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Lifespan Development

by: Kinsey Notetaker

Lifespan Development Psych 3300

Kinsey Notetaker
Texas State

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Chapter 1-4 and 6.
Lifespan development
Study Guide
Psychology, Lifespan, development
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kinsey Notetaker on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3300 at Texas State University taught by ogletree in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Lifespan development in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 01/12/16
Life-span Development Midterm Review 08/07/2015 ▯ Chapter 1 ▯ Development- systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death, or from “womb to tomb”.  Physical development- growth of the body/organs.  Cognitive development- Changes and continuities in perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, and other mental processes.  Psychosocial development- Changes and carryover in personal and interpersonal aspects of development such as motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills and relationships. ▯ Biological aging- deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitable to their death. ▯ Aging- involves more than biological aging; it refers to a range of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes, positive, and negative in the mature organism. ▯ Rite of passage- Ritual the marks a persons passage from one status to another. EX: childhood adulthood ▯ Age grade- Each socially defined age group in society. ▯ Social clock- persons sense of when things should be done and when he or she is ahead or behind the schedule dictated by age norms. ▯ Age norms- Society’s way of telling people how to act their age. EX: 6 year olds are too young to date/drink beer but are old enough to attend school. ▯ (SES) Socioeconomic Status- standing in society based on such indicators as occupational prestige, education, and income. ▯ Adolescence- transitional period between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty and ends when the individual has acquired adult competencies. ▯ Emerging adulthood- Ages 18-29, when young people are between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood. ▯ Life expectancy- for a newborn: average # of years a newborn who is born now can be expected to live 78 years, compared with 47 years in 1900, L.E. for a white female: 81, black female: 77. L.E. for a white male: 76, black male: 70. ▯ Maturation: Biological unfolding of the individual according to a plan contained in the genes. ▯ Microsystem- immediate physical and social environment in which the person interacts face-to-face with other people and influences and is affected by them. ▯ Mesosystem- interrelationships or linkages between two or more microsystems. ▯ Exosystem- Linkages involving social settings that individuals do not experience directly but that can still influence their development. ▯ The Modern Lifespan Perspective:  1. Development is a lifelong process.  2. Development is multidirectional  3. Development involves both gain and loss.  4. Development is characterized by lifelong plasticity. o Plasticity- capacity to change in response to both positive and negative experiences.  5. Development is shaped by its historical-cultural context.  6. Development is multiply influenced.  7. Development must be studied by multiple disciplines. ▯ Scientific Method  Theory  Hypotheses ▯ Sample- group of individuals studied. ▯ Random Sample- sample formed by identifying all members of the larger population and then, by a random means, select the portion to study. ▯ Naturalistic Observation- Involves observing people in their everyday surroundings. ▯ Structured Observation- create special stimuli, tasks, or situations designed to elicit the behavior of interest. ▯ (fMRI) f=function. – to measure the increase in blood flow to an area of the brain that occurs when that brain area is active. ▯ Case-study- In-depth exam of an individual, typically carried out by compiling and analyzing info from a variety of sources. ▯ Experiment- Investigator manipulates or alters some aspect of the environment to see how this affects the behavior of the sample of individuals studied. ▯ Independent Variable- the cause ▯ Dependent Variable- the affect ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ Activity-passivity issue- focuses on the extent to which human beings are active in creating and influencing their on environments and, in process, in producing their own development. ▯ Continuity- discontinuity issue- Focuses on whether the changes people undergo over the life span are gradual or abrupt. ▯ Universality-context-specificity issue- the extents to which developmental changes are common to all humans or different across cultures etc. ▯ Psychoanalytic Theory- focused on the development and dynamics of the personality, challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development by proposing that people