Race and Ethnicity In The U.S. Pre Lim One Study Guide
Race and Ethnicity In The U.S. Pre Lim One Study Guide 1104
Popular in Race and Ethnicity in the United States: Social Constructs, Real World Consequences
Popular in Sociology
Mr. Mable Torp
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Azina Alexander on Monday January 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1104 at Cornell University taught by Alvarado, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Race and Ethnicity in the United States: Social Constructs, Real World Consequences in Sociology at Cornell University.
Reviews for Race and Ethnicity In The U.S. Pre Lim One Study Guide
Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
-Dr. Shawn Emmerich
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/11/16
OUTLINE RACE AND ETHNICITY PRE – LIM ONE: I. Introduction and Overview: 1. Demography The study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations. 2. Reasons For Growth: The diversity of the American population as well as the overall population size increased due to influxes of immigrants who came to America for better lives as well as working opportunities. In 1900, about 1 out of 8 was Americans was a race other than white. In 2000, 1 out of 4 Americans were a race other than white. The Hispanic Population more than doubled in size from 1980 to 2000. The White population grew more slowly than any other race group in the second half of the 20 century than and for the century as a whole. 3. USCIS/ United States Citizenship and Immigration Services: a) Native born – The nativeborn population includes anyone who is a U.S. citizen at birth. b) Foreign born The foreignborn population includes anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth, including those who become U.S. citizens through naturalization c) Naturalization The process by which a foreign citizen becomes a citizen of a new country d) Immigrants The action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country. 4 . Pattern of foreign – born in US (1850 – 1997): a) 1850 – 1930: Population of foreign – born in millions increases steadily. b) 1940 – 1970: Population of foreign – born in millions decreases c) 1980 – 2010: Tremendous increase in foreign – born population in millions II. The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity: 1. Race– a symbolic category based on phenotype or ancestry and constructed according to a specific social and historical contexts that is misrecognized as a natural category. Racism is ever changing. Today’s inequalities in wealth reflect the legacies of slavery, Jim Crow, and labor market discrimination. We are all inheritors of the history of our parents and of our society. a) Race is not a Biological Reality: As a species, humans have dramatically levels of genetic variation b) There is more genetic variation within traditionally defined racial groups A caste system is a social and symbolic hierarchy system of classification and separation that organizes people into rigid groups characterized by inner group marriage, heredity, life style, and occupation. Biological determinism – in regards to sociology, arguments that suppose that social and economic differences between races are the result of immutable, inherited, and inborn distinctions Phenotype – physical appearance and constitution including skeletal structure, height, hair color, eye color, skin tone 2. Ethnicity – refers to a shared lifestyle informed by cultural, historical, religious, and/ or national afflictions Ethnicity carves out distinctions and identities within racial groups. Ex: Ten people might be Caribbean but hail from different islands. Ethnicity is a very fluid, layered, and situational construct. Example: One might feel American when voting, but very Irish when celebrating St. Patrick’s day, very Catholic when celebrating Easter mass etc. 3. Nationality– equated with citizenship, membership in a specific politically delineated territory controlled by a government. Race, ethnicity, and nationality are overlapping symbolic categories that influence how we see the world, and view our selves. Ex: One can identify as ethnically Jamaican, reference citizenship of nationality to Jamaica but still be considered racially black by American standards. 4. Fallacies about Racism: Individualistic Fallacy – Racism functions only at the individual level, Racism is assumed to belong to the realm of ideas and prejudices, Racism is like a crime and someone is either racist of not, fails to account for institutional racism and Racism woven into the very fabric of our society, fails to account for the greyness of Racist acts (intentional or unintentional). Legalistic Fallacy – Racism is illegal and therefore no longer exists, fails to account for subtle forms or racism and racially motivated legislature such as Brown vs. Board of Ed which left school more segregated than those of 1954. Tokenistic Fallacy – Racism no longer exists because there are people of color in positions of power, does not account for millions of minorities living in poverty and not afforded the same opportunities as whites A historical Fallacy History of Racism is inconsequential to today, Racism is in the past and therefore does not matter, fails to account for the legacy of Racism, slavery, colonialism. “ Soft version” Admits effects of more recent events on present times. Fixed Fallacy – Racism is fixed and quantifiable, Racism is stagnant and does not change, fails to account for the dynamic nature of Racism and how it has evolved form overt segregation to a more subtle form in present day. 5. Institutional Racism – systematic white domination of people of color embedded and operating in corporation, universities, legal systems, political bodies cultural life, and other social collectives. Withholds from people of color opportunities, privileges, and rights that many whites enjoy. Ex: Schools and universities to support curricula that highlights of European Americans, ignoring the accomplishments of non – European Americans High number of white people in high – ranking political, economic, and military posts. 