Exam 1 study guide
Exam 1 study guide COMM330
Popular in Communication & Interpersonal Behavior
Popular in Communication Studies
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Waugh on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM330 at University of Delaware taught by Scott Caplan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Communication & Interpersonal Behavior in Communication Studies at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Exam 1: lectures 1-8 Lecture 1 Two reasons everyone should take a class on interpersonal behavior o Reason 1: money The number one skill that employers look for is “soft skills” Social and interpersonal skills such as communication, sociability and self control Employers want business schools to pay more attention to people- orientated skills like leadership and communication 67% of HR managers would hire an applicant with strong soft skills whose technical abilities were lacking 9% would hire someone who had strong technical expertise but weak interpersonal skills o Reason 2: happiness Many of our biggest problems in life involve other people Your level of interpersonal communication skill is related to how happy and healthy you are Success in romantic relationships Enhancing others attraction to you Mental health o Depression, suicide, loneliness o Alcohol and drug abuse o Strong social skills= less likely to develop these things or maintain them better Marital satisfaction and domestic violence Your child’s well-being and success in life Interpersonal ninja o A higher level of just being “pretty good” o They can answer these questions and use them skillfully How to make a good impression in a job interview How to read body language Best way to get a date How to have healthy conflict How to deal with difficult emotions How to tell if someone is cheating on you? How to lie without getting caught How to tell if someone is lying to you? Persuading people Comforting people when they’re upset How to make a relationship succeed What predicts divorce? How to be a good parent? Lecture 2 Many beliefs about communication are wrong We get our information from pop-culture and friends which are not scientifically proven Communication misconceptions (beliefs about communication that aren’t true) o More communication will usually help fix problems with others Skill vs. more more skillful communication will usually help (sometimes silence is key) More communication wont help if its unhealthy If you’re heated you can say things you don’t mean Overly simplistic o In relationships, conflict is dangerous and destructive Conflict is an opportunity to connect and resolve in a way that can improve relationships Conflict can enhance a relationship if done well or ruin in if done poorly Conflict is a normal part of all relationships that require skillful management If there’s no conflict it can lead to resentment o The meaning of a message is in the worlds used to convey it It has a lot to do with how you say it! Words don’t have meaning in an absolute sense – words have different meaning for different people – you have to define them Meaning is created through the communication of people! Meaning of a message is constructed between people Ex: definition of god Meaning exists between people People will have different views Ex. Marriage proposal “What do you mean by getting married?” Then you talk about what marriage means to each person o Effective communicators are born, not made You can learn this skill Limits those who are not natural born communicators and says these skills cant be improved You can train this skill Ex: taking a public speaking class o The goal of communication is to get your ideas across clearly (i.e. information transfer is the only goal) Part of it is transferring information but there are so many more goals Ex: a professor they want to transfer the information to their students but also has other goals for them such as changing a view point or making sure they understand Goals of interpersonal communication beyond “information transfer” o In our communication with others we must simultaneously (juggle) manage each of these goals: Impression management/self-presentation Says something about the impression I want to make Uncertainly reduction We try and reduce uncertainty about our image to people Figuring the other person out Ex: a roommate situation you’re trying to make the best impression of your self to the new roommate while trying to figure out what their like Relationship development and maintenance Emotion management Have to keep viewer from being unhappy with you Manage emotions so people don’t see them Can be your own emotions or the emotions of a group Ex: when giving a speech you have to manage stress, anxiety and nervousness Reading nonverbal cues We have to read and react to body language Instrumental or task goals Surface level facts Most basic Ex: lecture information o All of these need to be done to be a skillful communicator a professor needs to do all of these things at once to get their information across o If you thing about annoying people, they probably cant do one or more of these things! Lecture 3 Communication is the process that defines who we are Self comes from communication Basic parts of the communication process o Sender/receiver – everyone is both and can happen at the same time A good public speaker works off their audience o Channel – the way a message gets sent (voice, nonverbal, language) o Feedback – communication is a circular process messages we receive back Ex: a student raising their hand in class o Noise – stuff that interferes with, or gets in the way, of communication o Message – the thing were communicating about (content, information, idea) Sending and