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Introduction to Theatre [THEA 10000]

by: Alisar Notetaker

Introduction to Theatre [THEA 10000] THEA 10000

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Everything you need to know about theatre at an Introduction level [Freshman]. These notes cover the following: 1. Introduction to theatre - What it is, technical terms, Plato, and the beginnin...
Introduction to Theatre
Study Guide
theatre, political, Realism, Plato, surrealism, dollshouse, domination, climax, purpose, Conflict, thesis, theme, message, bedford, spectacle, Music, thought, character, Gender, sexuality, genre, drama, Asian, american, latino, happenings, performance, ar
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisar Notetaker on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to THEA 10000 at Ithaca College taught by Dr.Dail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Theatre in Theatre at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) INTRODUCTION TO THEATRE THE PLAYWRIGHTS CRAFT • There are a lot of disagreements and a lot of grey areas. • When we privilege only written text we are ignoring 95% of all history (preliteratre) Essential Elements for Performance: — IDEA — PERFORMER — AUDIENCE — SPACE Playwright: • The person responsible in theatre for creating the central idea and realizing it through plot, characters, and dialogue. SCRIPT: • The written stage directions of a play and the dialogue spoken by characters that culminates in a story, incident, or event put into theatrical form. Necessary elements of a script: — PLOT — CHARACTER — THOUGHT — DICTION — MUSIC — SPECTACLE PLOT: — the arrangement of actions in a play or dramatic text — Three main plot structures: ¡ Climactic (also called intensive or masculine) - Intensive: Starting action starts close to climax - Masculine: Rising action leads up to a single climax, that occurs close to the beginning. ¡ Episodic (also called extensive or feminine) - Series of episodes linked by theme, with own climax, don’t need to be chronological. ¡ Cyclic (also called patterned) - Circle, came into being post ww2, because of the feeling of utility, holocaust and atomic bomb, nothing will change frustration, end the same way they begin- or don’t have resolution. Character — The qualities of the agents in the script ¡ Protagonist (main focus-revolves around) ¡ Antagonist (interrupts story) ¡ Foil (highlights the characters stories.) TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Thought: the idea a play is exploring ¡ - Theme ¡ - Conflict ¡ - Purpose Diction: — The language of the play ¡ Forms of Dramatic Speech ÷ Dialogue (exchange between 2 or more characters) ÷ Monologue (1 characters speaks lengthy passage to another character on stage, never presented out to audience) ÷ Soliloquy (character on stage alone, addressing self, god or audience.) ¡ The Diction of the play also refers to the type of language used, the rhythm/pacing of the words spoken, and the individual voices of the performers. Types of Language: — Selective Realism (culturally appropriate speech) — Heightened Realism (heightened realism- basic conversation – use of pauses, ambiguides, double meanins.) — Patterned (verse, rhymed musicals) — Surreal (breaking down or disintegration of language) Music: Purpose of Music: Evokes mood and informs the audience of their surroundings - Can be live, recorded, instrumental, singing, digital, improvisational,etc. - Surrounding, sound scrape sets the scene and mood. Spectacle: — All of the elements of a performance or production that are appealing to the eye. - LEAST IMPORTATN TO ARISTOTLE - Anything seen on stage - Masks, lighting, presence of actors and blocking as well as proximity to play. Inspiration for playwriting: — Pre-existing story — Observed Incident — News Clipping — Visual Image — Music or song — Conversation NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) 365 days/365 plays: what was your favorite and why? Genres & types Conventions: established theatrical technique or device. • Primary convention of modern western theatre: is “willing suspense of disbelief” coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1817) all other conventions stem from this. Styles: the way a play is written, directed, designed and performed. • Presentational Style: Breaking of the forth wall, acknowledging the audience. (brechtian theatre, childrens theatre, musicals) • Representational Style: pulling back the forth wall, and the audience is watching what is happening on stage, the performers never acknowledge the audience. Genre: frech word for kind or type, it signifies a distinctive class or category of play. For this course: • Tragedy • Comedy • Tragicomedy Tragedy: • A serious drama involving important persons caught in calamitous circumstances. Elements