6. Interpersonal Racism – racial domination in every day interactions and practice Typically subtle Ex: talking slower to an Asian woman at the market Can people of Color be Racist? Not in regards to institutional racism which refers to systematic white domination of blacks, but yes in regards to interpersonal Racism which encompasses personal prejudice against other races. 7. Subordinate Groups: Subordinate group – social minority that has less control over their own life than dominant group Includes racial and ethnic groups Also includes religion, gender, sexual orientation etc. 8. The Creation of Subordinate Groups: Migration – Transfer of Population Annexation – the incorporation of land Colonialism – dominance over people by a foreign power for an extended period Internal colonialism – example, Jews being into ghettoes in Nazi Germany 9. Consequences of Subordination: Extermination – the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people of nation Expulsion – the forcible removal of a group Secession – group leaves to form a new nation Segregation – the physical separation of groups within the same nation. Assimilation – a subordinate group takes o the characteristic of the dominant group. Pluralism the maintenance of multiple cultures within a society, Examples: china town, little Havana, bilingualism III. Racial Prejudice and Discrimination: 1. Unconscious Racism Americans share a common historical and cultural heritage in which racism has played and still plays a dominant role. Because of this shared experience, we also inevitably share many ideas, attitudes, and beliefs that attach significance to an individuals race and induce negative feelings and opinions about non – whites. Summary: People are a product of their experiences, societal conventions, and therefore racism has become internalized. 2. Symbolic Violence – process of people of color unknowingly accepting and supporting the terms of their own domination. Ex: worldwide acceptance of European standards of beauty and perpetuation of black ugliness. 3. Intersectionality Explains the overlapping systems of advantages and disadvantages that affect people differently positioned in society, implies that we cannot understand the lives of any human person by only examining one section of their life, race, class, or gender 4. Racial Essentialism – way of thinking that boils down vastly different human experiences into a single category of race, racial identity detached from other aspects of one’s identity such as enduring poverty or sexism. 5. Prejudice – negative preconceived attitudes about a group 6. Discrimination – actions that have differential and negative impact on members of a subordinate group regardless of whether the discriminators are aware of this. Overt discrimination – actions against individuals simply because they are members of another group (racial, religious etc.). Institutional Discrimination – actions based on whether individuals possess certain skills, abilities, or attributes that are less likely to be possessed by members of a particular group Responses to Discrimination: a) Ethnic Enclaves – high concentrations of a particular group, less dependent on dominant group, experience less discrimination b) Informal Economy – workers create their own work, not reported to government, illegal jobs (selling drugs, prostitution etc.), legal jobs (mechanics, cooks, maids, etc.) Anti Discrimination Action: a) Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) created in 1943 by FDR b) Brown vs. Board of Education: deems “separate, but equal” as unconstitutional in 1954; federal government could not interfere with states rights, segregation was illegal. c) Civil Rights Act od 1964: Equal Employment Opportunity4 Commission Lingering Discrimination: a) Glass Celling: when qualified minorities enter the labor market but then aren’t promoted as often as whites. b) Glass Walls: when minorities are kept from position with the potential for advancement. c) Example: Exclusive social Clubs forbid membership to minorities, Jews, and Women. 7. Racial Profiling: the use of race or ethnicity as grounds for suspecting someone of having committed an offense. Police initiated actions that disproportionately affect minorities 8. Whiteness: The United States since its inception has been a nation that placed supreme value on whiteness. Whiteness – racial domination normalized, normalization produces and reproduces many cultural, political, economic, and social advantages and privileges for white people and withholds such advantages and privileges for non – white people. White privilege – the collection of unarmed cultural, political, economic, and social advantages and privileges possessed by people of Anglo – European descent or by those who pass as such. Example: Whites do not think about race when applying for a job or buying a house in an affluent neighborhood. Their race is the standard and therefore they are advantageous. Color blindness – those whites that do not recognize their privilege, unknowingly support a system of racial domination that disadvantages people of color, unintentionally investing in their whiteness. *** Fosters the systematic denial of racial subordination and the psychological repression of an individual’s rec0cgnition of that subordination, thereby allowing it to continue *** Summary: Facilitates the perpetuation of racism by ignoring it. 9. Social imagination – approaching the World skeptically and critically, rejecting overly simplified explanations, and evaluating and reevaluating the nature of things with a new outlook. 