receiving channels o Encoding process Its putting an idea into some sort of code Ideamessage (channel) This should be done before a message is sent The more we encode ahead of time, the better speaker we will be Ex: at a bar and you see someone hot You encode your thoughts to create a message so you can talk to them o Decoding process What the receiver does; taking a message form a speaker and understanding it – your process Ex: we understand English o Cognitive demand Encoding and decoding put demand on your brain The more you have to decode, the less you’re message will get across Cognitive demand increases, performance decreases o To be a good public speaker: Encode beforehand Preparing is key o To catch a liar: Don’t let them pre-encode Ask a lot of questions to throw them off Rapid questions Open ended Have them encode more than once Messages are encoded in BOTH verbal and nonverbal channels o Verbal codes involve language o Nonverbal involves all other ways we communicate WITHOUT language (behavior, tone of voice, etc.) Noise o Def: the stuff that gets in the way to the message being understood o Physical noise People talking Level of talking o Psychological noise All the things going on in the mind of the receiver A mental distraction o Semantic noise Not understanding the message Ex: Chinese bathrooms Don’t understand the writing on the doors Ex: when you and your boyfriend have different views of commitment Messages o Every message contains TWO LEVELS of meaning Content level – surface level conversation Information, task Ex: information in lecture Relational level – the definition of the relationship between speaker and listener Often nonverbal They say something about the relationship between people What I want you to think about me, and me about you Conveys emotions and intimacy can be conveyed Relational messages involve fundamental relational themes o Power/dominance/submission o Intimacy o Task vs. social orientation o Degree of similarity o Emotionality o Formality/informality Relational level messages o Conveyed through nonverbal channels (time) (ex: birthday cards) o Information about interests and fundamental relational themes (flirting) o More emotionally meaningful (the way you say sorry) o Always used by the IP ninja o Relational meaning in message patterns (Arrows in packet) Symmetrical patterns Complimentary patterns Neutral (across) Sample convo Lecture 4 John Stewart’s definition of communication o “Communication is the continuous 1) complex 2) collaborative process of verbal and non-verbal 3) meaning-making through which we 4) construct the world of meaning we inhabit” The world that matter to you is based on meaning Social construction of reality o World of meaning = we SOCIALLY CONSTRUCT our reality with communication Symbolic world Ex: race o Symbolic interactionism Def: humans deal in the world of symbols something that represents something else (ex: money) Stewart says we collaboratively construct a world of meaning in which we inhabit We act towards things on the basis of their MEANINGS Ex: a $1 water bottle – no one wants it, whereas a 10 million water bottle artifact- everyone wants it Ex: Elvis’s hair being sold on eBay The “meanings” of objects, people, symbols and ideas come from communication between people Meaning is a product of communication o Ex: what would you say if someone asked you to describe yourself? (people would mostly use meaning based information to describe themselves) Subjective objective information? Height, weight, M/F Not socially constructed Meaning based information? Come through the social process Smart, pretty, happy (require definitions) The power of meaning and expectations – The Rosenthal Experiment o Pygmalion effect – others expectations influence our behavior Positive expectations increased performance o Self-fulfilling prophecy – our own expectations influence our behavior Expectations come true Four factors that influence this: Climate: a teacher will create a warmer climate for students they like – more comfort Input: they teach more material to students who are thought to do better Response opportunity: teachers expect more of them and in turn they get more attention (ex: more time to talk, get called on more) Feedback: positive reinforcement, more praise Ex: I’m not good at mat because I’ve always been told “you’re not really a math person” Readings (ch. 1, pg. 310-311 “relational control moves, box 12.3 on pg. 312) Lecture 5 Social construction of reality o The “meanings” of objects, people, symbols and ideas come from communication between people. Our subjunctive “reality” is COLLABORATIVELY CONSTRUCTED through communication We forget that socially constructed meaning is not “real” in an objective sense Ex: Segregate bathroom o Social construction= there is only black and white o Reality= there are an infinite array of skin tones “The map is not the territory” o We don’t see the object itself, we see the symbolic meaning Ex: we don’t see the person before we see the race o The world we socially construct through language is like a map – it symbolizes the real thing but isn’t the real thing The world that matters to us is not the physical world o People often forget that the map is not the same as the actual territory. They thing of language and the socially constructed words as “real” in an objective sense o Our language (map) is an incomplete and social constructed representations of reality (i.e. territory) Its incomplete because when I call someone a white male, im missing all the other things they are o The consequences: The Doll Test White bias – confusing the linguistic meaning with the real meaning Race is socially constructed and we forget its real “If we define a situation as