Starches and Sauces
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Chapter 18 Starches and Sauces: Study Guide Chapter vocabulary: Dextrose equivalent- A measurement of dextrose concentration. A DE of 50 means the syrup contains 50% dextrose. Gelatinization- The increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency of starch granules when they are heated in a liquid Retrogradation- The seepage of water out of an aging gel because of the contraction of the gel (bonds tighten between the amylose molecules). Also known as syneresis or weeping Dextrinization- The breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter- tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat Modified starch- A starch that has been chemically or physically modified to create unique functional characteristics Mother sauce- A sauce that serves as the springboard from which other sauces are prepared Small sauce- A secondary sauce created when a flavor is added to a mother sauce Glaze- a flavoring obtained from soup stock that has been concentrated by evaporation until it attains a syrupy consistency with a highly concentrated flavor Roux- A thickener made by cooking equal parts of flour and fat Beurre manie- A thickener that is a soft paste made rom equal parts of soft butter and flour blended together Slurry- A thickener made by combining starch and a cool liquid Au jus- served with its own natural juices; a term usually used in reference to roasts Deglaze- to add liquid to pan drippings and simmer/stir to dissolve and loosen cooked-on particles sticking to the bottom of the pan Reduction- The process in which a liquid is simmered or boiled until the volume is reduced through evaporation, leaving a thicker, more concentrated, flavorful mass; or the product of this process Intro: Carbohydrates provides 55-65% of calories in a well- balanced diet. Starches are made of glucose molecules synthesized by plants through photosynthesis Starches can only be consumed by eating foods of the plant origin Glucose molecules→ Synthesized by plants in photosynthesis→ Glucose converted to starch by plant → Humans eat the plant → digestion process converts starch back to glucose in the body Starches provide 4 kcals of energy / gram Contribute to the texture, taste and appearance of food such as sauces, gravies, cream soups, Chinese dishes, salad dressings, and desserts. Uses of starches: (book) Thicken foods Stabilizers Texturizers Water or fat binders Fat substitute Emulsification aids Purposes of starch in food products: (slides and class notes) Edible films Thickening agent Sweetener source: dextrose and syrups Sources of Starch: (book) Plants are the source of starch granules Cereals: wheat, rice, corn contain starch Root starches- potatoes, arrowroot, cassava (tapioca) Beans, peas, sago palm Starch granules differ in size: potatoes are largest, while colrn, tapioca, rice and taro root progressively get smaller Starches vary in flavor in consistency Corn Starch: (book) 95% of starch in the US is starch from corn or cornstarch. - The wet milling process is used to derive corn starch - Softened kernels are cracked, extraneous material removed, cracked kernels are ground and screened then sifted down to yield starch and protein. The protein is removed and the starch is filtered out Starch as a thickening agent (book): Soups, sauces, pie fillings, gravies, chili, stews, cream-style corn, cream fillings, custards, fruit pie, whipped toppings, icings, puddings, candies gums and salad dressings can all be thickened. Starch as an edible film: Protective coatings, binding agents in dog foods and meat products Starch as a sweetener: Dextrose can be used in confections, wine, and some canned goods. The food industry measures the degree of conversion from starch to glucose in DEXTROSE EQUIVALENTS Hydrolysate- hydrolysis product of starch used as sweetener. Common candy sweetener. Most common is dry maltodextrins Over half of all starches produced in the US is converted to syrups… SAD. Used for soft drinks, frozen desserts…. You get the gist. Starch Structure (book): - Polysaccharide- long chains of repeating glucose units - These chains are linked together by amylose or amylopectin - Amylose is made up of linear molecules and amylopectin is a highly branched molecule - Most starches contain about 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose - Starches that are entirely made of