are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which they are largely unaware and that they are shaped by their earliest experiences in the family. ▯ Id-the impulsive, irrational, and selfish part of the personality whose mission is to satisfy the instincts. ▯ Ego- The rational side of the individual that tries to find realistic ways of gratifying the instincts. ▯ Superego- Individuals internalized moral standards. ▯ Psychosexual stages:  Oral  Anal  Phallic  Latent  Genital ▯ Oedipus Complex- (boy)love for mother but thinks father will retaliate by castrating him. ▯ Electra Complex- (girl) said to desire her father and envy the fact he has a penis. So she identifies with her mother. ▯ Classical Conditioning- Simple form of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on the individual comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that already elicits the response. ▯ Unconditioned Stimulus- unlearned stimulus (food) ▯ Unconditioned Response- automatic unlearned response (salivating) ▯ Defense mechanisms-  Repression  Regression  Projection  Reaction formation ▯ Operant Conditioning- A learners behavior becomes either more or less probable depending on the consequences it produces. *People tend to repeat behaviors that have desirable consequences and cut down on behaviors that have undesirable consequences. ▯ Positive Reinforcement- Something pleasant or desirable has been added to the situation and reinforcement means that the behavior is strengthened. ▯ Negative Reinforcement- (NOT a fancy term for punishment) Occurs when a behavioral tendency is strengthened because something unpleasant or undesirable is removed from the situation, or is escaped or avoided, after the behavior occurs. ▯ Positive Punishment- Occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is applied or added to the situation following the behavior. EX: Child is spanked for misbehaving; a cashier is criticized for coming up short of cash at the end of the day. ▯ Negative Punishment- Occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed following the behavior. EX: Child loses the privilege of watching TV; The amount the cashier was short deducted from her pay. ▯ Both positive and negative punishment decreases the likelihood that the punished behavior will be repeated. ▯ Extinction- Behavior that is ignored or no longer reinforced, tends to become less frequent through this process. ▯ Social Cognitive Theory- (Albert Bandura) Claims that humans are cognitive being whose active processing of info plays a critical role in their learning, behavior and development. ▯ Observational Learning- Learning by observing the behavior of other people (models) ▯ Latent Learning- Learning occurs but is not evident in behavior, children can learn from observation even though they do not imitate the learned responses. ▯ Vicarious Learning- Process in which learners becomes more or less likely to perform a behavior based on whether consequences experienced by the model they observe are reinforcing or punishing. ▯ Human Agency- Ways in which people deliberately exercise cognitive control over themselves, their environments, and their lives. ▯ Reciprocal Determinism- Bandura holds that the human development occurts through a continuous reciprocal interaction among the person, by their behavior, and environment. (Bandura: Environment does not rule) ▯ Piaget: ▯ Constructivism- Children actively construct new understandings of the world based on their experiences. EX: preschoolers invent their own ideas. ▯ Sensorimoter Stage- (infants) Deal with the world directly through their perceptions and actions. (Birth- 2 years) ▯ Preoperational Stage- Now developed the capacity for symbolic thought but is not yet capable of logical problem solving. (2-7 years) ▯ Concrete Operations Stage- School age children who have developed to this stage are more logical than preschoolers. Use the Trial-and-error approach for problem solving and do well on problems that involve thinking about concrete object. (7-11 years) ▯ Formal Operations- Adolescents can think about abstract concepts and purely hypothetical possibilities and can trace the long-range consequences of possible actions. With age and experience they can form hypotheses and systematically test them using the scientific method. (11-12 years and older) ▯ Sociocultural Perspective- occurs and grows out of children’s interactions with members of their culture. ▯ Information Processing Approach- Likens the human mind to a computer with hardware and software and examines the fundamental mental processes, such as attention, memory decision making, and the like, involved in performing cognitive tasks. ▯ Systems Theories- Generally claim that changes over the life-span arise from ongoing transactions in which a changing organism and a changing environment affect one another. ▯ Ethology- Study of evolved behavior of various species in their natural environments. ▯ Evolutionary Psychology- Application of evolutionary theory to understanding why humans think and behave as they do. ▯ Gottlieb: ▯ Epigenetic Psychobiological Systems Perspective- Development is the product of interacting biological and environmental forces that form a larger system. ▯ Epigenesis- (“over and above” genes) Nature and nurture co-act to bring forth particular developmental outcomes—sometimes surprising outcomes that are not easily predicted. ▯ Chapter 3 ▯ Species Hereditary- The genetic endowment that members of a species have in common, including genes that influence maturation and aging processes. ▯ Darwins theory include these main arguments:  There is genetic variation in a species.  