10. The Three Rs: Reflexivity: looking within oneself to uncover taken for granted ways of thinking that influence how one understands the social world, interrogate (ask hard questions) a) First Level – position in Society, pushes us to consider ourselves not as equal individuals but as people shaped, privileged, and disadvantaged by a society in which racial domination is rampant. b) Second Level – Education, we must scrutinize our educational experiences and determine how whiteness has informed those experiences. c) Must be historical Relationality: building blocks of society are unfolding relationships therefore and individual or group is best examined by exploring the networks of relationships within which that individual or group are embedded. Reconstruction: pushes us to take our newfound knowledge and use it to change the world in which we live. IV. The Conquest Of Indigenous People: 1. Race is a social fabrication, misrecognized as natural 2. “The only good Indian is a dead Indian” which circulated in America, was first used in England, as “the only good Irishman is a dead Irishman”. 3. Age of Discovery – expeditions to new corners of the globe, by European standards, result of new trading sources and economic partnerships being sought to satisfy Europe’s growing capitalist enterprise. Modernity – refers to the historical era marked by the rise of nations and nationalism, the development of capitalism, global expansion, and the European discovery of the “New World”, the disappointment and disillusion of the world, and rapid growth of scientific knowledge. Nationalism – identity grounded in artificially created political borders, feeling of immense pride for one’s country. Capitalism: an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Colonialism – occurs when a foreign power invades a territory and establishes enduring systems of exploitation and domination over that territory’s indigenous populations a) Bring disease to native populations but also introduce new technology, religion, foods, culture etc. b) Devastates American Indian population 4 . Perception of Indians: Noble Savage – childlike, pure, simple, innocent, peaceful, one with nature Ignoble Savage – beast, brute, wicked and fearsome So what to do with Indians? Destroy them? Remove them to more distant lands? Allow them to stay on ancestral lands? Assimilate them in o European culture? 5. Indian Removal Act of 1830: Removed tribes in the southeast to the Western most part of the country at the time (Present day Oklahoma), Trail of Tears 6. Kill the Indian and Save the Man (1870 – 1924): Friends of The American Indians believed assimilation was best Did not believe there were innate genetic differences Humane approach, but still cruel because it diminished the value of Native American culture and upheld white culture a superior. 7 . Indian Boarding Schools: Richard Pratt founded a boarding school for Indian Children in Carlisle Pennsylvania. Full immersion in European Culture Eliminate native culture Teach marketable skills 8 . The Meriam Report: Criticized Indian Schools Criticized quest for assimilation Criticized buildings and student care Resulted in Increased Funding 9. Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 : Granted Native Americans citizenship but did not grant suffrage 10. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 : aimed at decreasing federal control of American Indian affairs and increasing Indian selfgovernment and responsibility. Protected Indian religion and lifestyle Stopped the erosion of the tribal land base by ending the allotment of tribal land Encouraged Formalized self government through the Adopting of tribal Constitutions Established a Native preference hire for jobs in the Bureau of Indian Affairs 11 . Urban Indian Relocation Program of 1948 : Designed to transform the predominantly rural native population into an assimilated urban workforce, relocation to cities, Promised to provide a variety of services to effect the transition to city life, including transportation from the reservation, financial assistance, help in finding housing and employment, fostered, the sense of panIndian identity, mixed results. 12 . Federal Indian Policy Summary: 1608 – 1830: “Treaties/ Marshall Trilogy/ Cherokee vs. Georgia: a) In 1828, the state of Georgia passed a series of laws authorizing Cherokee removal from lands sought after by the state. b) In defense, the Cherokee cited treaties that they had negotiated, as an independent "nation," with the United States, guaranteeing the Cherokee nation both the land and independence. c) In Cherokee Nation, the Court ruled that it lacked jurisdiction(the power to hear a case) to review claims of an Indian nation within the United States. 