amylopectin are called WAXY starches - Amylose causes the texture differences in starch foods - Amylose causes gelling; amylopectin is non gelling Starch Structure: (slides) Amylopectin only: waxy starches High levels of amylose: gelling High levels of amylopectin: non-gelling Starch Characteristics: (book) Gelatinization- occurs when starch granules are heated in liquid; swelling and weakening and breaking of hydrogen bonds Gel formation- gelatinization must occur first; dependent on presence of amylose whereas amylopectin will not gel Retrogradation- as the gel cools, bonds keep forming between amylose and retrogradation occurs. Accelerated by freezing, frozen products are usually low in amylose like waxy corn Dextrinization- increase in sweetness- lose much of thickening power in this form Factors influencing gelatinization (slides): Water Temperature Heating time Stirring Acid Sugar Fat Resistant Starches - not digested in small intestine and does not contribute to calories. Could help with colon health, weight management, glycemic index, and blood glucose level Three types of resistant starch= 1. Physically inaccessible starch, 2. Resistant starch granules, and 3. Retrograded starch. Starch transformations: (slides) ↓ Types of Resistant Starch Physically Starch granules Seeds, legumes, inaccessible starch trapped in food that unprocessed whole are prevented from grains gelatinizing Ungelatinized Indigestible because Uncooked potato, (resistant starch of their chemical green banana flour, granules) configuration high-amylose cornstarch or grains Retrograded Heating and cooling Cooked and cooled of starches during potato, bread, processing renders cornflakes them inaccessible to enzymatic hydrolysis Modified Chemically altered Commercial starch products used in processed foods; dressings, gravies, soups Modified Starch- extending usefulness in food processing (book) - Three modified starches are: 1. cross linked starch, 2. oxidized starch, and 3. instant or pregelatinized starch o Cross linked starch- common modified starch; treated chemically to link starch molecules together with cross bridges; makes it more heat resistant and more viscous; good for pies o Oxidized starch- exposed to chemical oxidizers. Less viscous than cross-linked starches; dusting foods such as marshmallows and chewing gum o Instant or pregelatinized starches- do not have to be heated in water to expand and gel. They have already been cooked and dried. Cold milk or water can cause expanding EXAMPLE: instant pudding Sauces Intro: - Enhance food flavor, texture, moisture, and appearance - Distinguished by thickened or unthickened in the chapter - Many sauces contain starches Functions of Sauces in Foods: (slides) Moistness Flavor Texture Body appearance Types of Sauces: Thickened- Cheese sauce, white sauce, some gravies Unthickened- Hollandaise, fruit sauce, chocolate sauce, barbeque sauce, and tomato sauce Whether thick or unthick, sauces are grouped into mother sauces and small sauces derived from those. Five groups of Mother Sauces (Springboard from which other sauces are prepared): 1. Bechamel (white) sauce 2. Espagnole (brown) sauce 3. Hollandaise sauce 4. Tomato sauce 5. Veloute Sauce Adding flavor to any of these sauces will create a SMALL SAUCE… Get it? ** This chart is in the power point and the book ↓ Mother Sauce Base Small Sauce Ingredient Bechamel (white) Milk Cheddar Cheese Cream Mornay Mustard Espagnole (brown) Brown Stock Mushroom sauce Hollandaise sauce Butter Maltaise Mousseline Tomato Sauce Tomato Creole Portuguese Spanish Veloute Sauce White Stock Curry Chicken Stock Mushroom Fish Stock Herb Most mother sauces are not served by themselves, but used as a base to make small sauce. Hollandaise and tomato are the exceptional mother sauces that can be enjoyed in that form. Preparation of thickened sauces: (slides) - Ingredients: liquid, thickening agent, and seasonings/flavorings - Preparing thickeners: roux, beurre manie, and slurry - Preparing a sauce from a roux o Combining the liquid and roux o Heating the sauce o Adding seasonings/flavorings Preparation of thickened sauces: (book) Most common liquid used in sauces: White stock from chicken, veal, or fish, brown stock from beef or veal, milk, clarified butter, and tomato juice Thickening agent: wheat flour most common in America and Europe, cornstarch in china ** Dr. Byrd said in class that corn starch or tapioca