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BIO Study guide first exam

by: Kendra Lorigan

BIO Study guide first exam Biol-2010-002

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > Biol-2010-002 > BIO Study guide first exam
Kendra Lorigan
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This guide focuses on The Scientific Method all the way to lipids, to cells.
Major concepts in biology
Sally E Harmych
Study Guide
Science, Biology, Bio, exam, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kendra Lorigan on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol-2010-002 at University of Toledo taught by Sally E Harmych in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Major concepts in biology in Biology at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 01/13/16
The Scientific Method    ­ A way of learning through observation and experimentation    Deductive Reasoning    ­ Specific observations are predicted from a general premise     Inductive Reasoning    ­ General conclusions are drawn from specific observations    The Scientific Method  STEPS    ­ Ask a question  ­ develop falsifiable hypothesis   ­ design an experiment / study  ­ collect data  ­ analyze data  ­ support hypothesis     Types of Experimental Steps    ­ Controlled  *experimental group receives treatment, control group does not    ­ Natural Experiment  *Two different natural populations are compared        Lipids    ­ hydrophobic   ­ steroids, phospholipids, triglycerides  ­ nonpolar  ­ consist mostly of carbon and hydrogen    Phospholipid    ­ Two hydrophobic tails  ­ hydrophilic head interacts with water    Steroids    ­ has a carbon skeleton arranged in four fused rings  ­ includes sex hormones and cholesterol   ­ Cholesterol  * important in membrane fluidity    Lipoproteins    ­ Transports cholesterol through the bloodstream  ­ Contains proteins and lipids    Fats (Triglycerides)    ­ Stores chemical energy  ­ Hydrophobic, like srsly. No affinity for watah.     Trans Fat    ­ Unsaturated with a trans double bond; allows for a dense arrangement of fat  molecules  ­ remains solid in room temperature   ­ most are man made  *Crisco           Energy Storage         ­    Plants  *Stores energy as polysaccharide molecules (Tony ​ Starch) ​  ­ Animals  * Store excess energy in form of fat  * Adipose cells    Proteins     Involved in  ­ Metabolizing   ­ Signal communication with other cells  Structure  ­ Consist of Amino Acids linked together  ­ Amino acids are linked by Peptide Bonds  ­ 4 Levels of protein structure  ­ Made up of polypeptides  *Primary  *Secondary  *Tertiary  *Quaternary      Amino Acid Structure    ­ 20 amino acids  ­ Each amino acid consists of a central carbon bound to:  *A hydrogen  *A carboxyl group  *An amino group  *A unique R group (determines the properties of the amino acid)    Peptide Bonds    ­ Covalent bond between the carboxyl carbon and amino nitrogen of two amino  acids  ­ Carboxyl and amino terminus of a protein  ­ Amino terminus is also known as the N Terminus and the Carboxy terminus is  also known as the C terminus    Secondary Protein Structure    ­ Segments of the polypeptide chain form coils or folded patterns as a result of  hydrogen bonding     Tertiary Protein Structure    ­ Main, three­dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain.  *Bonds and interactions between R groups  *3­dimensional structure  *Determines function  *Hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, vanderwaals forces, hydrophobic interactions    ­ Denaturation  *Loss of 3­D protein     Quaternary Protein Structure    ­ Interaction of two or more polypeptide chains  *caled subunits  *can be the same or different    ­ Example: oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells called hemoglobin    Collagen    ­ Plays important role in connective tissues, such as cartilage and tendons, as well  as in bone and skin tissue  ­ Made up of three left handed helices woven into a durable right handed triple  helix  ­ Structure stabilized by the hydrogen bonds that form between each of the three  initial peptide chains    Nucleic Acids    ­ polymers of nucleotides  ­ every nucleotide consists of:  *Phosphate  *Sugar  *Nitrogenous base  ­ Sugared phosphates form the backbone of the molecule  ­ 5 different types of nitrogenous bases  *Adenine thymine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil (Uracil is only found in RNA)    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  ­ contains all the info needed to create life’s diversity  ­ structure is relatively simple  ­ double stranded helix  ­ complementary base pairing  *provides a way for dna to be replicated    Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)    ­ Another type of nucleic acid  ­ involved in protein synthesis    DNA and RNA Structure    ­ Polymers of nucleotides  ­ phosphate units link to sugar unites forming phosphodiester bonds  *connects the phosphate group linked to the five position (5’) carbon on one sugar with  the hydroxyl group attached to three position (3’) carbon on next sugar    Pyrimidine and Purine    ­ Nucleotides found in DNA and RNA have on of two basic structures  WHO discovered the structure of dna??!?!?!    ­ Francis Crick  ­ Rosalind Franklin  ­ James Watson  ­ Maurice Wilkins    Characteristics of DNA    ­ Forms a Double Helix: two intertwined strands of dna  ­ Strands are antiparallel (strands go in opposite directions)  ­ Complementary base pairing     RNA    ­ Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose  ­ Single stranded  ­ contains uracil instead of thymine           Cell Theory    ­ Cells are basic unit of life  ­ cells come from other cells   ­ Robert Hooke was first person to observe cells under a microscope in 1665 and named  them cells  ­ Cells are limited by surface area and volume  ­ Volume of a cell increases faster than the surface area    M​icroscopes    ­ Resolution: ability to distinguish two separate objects    4 basic cell function    ­ Separation of internal and external environments   *Plasma Membrane  *Homeostasis   ­ Stores info to pass it on to next generation  *DNA stores  genetic info  ­ Synthesis of Proteins  *Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis   ­ Conducts the chemical processes of life  *Cytoplasm    Three domains of life:    ­ Bacteria  ­ Archaea  ­ Eukarya       Eukaryotic Cells    ­ nucleus   ­ many chromosomes  ­ ribosomes plants with fungi have cell walls  ­ animal cells and protozoa have extracellular matrix    Prokaryotic Cells       ­ nucleoid  ­ one circular chromosome  ­ plasmids  ­ ribosomes   ­ cell walls made of peptidoglycan      Animal Cell Membrane Structure  ­ Phospholipid bilayer includes sterols  ­ separates two aqueous regions  ­ proteins embedded in bilayer  ­ carbohydrates are attached to the exterior of the membrane    Membrane Proteins  ­ transport proteins  ­ structural proteins  ­ enzymes  ­ cell to cell interaction proteins  ­ cell communication proteins    Carbohydrates  ­ Hydrophilic  ­ located on the outside of the membrane  ­ bound to membrane embedded molecule  ­ messages  ­ glycoproteins and glycolipids    Sterols  ­ Help membranes maintain fluidity and stability  ­ prevent membrane from solidifying at low temperatures   ­ hinder phospholipid movement in the membrane at moderate temperatures          Inheritance    BLENDED INHERITANCE  ­ Parents traits blended in the offspring  EXPERIENCE DEPENDED INHERITANCE  ­ Traits of parents became modified traits were passed on to the offspring  True­Breeding p ​ lants  ­ if the plant is self fertilized or cross fertilized with a plant like it the offspring had the same  trait as the parents    PArental generation (f0)    f1 Generation     Gene­ unit of inheritance passed from parent to child; consists of a specific nucleotide sequence     Alleles­ different forms of a gene  Phenotype­ physical character / appearance of a gene  Genotype­ genetic makeup of that characteristic     Punnett Square can be used to predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes of progeny     The individual squares represent the potential gamete combinations only one alleles for each  gene s transmitted per parent illustrating the law of segregation     Two parents are heterozygous for two separate characteristics (Genes)  Offspring have 6 possible genotypes and 4 possible phenotypes    Demonstrates the law of independent assortment  


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