of traditional Tragedy: • Tragic flaw (Hamartia) • Prosperity to Misery & Ignorance to knowledge • Catharsis(purging of pity and fear – release of emotion) • Highborn characters accepting responsibility. • Ends in death. Modern Tragedy: • Everyday people • Bad choices instead of fate. • Protagonists don’t take responsibility for their actions. Comedy: • A humorous drama whose characters, actions, and events are intended to provoke amusement and laughter. • Harder to write. Three types of comedy: • Amusing (laughing with) – appeal to intellect, aesthetics, positive quality, large percent of chick flicks. (lettuce and lovage) TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) • Ridiculous – allows us to feel superior to another person/thing/event- not shocking. (laughing at) • Ludicrous (absurd theatre) magnify or distort reality to charecicture and excess. (Krapps last tape) ( house of blue eves) They tend to have a positive or uplifting quality. Traditional vs. Modern Comedy — Traditional: Comic protagonist is at odds with society. — Modern: The world is absurd and humor stems from placing normal people in an absurd world. th Tragicomedy (15 century form): — A Tragicomedy is an integration or fusion of serious and comic elements. — Lots of shifts in fortune — Rules of Tragicomedy: — Characters from both classes — Protagonist does not die (but another character may) — Ups and downs in the action — The “comedy” is often painful and cynical — Black comedy Heightened surrealism Selective realism- selective vernacular language. (Lady Gregory) NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) ACTORS AND ACTING Universal Qualities of Performance History • Humans are natural storytellers • All cultures have a history of storytelling, song/chant, and dance • Masquerade • Training – Apprentice – School What is an Actor? What do they do? • Embody the action • Form collaborative connections • Make the art live. • “Truthful living under imaginary circumstances” (K. Stanislavsky- Primary convention of the actor: truth) – western culture. • Creating a connection between themselves along with the audience • It is the responsibility of the actor to make the art live, and to make art live. How does an actor prepare for a role? th • External- focusing on the physicality and the voice of the character. (late 19 century) • Internal- psychological and emotional content of a character. (post 19 th century) • Integrated- combination of external and internal (common in the US), cofus on both kinds, taught in US, method acting. • “Try acting, dear boy.”- something that was said to dustin hossfan • How does an actor “find” their character? • Emotional Recall (remembering or recalling a past experience in a performers life that is similar to a characters experience in a play in order to understand the emotional and physical moment) • Observation- have not lived through, observe other people who do have similar experiences, walk, talk, interactions, people watchers. • Imagination – do not have to live as character, can imagine. Stanislavsky Acting System • Konstantin Stanislavsky (1863 – 1938) • Most taught acting method in the U.S. • An Actor Prepares, Building a Character, and Creating a Role • Stanislavski in focus –recommended book. The Stanislavsky Technique (method acting) • Being in the Moment • The Magic If • Playing the Given Circumstances • Psychophysical Action TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) • Emotional Recall Acting terminology: • Objective- what the character wants in the scene, what they are trying to achieve in a scene • Obstacle- that which blocks the character from getting to its goal. • Intention- what the character wants from another character. • Motivation – the reason • Beat Want to be an actor? • Headshot • Resume • Agent • Auditions • Pay Scale TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) DIRECTING AND DESIGNING What is a director? — The Director is responsible for pulling together the separate units of a theatrical production into a cohesive whole and unifying them and bringing them to life by their artistic vision. — The midwife or CEO of a performance — Making sure all of the components in a production adhere to the purpose of a production. — The directors analysis of the play drives the style, technical components …. Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen — First modern director (c. 1866 - 1886) — Integrated script and production elements — Eliminated “star system” — Each performer as unique character The directors five functions: — ARTISTIC UNIFICATION — REPRESENTING THE PLAYWRIGHT — REPRESENTING THE AUDIENCE — ORGANIZING A WORKING PROCESS — WORKING WITH PERFORMERS Artistic unification — Most important function of the Director — Analyze and interpret the script — Guide performers’ interpretations — Unify designers’ interpretations Representing the playwright — Respect the script — Revisionists (think that he script is open to interpretation, that it is simply the blueprint, but you will use whatever you want when you put it under construction- foundation is given, but you will do something based on your own flavor) — Collaborators (they look at the original production and try to recreate it, or try to honor it as much as possible-stick to script and original production.) — Work with playwright Representing the audience — Clarify communication — Eliminate distractions Organizing a working process — Make decisions — Oversee production budget — Prepare schedules TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) — Cast the show ^ this is all preproduction, as soon as you start talking to actors in rehearsal, that is in production. DESIGNERS AND DESIGN Six elements of design — Line (most basic continuous mark on surface) — Color (hue, light strikes object and reflects back, what does hue symbolize) — Scale (size in relation to other objects, relative relationship) — Texture (perceived or actual surface quality of an objects, relative relationship) — Movement (perceived or actual) — Light (allows audience to see, most important feature for delineating space) Set design — Fixed and movable non-human matter on stage — Understanding of structural building, carpentry, and lighting — Background in architectural design and engineering Costume design — Reveals occupation, social status, gender, age, sense of style — Clothing, wigs, and make-up — Understanding of textiles, body structure, and lighting — Background in fashion design and anatomy — Re enforce mood and style — Time, day or location. Lighting design — Anything creating light or projection on the stage — Understanding of electricity and film — Background in electrical engineering — Reinforces the style — How objects appear on stage — Time, day or location. Sound design — Audio during a performance not produced by performers/orchestra — Also responsible for performer/orchestral amplification — Background in sound/acoustical engineering — Motivates actions on stage — Indicates actions happening off stage — Establishes the time of day, weather and season. — Locate the action in a specific place. — Create mood — Stimulate the audiences expectations of what is going to happen. All designers — Experts in the general elements of their specific fields – achieved through education NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) — In-depth understanding of theatre history and play analysis — Skilled researchers — Artistic and imaginative — Collaborative MEDIATED PERFORMANCE • Or how live performance is different from film and television MEDIATED VS. LIVENESS Mediated: readily accessible, very convenient. There is something separating the mediators and audience- there is something in between. With mediated performance there is no direct action between spectator and source. How does live performance use mediated performance? Or how does theatre utilize mass media? Mass media during Performances: • Use the media within your performance. (Lori Enderson) • Digitization of the voice, creating a background. Mass media for Posterity: • Performances lost in history, because they’re not recorded. So they have started recording performances to store the performances. Mass media for Publicity. • TV, newspaper, posters. • Why have 3 vastly different ways of portraying the performance? To appeal to different audiences, to give more perspective to the performance. ( for example, picture of couple would attract those interested in Romance, couples etc) NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Elements of Mass Media (the potatoe effect – we don’t have the capacity to change a mediated performance in a live performance we do): • Infinite number of spectators • Reproducible • Immediate • Passive – one way streak. Therefore, Theatre: • Limited in spectator reach- only a certain number of people that can fit in a theatrical house. • Not reproducible (because of the audience being there and their reaction, actors respond); every performance is different. • You have to seek out theatre. • Sought out by a spectator. • Active art form. MAJOR DIFFERENCES • Editing (magic between performer and audience takes place in the editing room) • Directionality (we are guiding with where we are looking, and we are told with the camera shot what is important, whereas in theatre it takes a different focus) • Multiple Takes (best one is taken, in theatre you have one shot) • Rhythm (things can be sped up, edited, cut, reversed thus creating the rhythm/sequence of the performance) • Acting Method FILM ACTING VS. THEATRE ACTING • Rehearse a scene then film it • Rehearse a scene for a later immediately. (shoot out of