real, it is real in its consequences.” Ex: Stanford Prison Experiment o If we define people as less than human, we can more easily treat them in inhuman ways this makes us forget everything else about that group of people The Stanford Prison Experiment o A psychology experiment where college students signed up o Half were randomly selected as guards and the other half were selected as prisoners o Guards got: Clean uniforms Power symbols (i.e. handcuffs) Mirror sunglasses “Mask” costume of anonymity o Prisoners got: Smock, no underwear A number Chains around their ankles A form of dehumanization o At the beginning: The prisoners laughed at the guards authority Resistance o As time went on: Guards took more power The prisoners needed to respect the guards or they were punished o Prisoner rebellion: Prisoners refused to leave their cells and the guards broke down the doors They were dragged out and abused Some were put in solitary confinement o Girlfriend visit: She couldn’t watch what was happening and threatened to leave the boyfriend (experimenter/professor) The professor lost his concept of reality because of the power o Some prisoners had mental breakdowns because of the way the guards were treating them o The fact that it was an experiment was lost in the concept of power It became real in their social construct Power= the ability to control the meaning-making process o Ex: MLK was powerful because he changed the meaning of race o And communication is also the vehicle to CHANGE meanings… Language is a map The way we talk to children creates their definition of the world o In other words, communication can alter reality Overview o We are never just a “sender” or “receiver” communication we are always ending and receiving messages simultaneously Constantly engaged in both o All messages have multiple levels of meaning (i.e. The “content” (topic) and the “relational” (how one person sees another person) levels) o Meaning is negotiated (made) via communication and exists only as a result of communication Every word and concept is something that humans decide the meaning on Ex: the marriage proposal o We live in a socially constructed “world of meaning” and treat is as “real” The world that matters to us isn’t just the objective world – symbolic world – illusion o Power involves control of the meaning-making process People in charge define the map we use Power= define Lecture 6 How does language affect culture? The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis o Different cultures experience the world differently because they talk about it differently o We see the world through language – its like a lens o Linguistic determinism: “the real world is to a large extent built up on the language habits of the group” Language determines what we see You see the world through language Ex: fingers, arm, hand – they’re part of the same thing but language breaks them up and makes them different things o Linguistic relativism: “the worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds not merely the same world with different labels attached” Cultures with different languages live in different worlds – relatively difference between arm and hand is different in different cultures Basic ideas behind Sapir-Whorf 1. We all have a basic need to make sense of the world a. We need to break up things into parts that make sense to us 2. To make sense of it, we impose an order on it a. Organize it 3. The main tool we have for organizing the world is language a. We use words to organize 4. Language influences the way we perceive and remember and, generally, it predisposes is to look at the worl in a certain way a. We have different words for “orange bottles” so orange bottle means something different in a different culture Does our culture determine how many colors we see in a rainbow? o We don’t see it as a spectrum but because of language we see them as a rainbow Colors in English vs. Tiv o They only have two different colors o They cant sport the difference between a red shirt or yellow shirt o If you don’t have a word for it you cant see it Impact of language on color perception o A baby: Does the experiment Right side is processing the information (colors) Right side= visual side o A toddler: Does experiment Left side is processing language o Once we learn language, we process everything through language first Linguistic determinism o Language is structuring how the brain sees the world Ex: Sapir-Whorf: Feelings that don’t exist in English o If we don’t have words for emotion its hard to talk/ express them Ex: Sapir-Whorf: Forms of address o “You” Works for everyone o “Tu” or “usted” Informal vs. formal o Have to make a choice of which form every time you talk to someone they see the world through the lens of formal and informal Love o In English we only have one world for love Love to a brother is different from a love to pizza or a boyfriend because there are so many words, they have a deeper/richer relational life Perceptual barriers to intercultural communication o Ethnocentrism: my culture is the middle My culture is normal, and everyone else is other o In-group vs. out-group: us vs. them= over simplification Culture, self and identity o Individualism: Value is placed most on the individual Taught to speak up for yourself, and stick out over other people What matters is “me” o Collectivism: Valued to keep the group stable or in harmony The identity is “we” or “us” What happens to you is important to them If you fail, you fail and shame the group One of the most noble things you can do is sacrifice yourself for the group Lecture 7 Culture affects our social interactions o High (context) vs. low (explicit value directness) context cultures Cultures differ in terms of