0}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-3}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-0,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2 0}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5 0}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7 0}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-0 0}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_95bqvaliks1m-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-1}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8 0}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-7}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-8}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-4,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-1 0}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-6}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-5 0}.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-0}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ktdkxk764715-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ktdkxk764715-1 0}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-2 0}.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-7}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-1 0}.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_n98x6b6mj0s0-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_albkxnxpa8p3-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kxjrgqz8n78q-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-0,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-3 0}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2 0}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cl3lg0vfiquj-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ihy2rdmx33lq-4 0}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_69ti5z37qo41-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-6}.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-0}ol.lst-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_kz58d6vp79if-1 0}.lst-kix_4w3ctc1v39kd-1 > li:before{content:"- "}

Chemistry 1020We also discuss several other topics like du macroeconomics notes

Chapter 12 Thermodynamics

I. Spontaneity

  • Spontaneous - a process (aka reaction or phase change) that takes place without a continuous energy from an external source
  • Ex: a ball rolling down a hill
  • Nonspontaneous - a process that requires continuous input of energy from an external source
  • Ex: a ball rolling up a hill

  • Two Conditions affect spontaneity:
  1. Enthalpy
  2. Entropy

                ΔG = ΔH - TΔSIf you want to learn more check out uci dev cell

                        ↓        ↘entropy

       EnthalpyWe also discuss several other topics like Who created Atomic model with indivisible atoms ?
If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of lamola?

ΔG is negative (-) for spontaneity

  1. If a reaction is exothermic, one cannot conclude the reaction is spontaneous

Must consider entropy If you want to learn more check out How to construct one plausible intervening variable explanations?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a directed line segment characterized by magnitude and direction?

           ↓              ⤷ entropy

        Enthalpy

        (exo or endo)

To be spontaneous,         

                                

                        

 could be more (+) than  if entropy is (-), which would change the reaction to nonspontaneous

  1. In most reactions,  does win
  • In other words, if it is exo, it is usually spontaneous
  • But higher T’s make  important to non spontaneous entropy(S)
  • Entropy = a measure of disorder

Key words: “randomness, disorder chaos”

II. Entropy (s)

  • Is based in statistics

“Probability”

“microstates” = arrangements

*S increases as =

  1. V increases

  • More arrangements / microstates / options at a higher volume
  1. T increases
  2. P decreases (restricts their freedom / randomness)
  3. Molar mass increases

Ex: Ar vs Kr

        More chaos with bigger, heavier atoms

  1. # of atoms in a molecule increases

                Ex:

                                |_________|

                        More microstates more ways the atoms can be indifferent positions

III.  

               +        +

        S ⇄ ℓ ⇄ g        * As signs are the same as

                -         -

Q#1: What is the sign of

  1. ()

         exothermic combustion reaction

         3 mol gas → 2 mol gas; 2-3=-1

 breaking bonds requires energy (decomposition)

 because a gas is formed

 because combustion / exo

 3 mol gas → 3 mol gas         3-3 = 0

IV Standard Entropy Change (from a table)

        

                

                        Gas: 1 atm

                        Liquid: pure

                        Solid: pure

                        Solution: 1M concentration

  • Each element or compound has its own
  • Need to look it up

Ex:                51.45 j/kmol

                57.85 j/kmol

                153.61 j/kmol

Q#2: What is

         → (g)

                        130.68                205.08                238 j/kmol

        

V. The Laws of Thermodynamics

  • 1st law = energy is conserved if only heat transfer (aka no reaction, no PV work, no gas formed)

                

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