order, performance. depending on location- dpesnt • Larger gestures; entire body matter where the film begins or performs and greater use of vocal ends, it’s out of order, as an actor dynamics. you don’t feel the continuity as • Actor involved in entire process. you would feel as an actor in • Many performances. theatre) • Controlled gestures and voice; mostly facial work. (sometimes you can be casted in the film, but you can be cut out, and lose your part) • Actor involved only in their specific scenes. • Film it and forget it. NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ASSIBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Actors who love the stage: "We are basically puppets, walking around, hitting marks, saying lines." – Liam Neeson, talking about film acting (The British Theatre Guide, May 1999). Actors who despise the stage: “I hate that awful feeling you have before you go onstage, that dull dread in the stomach, just like a deadness in the centre. I feel very trapped in the theatre; I can't bear to repeat things. The second night of a play I think, Oh, God - I did this last night!" (Vanity Fair, October 1996) NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) POLITICAL THEATRE What does it mean to be political? 1. Of, relating to, or dealing with the structure or affairs of government, politics, or the state. 2. Of or relating to your views about social relationships involving authority or power. 3. Based on or motivated by partisan or self-serving objectives. 4. Of or pertaining to citizens. 5. We still are involved in politics, because of where we are from. Michel Foucalt - History of sexuality. - What happens when a pencil is flat on a table? – it’s stable. - When you hold the pencil? You have power, you see things on the paper, the lead shortens and eraser. - ^ this pencil tells you that there needs to be a balance, you can’t have one with out the other, both sides have the equal amount of power. Theatre and Political Involvement: 1. Commercial Theatre – Avoids political commentary – Denies the significance of political structures 2. Theatre of Social Significance – Deals directly with social issues – Comments on real life situations and political tensions in society. – DOMESTIC DRAMAS. – Normally a comment on and contribution to a rational dialogue in real life. 3. Explicitly Political Theatre – Identifies problems and proposes strategies for solving them – Agitates for direct action by the audience. – Agitation propaganda, which identifies a problem in society and proposes political strategies for social. 4. Participatory Theatre – Mass spectacles, which invite the audience to participate as a mode of political action TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) At one extreme is commercial theatre, this extreme art and life is mutually exclusive. Political theatre: ž EMPHASIS ON THOUGHT/IDEA VS. ž EMPHASIS ON ACTION PURPOSE of both is SOCIAL CHANGE! Thought/idea focused: ž Ancient Greece to Today ž Intellectual debate ž Traditional spaces Action Focused: ž 1919 to the 1970s ž Immediate audience response ž Non-traditional spaces Advantages of Both Forms: ž Discusses vital social issues ž Challenges social norms and taboos ž Offers solutions to social issues Disadvantage of Both forms: ž Produces dated material ž Preaches to the converted ž Limited audience reach ž Offers solutions to social issues You are watching political performance if: ž Takes sides ž Questions government ž It’s timely ž Audience has a personal connection ž Audience has an immediate reaction Examples of political performances: ž The Shagami Lay Monk and the Thousand Dogs by Chikamatsu Monzaemon (Japan -1714) ž Scottsboro performed by the Workers Laboratory Theatre (New York City - 1931) TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) The Shagami Lay Monk & Thousand Dogs: • In your kitchen there is fat meat; in your stables there are fat horses. But your people have the look of hunger, and on the wilds there are those who have died of famine. This is leading on beasts to devour men. • This play directly challeneged the role of the show gun. Scottsboro: • Will you let them murder the nine Negro boys in Scottsboro? • No! No! No! • Organize, demonstrate, protest. • Raise your voices, raise your fists and scream • Stop! Stop! Stop! ž Thought or action? ž Intention? ž Social Problems? ž Specific historical moment? TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) The Golden Age of Greek Theatre (c.600 – 406 B.C.E) Why should we care? ¢ Created a model ¢ Theatre can transform society ¢ First anti-theatrical prejudice Before theatre, what? ¢ Storytelling ¢ Cult of Dionysus — Ekstasis (ecstacy in their worship, reached a point where emotions overtook them – PLATEAU felt this was dangerous.) Dithyramb ¢ A choral ode ¢ Performed by a chorus of 50 men