is used in fruit sauces because it gives a clearer appearance, whereas wheat flour gives a cloudy appearance. This is also in the book. Seasonings/Flavorings: Most common are salt, pepper , lemon juice, cayenne, herbs and wine. Most acids are added after gelatinization because acid can break down starch. Glazes can be used as flavorings- highly flavored concentrate that congeals into a shiny, rubbery mass. Can be obtained from meat, chicken or fish stock Different types of thickeners (book and slides): Roux - White, blonde, and brown rouxs; made by cooking equal parts of flour and fat; variations in heating time changes the darkness of the color or roux. Darker the longer it cooks, and less starchy the longer it cooks Beurre manie - equal parts of butter and flour- are not cooked, whisked in bit by bit instead of adding at the beginning (like roux). Should only be used in small amounts: for example: 3 quarts of stew to 2-3 tablespoons Slurry- ** used in Chinese buffets to give food glistening look. Dr. Byrd made this in class once. Starch and a cool liquid like water. Makes a thin liquid.. added gradually. Slurry can leave behind a starchy taste and are inferior to roux-thickened Preparing thickeners: Heat sauce to boiling point and then reduce to simmer until maximum thickness is reached. Simmering the mixture for up to half an hour creates a velvety smooth texture. The initial boiling removes the starchy flavor Preventing lumps: Fat and flour in roux should be blended before adding liquid Add a small amount of sugar Mix small amount of starch vigorously with water in lidded jar before incorporating it into rest of liquid to be added to roux Preparation of unthickened sauces: (slides) Examples: gravy: degreasing, deglazing, reduction, straining, seasoning Hollandaise- use indirect heat to combine egg yoks, butter base, and lemon or vinegar Gravy- made from juices or drippings remaining in the pan- can be thickened or served unthickened which is called au jus. Step 1- Degreasing- separating liquid from fat. Several different methods Step 2- Deglaze- deglaze the pan. Water, stock, wine, beer, milk, cream, tomato juice or veggie juice—dissolve cooked on particles at bottom of pan Step 3- after deglazing comes reduction; concentrates the volume and flavor of the contents in the pan Step 4- Straining- cheesecloth, strainer, sieve, or china cap Step 5- Seasoning- last step Storage: Dry starches: store in airtight container in cool, dry place Sauces with eggs or dairy products: heat thoroughly Thickened sauces: store in refrigerator Dextrinized starch has been hydrolyzed Chapter Summary: (slides) Starch is a mainstay of many diets Found in potatoes, rice, noodles and sorghum Be knowledgeable about: The characteristics and transformations of starches The preparation of sauces Storage of starches and sauces Chapter Summary: (book) - Starches are Derived from seeds and roots of plants - Size and shape of starch granules differ according to their source - Thickening agents, edible films, sweeteners - Factors affecting gelatinization include: o Water, temperature, timing, acidity, fat/protein Sauces used in food prep: Thickened: cheese, white, some gravies Unthickened: hollandaise, butter, fruit, tartar, bbq, tomato, some gravies Five groups of mother sauce: Bechamel (white), Veloute, espagnole/brown, hollandaise, tomato Store in airtight container if dry, if milk or eggs is added to it then the refrigerator. Review Questions from the book: Amylose has a ____ structure, whereas amylopectin is ______. A. Branched, smooth B.Linear, branched C. Branched, linear D.Linear, smooth What is the word used to describe the breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter-tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat? A. Gelatinization B.Dextrinization C. Retrogradation D.Deglazing Starches that have been altered to affect their heating times, viscosity, or gelatinization are referred to as: A. Gelled starches B. Smooth Starches C. Touch starches D.Modified starches A roux is a thickener made by cooking equal parts of flour and ____ A.Fat B. Water C. Stock D.Starch What two ingredients are combined to make a slurry? A. Flour, hot water B. Flour, starch C.Starch, cool liquid D.Cool liquid, hot liquid The increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency of starch granules heated in a liquid is referred to as ___ A.Gelatinization B. Dextrinization