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Module 1 exam review

by: Fiaza Ahmed

Module 1 exam review SOP 3932

Fiaza Ahmed
GPA 3.7

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Who needs/enter treatment Developing addiction The nervous system The action of drugs Tobacco Caffeine Dietary supplements and OTC drugs
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fiaza Ahmed on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOP 3932 at Florida International University taught by William Berry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 271 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Drugs and Addiction in Psychlogy at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Psych of Drugs – Module 1 review: *DSM calls addiction substance use disorder. It was previously called dependence  Who needs treatment Criteria according to the DSM that would classify a person for having a substance use disorder.  Impaired control: Desire to cut down. Going over your own self-imposed, craving. Using more or a substance or over a longer period of time than intended.  Social impairment: Substance abuse begins to interfere with social obligation and responsibilities; i.e. Suffering relationships because of substance abuse. Using the substance despite persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the use of the substance  Risky Use: recurrent use of the substance when it is physically hazardous. Continued use despite persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by the use of the substance. Ex: Running the risk of OD’ing, or one continuing to persist drinking while aware of their liver problems.  Pharmacological Criteria: Tolerance (Taking in more of a substance to get same feeling) Ex: Taking in more alcohol to get same feeling of being tipsy while previously less was required. Withdrawal (Negative physical symptoms as a result of not getting the substance) Mild: Presence of 2-3 criteria Moderate: Presence of 4-5 Severe: presence of 6 or more  Bottom: is a term commonly heard in addiction treatment and recovery. A bottom is when the addicted individual believes they can go no lower. They have traveled as far down in the spiral of addiction as they can go. A. High Bottom: People who haven’t lost everything. It didn’t take a lot for them to change their lives. Often called functional addicts B. Low Bottom: Stereotypical image of an addict Motivation: A. Internal: is the realization a behavior is detrimental to your life goals or incongruent with your values; a decision to stop results from this realization Ex: “I want to do this for me” B. External: consists of environmental reasons to seek help or to stop substance use. Ex: The world rushing you into treatment *Research indicates that both external and internal motivation are best for the. Individually both do equally well or poor there is no difference. Stages of Change Model • Often, the most difficult stage to overcome is the first stage, 1. Pre-contemplation: belief that there is no problem (Can be detected because of other problems, maybe referral by other family members or by court or be forced into treatment) 2. Contemplation 3. Preparation 4. Action 5. Maintenance: According to DMS this has to last at least 12 months in order to overcome addiction. 6. Relapse-Although the ideal is for a person to never achieve Stage Six—Relapse—the reality is most people will cycle back through Stages One through Five a few times before being completely abstained from substance dependence. Treatment Modalities:  Detoxification- giving patient a type of medication allowing them to safely come off the drugs  Inpatient- more medically monitored and usually safer. Psychiatrist onsite. M-F  Residential- not as medically monitored. Nurse usually comes once a day for a few hours. Patients in both stay 24 hours a day  Partial Hospitalization- treatment is daily during. The client spends a large part of the day 6-8 hours at the facility receiving various forms of therapy (group, individual, recreational)  Intensive Outpatient- At least 9 hours of therapy weekly. Treatment usually consists of 3- 3-hour groups weekly. Educational psychotherapy groups, Individual therapy  Traditional Output- Less than 9 hours of therapy weekly. Can consist of as little as a one-hour individual session monthly.  How do people develop a Substance use disorder What Social Learning Theory Proposes About The Developmental Of A Substance Problem  Social Learning Theory  American culture  immediate gratification  Escape of Physical or emotional discomfort  Accepting these premises leads to the conclusion many may be susceptible to abusing substances Biological Theory In Regard To Developing Addiction- What Scientific Evidence Supports This Model:  Disease Concept  Also known as medical model  No blood tests for mental illness  The root of addiction is biological  Heredity  Pedigree studies  Advanced research and substance of choice The Theory Of The Effects Of Trauma In Developing An Addiction  Childhood or adolescent trauma may result in addiction  Adult trauma may also result in addiction  These can result in lowered feelings of self worth or to substances being used to cope with what are often unmanageable feelings  Women in addiction treatment for abuse is 75 %, Supports the fact that traumatic events affect substance abuse  The Nervous System: Components  Glia- one of two types of cells- the other is neurons  Most important function of Glia related to substances is the creation of the blood brain barrier.  Blood Brain Barrier-a barrier that separates the blood and the fluid that surrounds the brain.  Semipermeable- allows some, but not all, chemicals to enter the brain. (Not all drugs are Chemical pathways: Those associated with the action of psychoactive drugs are:  Dopamine- related to Parkinson's disease, psychotic behavior, and with the system (mesolimbic) that is associated with the “reward” of substances.  Acetylcholine- associated with the initiation of REM sleep, and the depletion of it is thought to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease.  Norepinephrine- responsible for alertness and wakefulness, associated with stimulant drugs.  Serotonin- associated with weight regulation, food intake, impulsive aggressiveness, excessive alcohol consumption, and the occurrence of suicide.  