dressed as satyrs ¢ Originally a religious ceremony ¢ Dithyramb competition. City Dionysia ¢ Much more civilized ¢ Dithyramb competitions ¢ Sponsored by choregos and archon ¢ 500 B.C.E: 3 tragedies & 1 satyr play ¢ dionysia competition. Athens ¢ Originated western theatre ¢ Most prominent Greek city-state during Golden Age ¢ Population of 150,000 ¢ Birthplace of Democracy How did it start? ¢ Arion of Methymna ¢ Thespis spoke to a choral member and thus this created dialogue ¢ 5 century provides most of our information Aeschylus Changes Everything ¢ Antagonist ¢ Props and scenery ¢ Reduces the chorus ¢ First to write down the dithyramb lyrics. ¢ This is where the AGON (debate) happens, he introduces the antagonists/protagonists. Bringing n the opposite side of the arguments. Sophocles ¢ Sophocles most highly honored Greek tragedian ¢ Third actor ¢ Chorus size: 15 ¢ Drama between humans TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) ¢ Oedipus the King Euripides Brings Tragedy Down to Earth ¢ Writes about everyday people, even women, and sometimes even slaves. ¢ Reality of war ¢ Criticizes religion ¢ Sensitive to women, slaves, & elderly ¢ Heretic ¢ Trojan Women Greek tragic flaw: ¢ Prologue ¢ Parados (entrance to the chorus) ¢ Three to Six Dramatic Scenes ¢ Stasima (separates the scenes, choral debates between chorus) ¢ Exodus What about the funny/comedy? ¢ Aristophanes- questioning what was happening in greek. ¢ Old Comedy- based on satire- mostly to make fun of people in power ¢ Lampooned those in power ¢ Lysistrata New Comedy takes over: ¢ c. 317 B.C.E New Comedy develops ¢ Menander ¢ Mistaken identity, romance, everyday characters ¢ Stock characters Out Debt to the Greek: ¢ Rules of tragedy ¢ Civically valuable ¢ Transformational and/or didactic ¢ Language and poetry (Rhetoric) as socially powerful – that words have specific meaning & power. ¢ Treated theatre as equivalent to what was happening in the assembly. Why is it the birth of political theatre? ¢ Ekstasis ¢ Citizens questioning political and social norms ¢ Dealing with its specific historical moment ¢ Theatre as a tool for social change Didaskolos: Teacher in Greek, also equivalent word to playwright. They considered their playwrights to be teachers. TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIOBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) UNITED STATES POLITICAL THEATRE DURING THE 1960S Social Influences of the 1960s } Economic Boom } Civil Rights Act } 2 Wave Feminism } Social Reforms } Race Riots } Assassinations } The Space Race } The Cold War } Vietnam War Marat/Sade } 1965 } Written by Peter Weiss } Directed by Peter Brook } Broadway production } The 1960 was not about linear plot lines. } It was about throwing as much at an audience as possible so the audience had to capture and decide what was important. Hair } Written by James Rado, Gerome Ragni, & Galt MacDermot } Off-Broadway then Broadway production } Became famous for the nude scene } Influential Non-Mainstream Groups of the 1960s } The Living Theatre } San Francisco Mime Troupe } La MaMa E.T.C } Bread and Puppet Theatre } El Teatro Campesino The living theatre: } Julian Beck & Judith Malina } Challenged traditional dramatic structures. } Spare technical aspects } Inspired much of avant-garde theatre that followed. } San Francisco Mime Troupe } R.G. Davis } Circus, vaudeville, and commedia dell’arte } Parks and non-traditional spaces } Overtly political in 1965 } Inspired El Teatro Campesino TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) } pWTpqZQ&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL08A6B16847DB1339 } less concerned with political theatre. } Founded in 1959 RG Davis –dancer & mime. La MaMa ETC } Ellen Stewart } Created a space for actors who weren’t associated with a theatre company, for them to showcase their work. } Wel known for combating censorship for Avant grade theatre in the 60s. } Springboard for many artists: Richard Forman, and Richard Sheckner. } Started in the basement of an old house. } Home of young independent artists of the 60s. } New and culturally diverse works. th st } “Who’s Who” of avant-garde 20 and 21 century theatre Bread and Puppet } Peter Schumann (background in modern dance) } Engages vital social questions } Inspires puppet creators & social activist theatre artists. } Vermont, Glover Schumann’s Beliefs on Art: } Free from references to the canon } Independent of structured training } Can improve conditions of ordinary life } Can be idealistic, address ordinary people, and encourage spiritual growth } Dedicated to social change } Believe that theatre is the ideal form to promote social change } Don’t rely on written text- everything they do is devised. } Training is not important, but respected- you can still be an artist without being trained. } Theatre/art