Some genes aid adaption more than others do.  Genes that aid their bearers in adapting to their environment will be passed to future generations more frequently than genes that do not. ▯ Natural Selection- The idea that nature “selects”, or allows to survive and reproduce, those members of a species whose genes permit them to adapt to their environment. ▯ Cultural Evolution- we “inherent” from previous generations a characteristically human environment and tried and true ways of adapting to it, and we then learn to adjust to changing conditions and pass on what we learn to the next generation. ▯ Zygote- New cell, the beginning of a human. ▯ Chromosomes- Threadlike bodies in the nucleus of each cell that are made up of genes, the basic units of heredity. ▯ Meiosis- Specialized process of cell division. ▯ Mitosis- Cell divides to produce two identical cells, each containing the same 46 chromosomes. ▯ Genotype- Genetic makeup a person inherits. ▯ Phenotype- Characteristic or trait the person eventually has. ▯ Gene expression- activation of particular genes in particular cells of the body at particular times; only if a gene is “turned on” is it influential. ▯ Dominant gene- will be expressed when paired with a recessive gene. ▯ Recessive gene- Weaker gene that can be dominated ▯ Single gene paired inheritance- each of thousands of human characteristics are influenced by only one pair of genes—one from the mother, one from the father. ▯ Hemophilia- deficiency in the bloods ability to clot. More common in males than females. ▯ Polygenic Traits- influenced by multiple pairs of genes, interacting with environmental factors, rather than by a single pair of genes. ▯ Mutation- Change in the structure or arrangement of one or more genes that produces a new phenotype. ▯ Sickle-cell disease- Blood disease common among African Americans in which red blood cells take on a sickle shape. ▯ Turner Syndrome- Female is born with a single X chromosome. (XXY) ▯ Klinefelter syndrome- Male is born with one or more extra X chromosome (XXY) ▯ Fragile X syndrome- Most common hereditary cause of mental retardation. One arm of the X chromosome is only barely connected to the rest of the chromosome and looks as if it is about to break off (fragile) ▯ Carriers- some may not actually have the disease but can transmit it to their children. ▯ Huntington’s Disease- Genetic defect associated with a single dominant gene. Disrupts the normal transcription of RNA and the expression of genes in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. ▯ Concordance rates- the percentage of pairs of people studied in which if one member of a pair displays the trait, the other does too. ▯ Behavioral Genetics can estimate the contributions of 3 factors to individual differences in emotionality:  Genes  Shared environmental influences  Non-shared environmental influences ▯ Molecular Genetics- Analysis of particular genes and their effects. ▯ Temperament- Tendencies to respond in predictable ways, such as sociability and emotional reactivity, that serve as the building blocks of later personality. ▯ Schizophrenia- is a serious mental illness that involves disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and social behavior and that typically emerges in late adolescence or early adulthood. ▯ Gene-environment interaction- The effects of genes depend on what kind of environment we experience, and how we respond to the environment depends on what genes we have. ▯ Chapter 4: ▯ IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)- Several eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary and manually combined with sperm in a lab dish before being returned to a woman’s uterus in hopes that one egg will implant on the wall of the uterus. ▯ Germinal Period lasts about 2 weeks. ▯ Anencephaly- Lethal defect in which the main portion of the brain above the brain stem fails to develop. ▯ Teratogens- Disease, drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus. ▯ Thalidomide- (tranquilizer) to help relieve morning sickness that seemed safe on rats but had an adverse effect on humans. Women were giving birth to babies with all or parts of their limbs missing. ▯ SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)- A sleeping baby suddenly stops breathing and dies, also increases as the amount of smoking increases. ▯ FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)- Noticeable physical symptoms such as a small head and distinctive facial abnormalities. ▯ Syphilis can cause miscarriage or stillbirth. ▯ Rubella- contagious viral disease, with symptoms with mild measles. Can cause fetal malformation. ▯ Perinatologists- maternal fetal specialist. ▯ Anoxia- oxygen shortage. ▯ Breech Presentation- feet or buttocks first ▯ Cerebral Palsy- neurological disability primarily associated with difficulty controlling muscles movements; it also increases the risk of learning or intellectual disabilities and speech difficulties. ▯ Postpartum Depression- Episode of clinical depression that lasts months rather than days in a woman who has just given birth. ▯ Apgar test- provides a quick assessment of the newborn’s heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and reflexes. ▯ Chapter 6: ▯ Nativists- People who argue that perception in NOT created by interpreting external input- that instead innate capabilities and maturational programs are the driving forces in perceptual development. ▯ Constructivists- Come down on the side of nurture. They argue that perceptions of the world are constructed over time through learning. ▯ Habituation- Process of learning to be bored with a stimulus. ▯ Visual Acuity- Ability to perceive detail, is 40 times worse than adults, but improves across the first month of life to roughly the equivalent of 20/120 vision on the standard eye chart-being able to see only the big E at the top of the chart. ▯ Visual Accommodation- The ability of the lens of the eye to change shape to bring objects at different distances into focus. ▯ Visual Cliff- Elevated glass platform divided into two sections by a center board. ▯ Size Constancy- They recognize that an object is the same size despite changes in its distance from the eyes. ▯ Both tastes and smells sense rely on the detection of chemical molecules. ▯ Olfaction- sensory receptors for smell. ▯ Selective Attention- Deliberately concentrating on one thing while ignoring something else. (Infants) ▯ ADHD- Inattention, Impulsivity, Hyperactivity. ▯ AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration)- results from damage to cells in the retina responsible for central vision. ▯ Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)- Group of hereditary disorders that all involve gradual deterioration of the light-sensitive cells of the retina. ▯ Glaucoma- Increased fluid pressure in the eye can damage the optic nerve and can cause a progressive loss of peripheral vision and, ultimately, blindness. ▯ Presbycusis- Problems of the aging ear. ▯ Chapter 10: ▯ Phonemes- Basic units of sound that can change the meaning of a word. ▯ Pragmatics- rules for specifying how language is used appropriately in different social contexts. ▯ Word segmentation- When infants for example detect a target word in a stream of speech. ▯ Syntactic Bootstrapping- When they use the syntax of a sentence. ▯ Overextension- Using a word to refer to too wide a range of objects or events, as when a 2-year-old calls all furry, four-legged animals “doggie” ▯ Underextension- When a child initially uses the word doggie to refer only to basset hounds like the family pet. ▯ Telegraphic Speech- Early combinations of 2, 3, or more words. ▯ Functional Grammar- One that emphasizes the semantic relationships among words, the meanings being expressed, and the functions served by sentences. ▯ Transformational Grammar- Rules of syntax for transforming basic underlying thoughts into a variety of sentence forms. ▯ Metalinguistic Awareness- Knowledge of language as a system. ▯ Aphasia- language disorder I which the person might hear and understand linguistic input but be unable to vocally repeat the information. ▯ Universal Grammar- System of common rules and properties for learning any of the world’s languages. ▯ Language Acquisition Device (LAD)- which sifts through language, applies the universal rules, and begins tailoring the system to the specifics of the language spoken in the young child’s environment. ▯ Mastery Motivation- Can be seen clearly when infants struggle to open kitchen cabinets, take their first steps or figure out how new toys work. ▯ Performance Goals- Aim to prove their ability ▯ Alphabetic Principle- the idea that the letters in printed words represents the sounds in spoken words in a systematic way. (4 step process) ▯ Phonological Awareness- The Sensitivity to the sound system of language that enables them to segment spoken words into sounds or phonemes. ▯ Emergent Literacy- The developmental precursors of reading skills in young children. ▯ Dyslexia- Reading disability. ▯ Ability Grouping- Students are grouped according to ability and then taught in classes or work groups with others of similar academic or intellectual standing. ▯ Literacy- The ability to use printed info to function in society, achieve goals, and develop one’s potential. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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