C. Retrogradation D.Deglazing The seepage of water out of an aging gel because of the contraction of the gel is called ____ A. Gelatinization B. Dextrinization C.Retrogradation D.Deglazing Review Questions that I made up: 1. What process is used to derive starch from corn and what percentage does corn starch make up of starches in the US? A. Dry milling process: 90% B. Wet milling process: 95% C. Dry milling process: 80% D.Wet milling process: 85% 2. What is the process of adding starch + liquid + heat called to 133◦F to 167◦F called? A. Dextrinization B. Gelatinization C. Slurry D.Roux 3. Which one of these characteristics does not describe amylose? A. Branched structure B. Freezes poorly C. Comes from grain portion D.26% of most starches E. Opaque 4. Starch granules differ in _________ & __________ depending on botanical origin or source of the starch. A. Flavor and Texture B. Aroma and mouthfeel C. Size and shape D.None of the above 5. Starches that contain 99% of amylopectin are considered: A. Tough starches B. Soft starches C. High fiber starches D.Waxy starches 6. Starches containing a higher level of amylose tend to _____, whereas starches containing higher levels of amylopectin will _____ but are still somewhat gummy. A. Gel, not gel B. Not gel, gel C. Stick, not stick D.Smell, not smell 7. During the gelatinization process which one of these characteristics of starch will increase? A. Viscosity B. Volume C. Translucency D.All of the above 8. Sugar will ______ the desired temperature required in gelatinization and ______ the onset of gelatinization A. Decrease, delay B. Decrease, expedite C. Increase, delay D.Increase, expedite 9. Which characteristic of amylopectin is not correct? A. Shrinks and does not thicken well B. Comes from the root portion C. Translucent D.Highly branched structure E. Freezes well 10. Why are slurries added to foods in buffets at Asian food restaurants? A. Preserves the food for longer B. Gives the food a glossy appearance C. Makes the food smell better D.Keeps the insects off of the food 11. Which situation is an example of retrogradation? A. When a substance is brought to a boil and then brought down to a simmer B. When amylose molecules stop forming bonds C. When the world stops turning D.A dinner roll from the night before is hard since it has been cooled all night 12. Which one of these is NOT a common use for starch? A. Thickening agent B. Edible films C. Add bitter flavor D.Sweetener in the form of dextrose and syrup 13. Which type of starch is used the most by the food industry? A. Modified starch B. Resistant starch C. Wheat starch D.Corn starch 14. Which type of starch does not contribute to calories and may be helpful in improving glycemic control? A. Modified starch B. Resistant starch C. Wheat starch D.Corn starch 15. Which one of these is NOT a function of sauces? A. Add calories B. Add moisture C. Add texture D.Add appearance 16. What is a mother sauce? A. A sauce made by a head chef B. A sauce that makes you want to slap your mother C. A leading or major sauce sometimes used as a base D.A secondary sauce to the father sauces 17. Which nutrient delays gelatinization? A. Carbohydrate B. Water C. Minerals D.Fat 18. The darker the color of a roux, the _____ thickening power it will have in a sauce A. More B. Roux’s are not dark colored but always light colored C. Less D.Roux’s are equally thick regardless of its color 19. Which one of these mother sauces can be used as a sauce by itself as well as a base? A. Bechamel (white) sauce B. Veloute sauce C. Hollandaise sauce D.Tomato sauce E. C & D F. All of the above G.None of the above 20. What is the correct way to store dry starches? A. In an airtight container, In the refrigerator B. In an airtight container, In the freezer C. In an airtight container, in a cool, dry place D.All of these are appropriate 21. How should sauces that are made with eggs, milk, or cream be stored? A. At room temperature B. Sitting in a window C. Frozen D.Refrigerator 22. Which factors would not affect gelatinization? A. Water, Temperature of 133-167, pH below 4.0 B. Timing of how long you are cooking the substance C. Fat/Protein D.What color the substance is before gelatinization Answer key for questions I made up: 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. D 12. C 13. A 14. B 15. A 16. B 17. D 18. C 19. E 20. C 21. D 22. D
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