should speak to the common man Luis Valdez & El Teatro Campesino (No saco nada de la escuela) Luis Valdez (b.1940) } Playwright and Director } Born in Delano, CA } Parents were campesinos (migrant farm workers) } Attended San Jose State } Performed with the San Francisco Mime Troupe } Formed El Teatro Campesino in support of the United Farm Workers Union } Zoot Suit (1978) one of the first plays written by a Chicano on Broadway Actos } Definition: Short collectively created pieces dramatizing social inequities } Purpose: TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) } Inspire the audience to social action } Illuminate social problems } Satirize the opposition } Hint at a solution } Express the feelings of the people No saco nada de la escuela (1969) } About the deplorable inequity in U.S. education } Employs code-switching } Plays off of obvious racial stereotypes } Utilizes both Anglo-American and Chicano (Mexican American) history El Teatro Campesino } Originally all the actors were farm workers } Theatre collective } No scenery or costumes } Signs around necks } Focus on comedy } Combination of European, Mexican, Aztec, and Mayan performance styles } Still exist today in San Juan Batista } The Ideal? “The proper political function of theatre is not to induce action, nor to propose solutions, nor even to define problems, but to induce people to define their problems themselves.” - Peter Schumann NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Classical Tropes & Subversion What is a trope? — Any literary or rhetorical device using words in other than their literal sense. — Symbolic objects and actions recalling earlier events — A common, pattern, theme, or motif — Can fall into stereotypes. Vampire Trope • Going through the tropes associated: stake to the heart, garlic, etc. Classical/Shakespearean Tropes Star Crossed Lovers ¡ Romeo and Juliet ¡ Othello Mistaken Identity ¡ Twelfth Night ¡ A Comedy of Errors City vs. Country ¡ A Midsummer Night’s Dream ¡ The Tempest Imprisonment ¡ Hamlet ¡ Measure for Measure Why are tropes positive? — (Re)affirm cultural/societal beliefs — Comforting — Greater emotional/intellectual connection Why are tropes negative? — Allow for cultural stereotyping — Make assumptions about a common worldview — Tend to be very westernized Worldview: — Right and wrong — Common sense — Natural — Social order — HERO and VILLAIN TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) How worldview is learned? — Family — Education — Language — Religion — Legal system — Media — Art & cultural representation — Theatre — Other live performance — Film How might we begin to understand the worldviews or the perspectives of others? Perspective in Theatre — WHO is telling the story? — Whose story is NOT being told? — Whose VOICE is not being heard? — How would it feel to be in HER/HIS SHOES? — How might HIS/HER STORY differ? Other reinterpretations — Gone With the Wind ¡ The Wind Done Gone ¡ The Wizard of Oz ¡ The Wiz ¡ Wicked ¡ The Tempest ¡ A Tempest West Side Story, 1961 — Jets ¡ Anglo-Americans ¡ Sharks ¡ Puerto Ricans — NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) What if West Side Story was remade from the Puerto Rican point of view? — Growing up in foreign country — Two languages — Feeling like outsider — Racism, discrimination — Poverty The Tempest vs.A Tempest William Shakespeare Prospero – powerful, benevolent magician Caliban – savage, deformed monster, slave Aimé Césaire Prospero – the exploitive white colonizer Caliban – colonized revolutionary Post-Colonial and Subaltern Voices — voices of the colonized, enslaved (Post-colonial) ¡ most African countries ¡ Latin America and Caribbean, indigenous ¡ colonized India ¡ Australian aboriginal population — voices of the marginalized, ignored (Subaltern) ¡ women ¡ immigrant groups ¡ lower economic classes ¡ other minority groups Social and Theatrical Structure of Elizabethan Theatre English Renaissance ¡ 1550s to 1642 § Elizabeth I (reigns 1558 – 1603) ▪ University Wits ▪ Thomas Kyd, John Lyly, Robert Greene, Christopher Marlowe ▪ Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) ▪ Ben Jonson NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) § James I (reigns 1603 – 1625) ▪ Jacobean Drama – cynical ▪ John Fletcher § Charles I (reigns 1625 – 1649) ▪ Caroline Drama – decadent ▪ John Ford Private vs. Public Playhouses (types of theatre) PRIVATE PLAYHOUSE § Covered § 500-1000 audience members § More expensive § Lit by candles § Evening performances PUBLIC PLAYHOUSE ¡ Open air ¡ 3000 audience members ¡ Reasonably priced ¡ Day time performances ¡ “Groundlings” ¡ much more open to the masses. Other entertainment ¡ Theatre ¡ Bearbaiting ¡ Gambling ¡ Prostitution Theatres: The Swan (1596) - Yohan de vit, is the one who gaveus the information about the formation of the