Many antidepressants are SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).  GABA- found in most areas of the brain and exerts generalized inhibitory functions.  Glutamate- also found throughout the brain. Neurotransmitter that makes cells more excitable.  Endorphins- endogenous substances that produce effects similar to morphine and other opioids. The monoamine theory of mood  Too little activity in monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) can cause depression and too much can cause an excited mood (mania).  Drugs that affect these neurotransmitters alter mood states. *This theory accounts for many of the basic drug effects on mood. The Action of Drugs Classifications of drug 1.)Stimulants a. Cocaine b. Amphetamine c. Caffeine 2.)Hallucinogens a. Mescaline b. LSD c. PCP 3.) Marijuana 4.)Nicotine 5.)Depressants a. Alcohol b. Barbiturates c. Sedatives, d. Inhalants 6.)Opioids a. Morphine b. Oxycontine c. Heroin d. Codeine e. Methadone 7.)Psychotherapeutics a. Prozac b. Haldol c. Zoloft ***If a drug were given you would need to know which category it belongs to Marijuana and nicotine are in separate categories because the effects of them are controversial The placebo effect Nonspecific effects are those that derive form the users unique background and particular perception  Also called “set and setting”  Someone given fake drug but they still “feel” the effects  Specific effects are those that derive from a certain concentration of the drug being the target tissue Some people find relief with the placebo effect (35%) Quickest way to get drugs to the brain 1. Inhalation 2. Injection How tobacco gets to the brain -Popular early ways included snuff and chewing -The use of cigars was a mid point between chewing and smoking The biggest factor associated with lower rates of cigarette smoking -Education is correlated with decreased smoking Statistics of people dying from tobacco o 20% of all deaths in US related to tobacco currently o 85% of all deaths related to lung cancer o 30% of all deaths from cancer due to smoking o 30% of cardio vascular deaths related to smoking o 80-80% of deaths resulting from chronic obstructive lung disease Cigars and Nicotine-  Enough nicotine in one cigar to kill two humans  Inhalation is the most effective drug delivery system  Nicotine causes the release of adrenaline o Increase in coronary blood flow o Increase in heart rate and blood pressure. o Smokers need more oxygen  Nicotine is a reinforcing substance in humans Withdrawal  Four or more of the following:  Irritability, frustration, or anger  Anxiety  Difficulty concentrating  Increased appetite  Restlessness  Depressed mood  Insomnia *90% quit without formal treatment programs Caffeine Coffee:  Originally discovered in Arabia.  Originally appeared in an Arabian medical book in AD 900.  Coffee growing spread around the world, and currently Latin America is the largest exporter of coffee to the United States.  Coffee became America’s favorite drink when the British levied the Tax Act on Tea.  The average cup of drip coffee has @ 115mg of caffeine. Tea:  Although people often say tea has more caffeine than coffee, that is true per pound, not per cup. Chocolate:  The unique xanthine in chocolate is theobromine.  Theobromine acts similarly to caffeine, but is much less potent. Soft drinks:  Coca-Cola, the first soft drink, began as a green nerve tonic in 1886.  Originally had small amounts of cocaine, removed by 1906.  Cola has about 35mgs of caffeine Soft drinks get caffeine from it being removed from coffee to create decaffeinated coffee.  In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2005, Americans drank twice as many gallons of soft drinks as compared to coffee. Energy Drinks:  Jolt cola has the maximum amount of caffeine allowed for soft drinks at almost 72mg per 12 ounces.  Red Bull’s main active ingredient, although touting itself an energy drink, is caffeine, at 80mg per 8.3 ounces.  There is no evidence any of its other ingredients (besides sugar) have any particular effect Withdrawal symptoms of caffeine: headaches, fatigue, reduced vigor (headache is most consistent) Difficulty concentrating, flu-like symptoms, depressed mood Although caffeine use is associated with better concentration, in studies those who regularly use caffeine do more poorly on study oriented tasks then those who use minimal amounts of caffeine. Dietary Supplements and Over the Counter Medicine Drug vs. food  Many dietary supplements are sold as food products. This is observable in nutrition information being given.  Anything that is intended for use in “diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease” in humans is regulated as a drug  There need not be any proof of effectiveness. Categories:  Stimulants- caffeine only active ingredient allowed.  Weight loss- Weight loss products have been fraught with concern, from phenylpropanolamine to Ephedra, all eventually being banned. From 2004 to 2007 there were no OTC weight loss products.  Sedatives and Sleep aids- there is no longer a category for OTC sedatives.  Sleep aids active ingredients are antihistamines.  Anesthetics- (without sensibility) reduce all types of sensation or block consciousness. No OTC.  Analgesics- (without pain) Opioids (not OTC) and internal analgesics.  OTC analgesics are best for somatic pain.  The experience of pain differs by personality, gender, time of day, and is increased with anxiety, fatigue, fear, boredom, and anticipation of more pain.  As a result, placebo is proven effective in 35% of cases Analgesics: Aspirin:  Works in three ways:  Blocks somatic pain (mild to moderate).  Antipyretic- Reduces fever.  Anti-inflammatory- reduces swelling.  Therapeutic dose is 600 to 1000 mg Effects:  Doubles bleeding time.  Sometimes useful in prevention of heart attacks and strokes. Acetaminophen:  Equipotent to aspirin in analgesic and antipyretic effects.  Causes less gastric bleeding.  Less effective as an anti-inflammatory.  Overuse can cause serious liver disorders and can be lethal. Ibuprofen  Analgesic potency.  Potent anti-inflammatory.  Side effects include nausea, stomach pain and cramping.  Can cause fatal liver damage with overdose OTC drug abuse  Usually common in adolescents  The four plateaus


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