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by: AnaMichele Babyak
AnaMichele Babyak

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"Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? AnaMichele has the best notes period!"
Kaylie Schinner

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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnaMichele Babyak on Monday January 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at George Mason University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.


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Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? AnaMichele has the best notes period!

-Kaylie Schinner


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Date Created: 01/11/16
Review for exam I Bio 246 Use this guide to test your knowledge and not as the only information that you need  to study. First study and then try to answer the questions on that section. 1. Who are some of the important names in microbiology? What are they known  for? 2. What is the golden age of microbiology? 3. Who is Louis Pasteur? Name some of his important discoveries in micro. 4. What are the 4 major macromolecules? 5. Be able to identify macromolecules based on structure. 6. What are monosaccharides, polysaccharides, simple lipids, and complex lipids?  Phospholipids, proteins, DNA, RNA? 7. What are capsules? What are virulence factors? Name a few virulence factors of  bacteria. 8. List 8 differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 9. List 8 differences between gram­positive bacteria and gram­negative bacteria. 10. What is a bacterial cell wall? What is the composition of peptidoglycan? What are flagella, pili, and fimbriae? 11. What is an outer membrane of gram­negative cells? What is a lipoplysaccharide  layer? 12. What is an endotoxin? What other name does it have? 13. What are organelles? Name a few and know their functions. 14. What are plasmids? 15. What are endospores? Name 2 genera that produce them. 16. What are differences between ribosomes of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? 17. How are organisms classified? 18. What are the five kingdoms? Name organisms that belong to these kingdoms. 19. What are Woese’s domains? 20. What are the differences between archaeabacteria and eubacteria? Name the  archaeabacteria groups. 21. What are the groups of microorganisms? 22. What are viruses? Where are they classified? 23. What are fungi? 24. What is lysozyme? What does it do? 25. What are enzymes? What is a catalyst? 26. List three factors that affect enzyme activity. 27. What are oxidation – reduction reactions? 28. What are the differences between catabolism and anabolism? 29. List three main ways that ATP is generated by. 30. What is carbohydrate metabolism? 31. What is the difference between aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and  fermentation? 32. Which is more efficient? 33. Learn the various oxidation­reduction reactions. 34. What are glycolysis, Kreb’s, and electron transport chain? 35. What are the differences between acid and alcohol fermentation? 36. What is chemiosmosis? How is ATP generated by that way? 37. Where does electron transport occur in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells? 38. What macromolecules other than carbohydrates are energy rich? 39. What are phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs, and heterotrophs? 40. What is a thermophile, mesophile, psychrophile, halophile, and acidophile? 41. Why is oxygen toxic? 42. What are the difference between strict aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and strict  anaerobes? 43. What are the enzymes that destroy toxic by products of oxygen metabolism? 44. What is generation time? 45. What is binary fission? 46. What are the phases of growth? How are they different and what happens in each  phase? 47. Why do we plot population growth on a logarithmic and not an arithmetic scale? 48. What are biofilms? How are they different from planktonic bacteria? Know some  of their general characteristics. 49. Make sure you know how to calculate microbial growth using the formula. 50. How is bacterial chromosome different from eukaryotic chromosomes?( Most  likely if we start genetics, this will be included ) 51. What are genotypes and phenotypes? 52. How does DNA replication occur? 53. What are the enzymes needed for replication? 54. What is the difference between lagging and leading strands? 55. What does semi conservative replication mean? 56. What is transcription? 57. What is the difference between DNA and RNA? 58. What is translation? 59. What are the components needed in translation? 60. What is the genetic code? 61. What does degeneracy of the genetic code mean? 62. What are the start and stop codons?


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