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Review for Test 1

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by: Koehne Barlow

Review for Test 1 SOCI 2013

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > SOCI 2013 > Review for Test 1
Koehne Barlow
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sociological imagination, social sciences, development and people of sociology, theories and methods, perspectives, norms and values
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"Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!"
Vladimir Hoppe


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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Koehne Barlow on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2013 at University of Arkansas taught by ROBERT MORTENSON in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.


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Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!

-Vladimir Hoppe


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Date Created: 01/12/16
Sociology Test 1 Review Sociology: the scientific study of social behavior and human groups  Focus on: o How relationships influence people’s attitudes and behavior o How societies develop and change  The Sociological Imagination: an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past o Allows all of us to comprehend the links between our immediate, personal social settings and the remote, impersonal social world o The ability to view ones own society as an outsider would o Allows us to go beyond personal experiences and observations to understand broader, public issues  Sociology and the Social Sciences: o Science: refers to the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation o Natural science: study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change o Social science: the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change  Sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology and political science  Studies the influence that society has on peoples attitudes and behavior o Seeks to understand ways in which people interact and shape society o Examines social relationships scientifically o Global recession o Marital patterns o Recessions impact on education  What is Sociological Theory? o A theory is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behaviors  Example: suicide  The Development of Sociology: o Auguste Comte:  1798-1857  Believed that a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society  Coined the term “sociology”  Called sociology the “queen” o Harriet Martineau:  1802-1876  Offered insightful observation of the customs and sociological practices of both her native Britain and the United States  Examined religious, politics, child rearing, and immigration  Studied social behavior  Wrote the first book on sociological methods  Emphasized impact of economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems o Herbert Spencer:  1820-1903  Did not feel compelled to improve or change society  Wanted to understand society better  Applied the concept of evolution o Emile Durkheim:  1858-1917  Behavior must be understood within larger social context  Developed a fundamental thesis to help explain all forms of society  Anomie: loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective  Did not limit interest to one aspect o Max Weber:  1864-1920  To comprehend behavior one must learn subjective meaning people attach to actions  Verstehen: understanding  Ideal type: construct for evaluation specific cases  Emile Durkheim and Max Weber never met and probably were unaware of each others existence o Karl Marx  1818-1883  Society divided between two classes that clash in pursuit of interests  The Communist Manifesto o W.E.B. DuBois  1868-1963  Among the early black sociologists struggling for racially egalitarian society  Knowledge essential in combating prejudice  In-depth studies of urban life  Focused on religion at community level  Double consciousness: division of individuals identity into two or more social realities  Encouraged sociologists to view society through the eyes of those of the population  SOCIAL INTEGRATION o Social order: anomie (normlessness) o Low SI-Egoistic o Low SO-Anomic o High SI-Altruistic o High SO-Fatalistic  The Development of Sociology o Philosophers/religious authorities of ancient and medieval societies made observations of human behavior o European theorists in 19 century made pioneering contributions to development of the science of human behavior o Values-ideas democracy o Individual rights  What is Sociological theory? o Theory: set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior  Effective theories have explanatory and predictive power  Durkheim suicide studies: suggested suicide related to group life  Theories are not final statements about behavior  What is scientific method? o Scientific method: a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem  Defining the problem  Explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the concept  Reviewing the literature  Literature reviewed is relevant scholarly studies and information o Refine the problem  Formulating the hypothesis  Hypothesis: speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variables  Variable: measurable trait or characteristic subject to change under different conditions o Independent variable: variable hypothesized to cause of influence another o Dependent variable: action depends on influence of the independent variable  Casual logic: involves relationships between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other  Correlation: exists when change in one variable coincides with change in another o Correlation does not necessarily indicate causation  Developing a Sociological Imagination: o Theory in practice o Research today o Our wired world o Thinking globally  Selecting the research design and collecting and analyzing data  Selecting the sample: o Sample: selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population o Random sample: when every member of a population has the same chance of being selected o Snowball or convenience samples: participants recruited through word of mouth or by posting notices on the internet  Ensuring validity and reliability o Validity: degree to which the measure reflects the phenomenon being studied o Reliability: extent to which the measure provides consistent results  Developing the conclusion  Supporting hypothesis o Sociological studies so not always generate data tat support original hypothesis  Controlling for other factors: o Control variable: factor held constant to test the impact of the independent variable  Nonverbal Communication  Use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images too communicate o Learned o Differs by culture o Symbols  Gestures, objects, and words that form basis of human communication Functionalist Perspective: o Manifest and latent function  Manifest: open, stated, conscious, intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society  Latent: unconscious or unintended functions; may reflect hidden purposes o Dysfunctions  Elements or processes of society that may disrupt a social system or reduce its stability  Conflict Perspective o Assumes social behavior best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups o The Marxist View:  Conflict is part of everyday life in all societies  Conflict theorists interested in how institutions may help maintain privileges of some groups and keep others subservient  Taking Sociology with You: o Two growing fields allow application to real-world settings  Applied sociology  Clinical sociology o Developing a sociological imagination is key to thinking like a sociologist  Applied and Clinical Sociology: o Applied: use of sociology with intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior  Norms and Values o All societies have ways to encourage and enforce appropriate behavior o Norms:  Established standards of behavior maintained by society  Must be widely shared and understood  Formal norms: generally written, specify strict punishments o Law: governmental social control  Informal norms: generally understood but precisely recorded  Mores: norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society  Folkways: norms governing everyday behavior o Norms and sanctions:  Sanctions: penalties and rewards for conduct concerning social norm  Positive sanction: pay raises, medals, words of gratitude  Negative sanctions: fines,, threats, imprisonment, and stares of contempt o Acceptance of norms:  People do not follow norms in all situations:  Behavior that appears to violate societies norms may represent adherence to a particular groups norms o Values:  Cultural values: collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper  Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology o Material culture: physical or technological aspects of daily lives o Nonmaterial culture: ways of using material objects o Culture lag: period of maladjustment culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions  Social Policy and Culture: o Looking at the issue:  Bilingualism: use of two or more languages in a particular setting  Bilingual education may instruct children in their native language while gradually introducing the language of the host society


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