1830 – 1850: Removal Policy 1850 – 1871: Removal Shifts to reservation 1871 – 1928: Assimilation and Allotment Era a) Displacement of Indians and loss of ancestral lands b) Indian Allotment Act of 1887: Stated that the head of each family would receive 160 acres of tribal land and each single person would receive 80 acres. Title to the land would be held in trust by the government for 25 years. After 25 years each individual would receive United States citizenship and fee simple title to their land. c) Bad because it allowed tribal lands not allotted to Native Americans on reservations to be used for government purposes resulting in the loss of NA ancestral lands. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 1968 – Present: Self Determination V. Slavery: 1 . History of Slavery: Labor shortage, people needed to cultivate tobacco and corn fields of the New World Indentured Servants: Laborers who were bound to an employer for a fixed amount of time, after which they were freed Plantation System: large settlements organized around agricultural production for profit and reliant on coerced labor Transition form Indentured Servants to Slaves: American Indians enslaved at first then Africans Atlantic Slave Trade: an economic system that relied on transporting kidnapped Africans from their homeland to America in operation since the mid 15 century. Several countries were involved including Portugal, Spain, England, France, Netherlands, and America etc. 2 . Economics of Slavery: th Atlantic slave trade gained momentum during 18 century, but most slaves were transported to the British West Indies and Cuba to work the sugar plantations. Slave labor of North America grew slowly during this time. By mid century, tobacco, indigo, and rice began to be produced on Southern plantations, a shift that increased the demand for slave labor th Start of the 19 century, Eli Whitney’s cotton gin transformed the dynamics of slavery in North America drastically. Cotton production became simple, the price of cotton fell, and cotton plantations merged. Cotton quickly became America’s leading cash crop. In 1790, America produced 140 thousand pounds of cotton; by 1800 it would become 35 million pounds. Number of imported slaved increased due to need for cheap labor on cotton plantations 3. Slave Codes – set of laws that regulated slaves in bondage: Denied blacks citizenship Not allowed to won or carry arms Not allowed to trade goods Not allowed to possess land 4 . Sexual Exploitation and Dehumanization: Black women endured rampant sexual exploitation and as a result black women’s bodies became viewed as objects to be treated with indignity. Punishment for slaves included whips, shackles, beatings, scarring Emasculation/ mental and psychological breakdown 5. Abolitionists: white and blacks who worked together to end slavery 6 . The Civil War: Republican Party elected Abraham Lincoln who was opposed expansion of slavery but promised not to interfere with existing slavery South withdrew from the U.S. War began with the battle of Fort Sumter 7 . Events that Led to the End of Slavery: Slaves refusing to cooperate Slaves taking advantage of wartime chaos to escape Slaves providing services as spies, workers, and soldiers for the union army Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln in 1863 – executive order that released all slaves in the confederacy from bondage. 13 Amendment ratified in 1865 – permanently abolishing slavery in the U.S. 8 . Slavery Aftermath: Reconstruction: a time when the nation put itself back together, reincorporating the Southern States, and dealing with freed blacks a) Southern states put under military governor until state constitutions were rewritten Southern economy devastated: war damage Forty Acres and a Mule: General Sherman issued a decree that allotted 40 acres of land and a mule to recently freed slaves as well as slaves who had fought in the union Army, never fulfilled because later that year President Johnson overturned decree giving land back to Confederates and leaving freed blacks in a state of immense poverty a) Compromise: sharecropping b) Landowner provided land and supplies c) Laborer provided labor d) Share harvest with laborer (1/3 of sale) e) Tensions b/w former slaves and former slave owners were high Exception to the 13 amendment – blacks convicted of a crime Mass criminalization: debtors, thieves, vagrant etc. Prison system expanded in South 15 Amendment: Gave African Americans the right to vote but Native Americans, women, and immigrants were still excluded Republican Party came to power in the South Democrats regained Power in 1877 a) Ku Klux Klan became very active, many blacks and whites were threatened b) Federal government ceased to interfere in south Jim Crow: a) Statues that kept blacks in an inferior position 9 . Supreme Court Decisions: Plessy vs. Ferguson ruled that “separate, but equal” accommodations were acceptable. Williams vs. Mississippi (1898) ruled that the use of poll taxes, literacy tests, and residential requirements was declared unconstitutional 1898 – 1906: 99% drop 10 . Early Black Leaders: Booker T. Washington a) Former slave from Virginia b) 1881 founded on educational institute for blacks in Atlanta – Tuskegee c) Politics of accommodations (compromise with whites). W.E.B. Du Bois: a) Born free b) First black to receive a PHD from Harvard in sociology. c) Politics/ Social Theory: whites are responsible for “black problem” d) Talented 10 – most talented blacks should serve 9/10 of blacks e) Founded NAACP Civil disobedience: nonviolence defiance of unacceptable laws, as a means to overcome racial injustice VI. Asian Immigration: 