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AU / History / HIST 1020 / Why reinvent the wheel?

Why reinvent the wheel?

Why reinvent the wheel?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: World History, industrial revolution, Great Britain, france, Germany, and Iberian America
Cost: 25
Name: World History 1020, Week Three Notes
Description: These are over the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and throughout the rest of Europe. It also covers political reorderings in Latin America.
Uploaded: 01/10/2016
6 Pages 63 Views 16 Unlocks
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February 1-5, 2016 (Week Three)


Why reinvent the wheel?



Dr. David Carter

World History II

The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (WTWA 546-553)

I. Introduction, The Continuing Legacy of the Industrial Revolution - The Industrial Revolution led to the birth of factories and economic ideologies such  as capitalism, communism, socialism, Marxism, and anarchism

II. Origin of Industrialization in the British Traditional Economy -  The steam engine was the trademark mechanical invention while the cotton gin  was the trademark textile invention, which were the top industries that led the  Revolution

- Energy production increased by new implications of people, livestock and water - Also led to automation which is the act of machines replacing people in the  workplace


When did industrialization start in france?



a. Rural manufacturing and the role of the entrepreneur, from the “cottage  industry” to the “putting-out system” in mid 1750s

- Cottage industry was the rural attempt of putting food on the table - It was a substitute for the inconsistent and laborious task of farming. In other  words, the variability was taken out of farming by families starting to spin and  weave textiles out of their homes

- This led to the thought process that it was more beneficial to have more children  so they could be reared as workers

- The gender division of labor was also enforced at this time; the identification  between what a “woman’s job” was and what a “man’s job” was

- The risk and labor was primarily taken on by families instead of the producers of  the raw materials or the merchants being sold to


How did industrialization spread to the continent of europe?



- There was little to no machines used in the cottage industry  Don't forget about the age old question of Where in a cell is receptor located?

- Because of the want and need for children to be workers, people started getting  married earlier and having larger families which thereby fueled overpopulation

b. The Agricultural Revolution  

- Instead of farming to produce food for ones family, commercial agriculture took  the reins  

- This is why certain areas and states have monocrop focuses instead of a variety of  foods a family would need to survive (Georgia peaches, Nebraska corn, etc.)

III. Why Britain First? Regional Variation in Britain

a. Population explosion across Europe and Britain

- People began to overpopulate both cities and rural areas because of the need for  more children as workers

b. Natural resources and geography

- See pictures on Carter’s PowerPoint “Industrial Revolution in Great Britain”

c. Coal = black gold of the industrial revolution

- Coal was so important during the Revolution because it was a resource of both  heat and steam (pressure to make machines work)

d. Technological breakthroughs

1. Newcomen’s engine

- Steam engine (atmospheric engine) changed the way the world worked,  also imperfect

2. James Watts’ steam engine

- Watt improves on the steam engine  

3. The textile revolution: James Hargreaves’ “spinning jenny” crowns King  Cotton If you want to learn more check out What is the importance of media law?

4. Richard Arkwright’s water frame  

- Energy and transportation drastically changed by water

5. Samuel Crompton and mule spinning

6. The birth of the modern railroad

- Richard Trevithick’s steam locomotive

e. Josiah Wedgewood

- Case study of an industrialist, famous for ceramics and pottery, which Great Britain wasn’t known for at this time

- Born in 1730 so he was raised in the Industrial Revolution

- Put workers into specific tasks (division of production)

- He had a deformed leg so he couldn’t spin the potter’s wheel, but he was obsessed  with consistency and quality control therefore all of his products were top notch  and looked the same If you want to learn more check out What was themistocles famous for?

The Luddites: a revolt against the mechanization of labor

- Great Britain was adopting new techniques while the rest of Europe was at war  (France & Napoleon)

- But because of the stocking industry, new equipment was expensive

- Weavers and other craftsmen were respected but not very wealthy, therefore they  couldn’t afford this equipment, only factory mangers could

- The Luddites would burn and break these machines

- The Luddites came from the story of Ned Ludd (whether it was a myth or true is  still unknown)

- Ned Ludd was a feebleminded man who worked in Nottingham and would often  break a couple machines, but they’d write it off because it was expected of him - Therefore when Luddites went to destroy machines, they’d say they had to see Ned  Ludd  

- A sort of “secret army” who operated the best at night

- They’re not a violent “army” because they aren’t killing people

- But because of the destruction, factory owners are getting more protective - Luddites attacked a mill without guns, but the guards had guns and overpowered  them

- So the Luddites got pissed off and burned down the mill owner’s house leading to a  section of the British army coming and killing some of the Luddites - People were arrested and the government hanged enough people to get the  message across If you want to learn more check out How are hormones used in insect metamorphosis?

Robert Owen’s New Lanark Cotton Mills in Scotland

- Owen was an enlightenment industrialist

- He believed strongly in the social gospel philosophy

- Thereby, he attempts to create model communities (utopian societies) - Owenite communities respond to industrialization by trying to control it  - They viewed the erosion of the family labor unit a major problem because children leave to go off and work at mills  

- And by that, urban population explodes and the slums are born - Intense urban poverty  

- Stereotypical ideas of poverty are manufactured (carelessness, alcoholics, dirty,  etc.)