how (important it is to be direct when communicating) explicitly they convey information and in terms of how much meaning is conveyed through context (indirect) Low context cultures Ex: Donald Trump celebrated for directness USA, England, Germany, Australia, New Zealand Individualistic Value clear and direct messages Use precise words and intend them to be taken literally o What people say= what they mean Directness is very important Indirectness is seen as confusing and poor communication Meaning is not in the nonverbal but in the context High context cultures Eastern, Asian, middle eastern cultures, India, Africa Value indirectness Worlds are not as important as context and words may not mean what they say Rely on non-verbal signs such as tone of voice, facial expressions, body language, etc. Japanese phrase “reading the air” o Non-verbal o Can tell the sense of the situation Politeness is key collectivism o How Japanese say no I’ll check on it I’ll think about it I’m not sure o How Indians say no Avoiding the question Changing the subject Repeating the question Turning the question to the speaker Qualified or conditional yes o High vs. low context emojis Japan The mouth is the same but the eyes change USA The mouth changes but the eyes stay the same Unskillful True vs. fake smiles o True Corners of the eyes are raised o False Corners of the mouth are raised Emoji study by Yuki o College students were showed emojis and rated the happiness in them o Japanese students judged from the eyes whole American students judged by the mouth o Accurate place to judge is in the eyes – Japanese got it right Nonverbal codes o Functions of nonverbal messages o Channels for conveying nonverbal messages o Characteristics of nonverbal codes Functions (jobs) of nonverbal messages o Conveying meaning o Modifying verbal messages Adding emphasis Adding non-verbal (ex: rolling the eyes) o Regulating flow of interaction The way someone looks at you, the way they tilt their head can convey whether they want you to keep talking or to shutup “Tells” video o Tells: nonverbal indicators that carry information about what someone’s thinking/feeling – unintentional behaviors o Preening: helps a girl show she’s interested Ex: hair flipping o Women always make the first move – man waits for the approach tell o Approach tell: an indicator or signal that a women is interested Indicator of interest Ex: smiling, staring o Release signal: a pat on the back indicating “get your hands off of me” o Crossed legs= no intention of leaving Lecture 8 Seven channels for conveying nonverbal messages o Proexmics The use of distance or space to create a message Somebody who has power has more freedom to violate space – more space= more power; less power= more crowded Personal space Intimate distance (0-18”) o Best friends, gf/bf, family Personal distance (18”-4’) o Friends, acquaintances Social distance (4’-12’) o People you’ll wave or say hi to but not close Public distance (12’-25’) o Don’t talk to Psychological space Create a feeling of distance when there is no distance o Ex: NY subway – don’t look at anyone even though you’re in close proximity to them Distances vary by culture Violating norms Video – getting in a persons face when talking o Vocalics Use of voice to get message across Looks at everything other than the actual words Tone and volume Non-fluencies or vocal segregations Fillers: “um”, “like” used to full the space when you’re thinking of what to say Rate of speech May indicate relational information or emotion of speaker Affect how audiences perceive a speaker Use pauses strategically – silence is better than “um” We use silence to hide that you’re encoding o Kinesics Emblems: has a direct translation or meaning within a culture Ex: the finger, raising your hand in class Illustrators: adds meaning to a verbal message and always goes along with a verbal message Ex: “a little bit” finger gesture Affect displays: emotional displays Ex: arms crossed, a hug Regulators: regulate back and forth turn taking in a conversation; think of a traffic signal Ex: body language, looking at your phone or watch during a date Relational cues: use body language to show how we feel about someone Ex: facing the person, a hug, nodding, smiling Adapters: nervous mannerisms, indicators of anxiety Ex: biting nails, playing with a ring while talking Kinesics vary with culture Different meaning in different parts of the world o Facial expression There are 7 expressions that exist everywhere – universal Happiness, surprise, contempt, sadness, fear, disgust, anger Universal facial expressions of emotion Expression is universal o Happiness is the same expression everywhere Display rules governed by culture o When is it not okay to show fear? o Happiness? o When can I show a facial expression and to whom? Microexpressions o Emotional facial expression o Automatic/involuntary o Really quick o Can reveal hidden emotions o Touch Important relationship-level messages about power, status and intimacy Characteristics of nonverbal communication o Nonverbal communication involves simultaneous transmission of messages Nonverbal messages are sent all at once o Nonverbal messages are perceived holistically (all at once) o Nonverbal messages add to or change meaning of verbal messages Ex: indicate sarcasm within a message o Nonverbal messages are more emotional o Nonverbal messages are often misinterpreted o Nonverbal messages are more likely to be believed When nonverbal don’t match verbal, people believe nonverbal o Nonverbal communication is regulated by social culture Change according to culture – highly dependent on culture Readings (pg. 164-165, pg. 313-316) Exam 2: lectures 9-19
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