1. Nativism – movement favoring the native born over immigrants (1850s) Vote for Native Americans To fight Catholicism To demand a 21 – year naturalization period Know nothing party – platform was that America is being overrun by immigrants, immigrants are a drain on society’s resources, immigrants take jobs from natives, immigrants are less skilled than natives 2 . Chinese Immigration: Large influx of Chinese immigrants in the 1880s to build railroads in the West Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): banned Chinese Immigration and outlawed naturalization for those in the U.S. a) 1892: act extended, added that U.S. Chinese had to obtain certificates of residence or face deportation b) 1902: act extended again, expanded the list of people excluded c) Act not eliminated until 1943 3 . Japanese Immigration: 1890: significant immigration to the U.S. mainland begins, mostly railroads and farming The Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907 – 1908) a) Japan agreed to halt further emigration to the U.S. b) U.S. agreed to end discrimination against Japanese already in the U.S. and not impose immigration restrictions. c) Anti – Japanese sentiment continued Executive Order 9066 (1942): a) After Pearl Harbor bombing; many feared Japanese Invasion b) President Roosevelt signed executive Order removing all Americans of Japanese ancestry to Prison camps (internment) c) 2/3rds of incarcerated Japanese were citizens d) Relocation centers – euphemism for prison camps e) 1976: President Ford rescinded Executive Order f) 1988: President Regan signed Civil Liberties Act giving 20,000 to survivors of internment camps 4. The National Origin System: Immigration quotas based on the U.S. population in 1890 Quota set as 2 3% of the U.S. Population for each nationality Favored Northern Europeans Loosely restricted Southern and Easter European Tightly restricted Asians and Blacks 1921 1965 5. Racial discourse collections of ideas about race that were developed by secular authorities such as philosophers, writers, and scientists rose to prominence and helped form classification systems riveted in white supremacy 6. Eugenics: refers to a program that would ensure genetic purity From the end of the 19 century up until the 1970s, thousands of Native Americans and African Americans as well as those deemed mentally retarded underwent surgical procedures against their will or without their knowledge, which resulted in permanent infertility. VII. Latin Immigration: 1. Manifest Destiny: “The western frontier, all of North America and the lands of Mexico – yes this is God’s will – is ours for the taking!” Monroe Doctrine outlawing European Conquest of Latin America and inviting American conquest of the land Texas annexed by U.S. in 1836, but border was disputed War on Mexico in 1846 a) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended war b) 60,000 to 100,000 people were incorporated 2 . Economics of Mexican Immigration: WWL Labor shortage: restrictions on Asian Immigrants U.S. companies recruited Mexican laborers, over 1 million (mostly in Texas) Congress exempted Mexican laborers from quotas set by the National Origins System Mass deportation or Repatriation during Economic recessions (1903s, 1950s) 3 . Recruitment of Mexican Laborers/ Braceros System (1942 – 1964): Mexican contract laborers were brought for agricultural work Temporary basis More than 80, 000 workers were brought during the first year Mostly from poor areas of Mexico 4 . 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act: Goal to protect U.S. Labor market while reuniting families Set naturalization rules a) 18 years of age b) Continues residence for at least 5 years c) Good moral character d) Ability to read, write, speak, and understand English e) Ability to pass a test in U.S. government Two forms of immigration a) Restricted: 20,000 person limit per county (preference for certain job skills in county) b) Non – Restricted: Family reunification Preference Given to: a) Adult children of citizens b) Spouses and unmarried children of permanent residents c) Professionals, scientists, and artists of exceptional ability d) Siblings of adult citizens e) Workers in occupations with labor shortages f) Refugees from communist countries or those uprooted by natural disasters. Consequences: a) Altered composition of immigration b) Asian and Latin America immigrants especially pronounced As of 2013, 54 million Hispanics in the U.S. largest racial or ethnic minority in the U.S. VIII. America’s Racial Profile Today: 1. The Indian was invented within the context of European Colonization 2. Whiteness and Blackness were invented as opposites within the context of English, and later American slavery. 3. Blackness became associated with bondage, inferiority, and social death 4. Whiteness was associated with freedom, superiority, and life. 5. The Mexican was invented within the context of the colonization of Mexico. 6. At the end of the 19 century, the Asian was invented as a response to immigration from the Far East. 7. Whiteness expanded during the 20 century as new immigrants from Southern, central, and Eastern (vs. old immigrants from Northern Europe) Europe transformed themselves from “lesser whites” to simply “whites”. 8. Theory of Social Position hypothesizes that interpersonal racism will increase in one group the more it feels threatened by another. 9. Today 1 in 40 people claim multiracial heritage – belonging to two or more racial groups.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'