Industrialization of the European Continent (WTWA 546-553)

I. Industrialization of the European Continent  

a. No single model

- Pace of thinking going quickly in Great Britain but not throughout all of Europe - Industrialization in France doesn’t really take and it’s not as dramatic  b. No thunderclap We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of key information?

- A thunderclap is a defining moment (9/11, etc.), but industrialization just slowly  spread in no specific form or fashion

c. Why reinvent he wheel? European nations beneficiaries of British inventions  despite British attempt to preserve industrial monopoly

- The government forbade Englishmen to travel because they didn’t want everyone  else in Europe stealing their inventions, but people are bound to figure out how to  do things on their own

- For example, Germany doesn’t only match Great Britain’s steam engine, they  surpass it Don't forget about the age old question of What are types of digestion?

- Great Britain accepts that industrialization is getting out and eventually tries to sell  their inventions for money

d. European ambivalence about costs of industrialization. The critique of  Friedrich Engels (Marxist)

- Engels sees this industrialization and says there’s no other resolution to this but  revolution

II. Industrialization in France: Achieving Industrialization Without an  Industrial Revolution

a. Application of new technology to traditional crafts

b. Emphasis on high-quality goods; emphasis on luxury items and resulting  scarcity leads to high prices and high profits

c. Slower population growth and slower patterns of urbanization d. Regional segregation of French economy  

e. “Late bloomer” nation with growth of railroads from mid-19th century on

III. Industrialization in Germany: From Segregated Economies to “Made in  Germany”

a. Overcoming political divisions

- Separate German states have all different currencies and cultures at this point - There was this idea of intense localism while other states wanted in trade more  robustly (Prussia)

- The set up was very much so like Peasant class in the Middle Ages with serfs and  lords

a. Overcoming isolation of petty states

b. Wide dispersion of vital resources

- Germany blessed with rich natural resources, waterways, good mineral/coal  wealth but all the separated states make it inefficient

c. Prussia’s dilemma/Prussia’s solution – overcoming geographic divisions  through the creation of the Zollverein customs union (1834)  

- Great Britain is flourishing while Germany is lagging

- The Zollverein is a series of alliances for commercial and economic use between  German states to establish regulation

- The Zollverein is an antecedent for German unification (doesn’t include Austria) - This cements Prussia’s dominance and kickstarts German industrialization - Germany’s “thunderclap” into the new age

d. Early railroad boom

- Very sophisticated railroads  

e. Growth of engineering tradition and reputation for manufacturing excellence - Germany quickly catches up to Great Britain and The United States - By The Civil War, Germany is gaining the upper hand, and by WWI Great Britain,  The United States and Germany are all industrial giants

IV. Industrialization in the rest of Europe: “The Lands That Time Forgot” a. Some specialized industrialization, not entire nation

b. Ongoing dominance of traditional, agrarian-based economy (economy based  on land cultivation)

c. Sources of raw materials and primary production for industrializing  neighbors

Political reordering (WTWA 541-545)

Revolutions in Iberian America

Brazil:

- Brazil’s fight for freedom avoided revolution

- French troops invaded Portugal and the royal Braganza family fled to Brazil - The king was later persuaded to return to Portugal, but he left his son, Pedro, in  charge

- The people’s pleas for independence and statehood resonated with Pedro and he  crowned himself head of this independent Brazilian state by constitutional  monarchy

- Pedro was supported by Brazilian elites who wanted to avoid slave insurrections  or regional insurrections

- Haiti sent shock waves across the Caribbean that slave uprisings were possible - But the central government silenced any attempt at these uprisings and revolts by  gauchos and urban slaves

- By the 1840s Brazil had achieved political stability and liberation without  revolution

Mexico:

- Mexico and other Latin American colonies gained autonomy (separation) from the  Spanish crown during the Napoleonic Wars

- When the crown regained power, American-born Spaniards (Creoles) and people  born in Spain (Peninsulares) fought over this power because the Peninsulares  wanted their elite positions back (usually officers) and the Creoles weren’t having it - Peninsulares used Enlightenment ideals to back themselves up - In Mexico between 1810-1813, Father Hidalgo and Morelos organized a revolt of  peasants, Indians and artisans calling for the redistribution of wealth and land  reform

- The rebellion was finally overcome

- But when the Spanish army was unable to prevent anarchy, the local Mexican army  joined the Creoles in proclaiming Mexico’s independence in 1821

Other South American Revolutions:

- Simón Bolívar and San Martín led revolutions in the rest of Spain’s colonies for  fourteen years

- This mobilized Indians, mestizos (Latin and European mixed), and slaves as well as  elites

- But when these wars ended, civil wars began between different groups from ethnic  to religious to social

- Therefore, multiple states appeared rather than a unified state  - They were usually controlled by social elites and ruled by military chieftains called  caudillos

Book Notes:

- An Industrious Revolution vs. An Industrial Revolution

- Scholars call an industrious revolution when individual households devote less  time to leisure activities and more time to working, using the extra money they  make to produce even more

- An industrial revolution encompasses technological advances and inventions - The bourgeoisie is the rising middle class consisting of urban businessmen,  financiers, and other property owners without aristocratic ties

- China didn’t follow the industrial revolution because they were way too focused on  land cultivation and agriculture, which made them vulnerable to cheap  manufactured imports from European traders backed by their governments  extolling the virtues of free trade

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