stage and play The globe ¡ “Shakespeare’s Theatre” ¡ Built in 1599 § Burns down in 1613 § Rebuilt in 1614 § Pulled down in 1644 § Foundation discovered in 1989 Female memebrs of the court performed in the court. They didn’t perform in the public fr prvate playhouse. End of the English Renaissance ¡ Civil War – 1642 ¡ Parliament bans theatre ¡ Charles I beheaded – 1649 ¡ Theatres re-open in 1660 under Charles II NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ASSIGNEDBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Othello The “Moor” in Historical Context North Africa, 17 Century • Muslims ruled most of Spain “ moors” ruled most of spain. • Moors were forced to choose between baptism, exile, or death. • 1609- expulsion of Moors. • 5 years before, Shakespeare wrote OTHELLO. • Spain and Potugal begun exploration of Africa and beyond. • The word moor was just a label of where a person was from and culture, but it turned into a derogatory term. • Shakespeares use of the word moor- he was referring to a Spanish Muslim. • Shakespeare is responding to the 7 sins, in Othello, we see the 7 virtues showing up and influencing the protagonist in a physical representation. • Shakespeares characters were meant to be didactic, we constnalty try to psychoanalyse everything. • Shakespeare was trying to show human variability though the lens of human performance. • We find them inconsistent, but they are meant to be that way- more relatable, everyone has the evil in them, and people are struggling with which parts they are going to let rule us. NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Theatre and the Diaspora: Part I- Latino Theatre Defining Latino Theatre (for this class) ¢ Spanish speaking countries ¢ Playwrights live in the U.S. ¢ Affected by the sounds, images, and experiences of life in the U.S. ¢ Plays include English and Spanish. ¢ Characteristics unique to the Latino experience. — Gustavo Perez Firmat – Bilingual Blues Origins of the term Latino ¢ Back to the word Hispanic (coined by US government during 1970’s) ¢ Latino used as early as 1929- more accepted. ¢ No connection to Spain, but to its Latin American colonies. ¢ Two reasons for its widespread use: — Emphasizes the Latin American history of colonialism — It is a term of self-defined creation (unlike Hispanic) The focus of today’s lecture: ¢ Mexican–American (Chicano) — Luis Valdez (El Teatro Campesino) — Cherrie Moraga ¢ Cuban–American/Cuban Exile (Cubano) — Dolores Prida — Nilo Cruz ¢ Puerto Rican (Nuyorican-term specifically for new York city Puerto ricans) — Miguel Piñero — Puerto Rican Traveling Theatre Mexican-American Theatre History ¢ 1610 – Mexican plays performed in the U.S. Southwest. ¢ Los Tejanos, 1846 ¢ Explosion of Chicano theatre after Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles in 1943. Luis Valdez (1940) ¢ Founder of El Teatro Campesino ¢ They aren’t afraid to make a political statement. ¢ actos ¢ First Chicano writer to have a play on Broadway (Zoot Suit) ¢ The shrunken head of pancho dia – first play. Cherrie Moraga (1952) ¢ Three major themes: — Connections between women (Both Chicana and non) — Construction of gender in Chicano families — Relationship between Chicanos and their environment. TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS &BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) — GIVING UP THE GHOST - LGBT LITERATURE. Cuban-American Theatre History ¢ Plays by Cuban writers were published in the U.S. as early as 1865. ¢ Major theatrical centers pre-Revolution were Tampa and N.Y.C ¢ Genre of choice for many years: Comedy ¢ When Cuba was colonized, they couldn’t write about Cuba in any other genre but comedy. Dolores Prida (1943) ¢ Immigrated to the U.S. in 1961 ¢ Politically active ¢ Explores Cuban-American women’s quest for self-identity. ¢ Major plays: Coser y Cantar and Beautiful Señoritas MARÍA IRENE FORNES • Most famous playwright • Considered to be the foundational feminist in the US. • Fefu and her friends. Nilo Cruz (1961) ¢ First Latino to win the Pulitzer Prize ~ Anna in the Tropics. ¢ Uses visual imagery of his Cuban childhood combined with present day harsh realities. Puerto Rican Theatre History ¢ First published end of the 19 century. ¢ 50s & 60s: Explosion of Puerto Rican drama. ¢ Elements: — Experience of migration and exile — Oral tradition — African heritage Miguel Piñero (1946 - 1988) ¢ Arrested multiple times for drugs & theft. ¢ Wrote for a prison repertory group called “The Family.” ¢ Short Eyes won the Drama Desk Award ¢ Plays deal with members of the underclass. Puerto Rican Traveling Theatre ¢ Founded in 1967 by Miriam Colón Valle. ¢ Significant for bringing Latino voices to mainstream theatre. ¢ Brings theatre to economically disadvantaged youth. ¢ Impetus for creating a bilingual theatre movement in N.Y.C. ¢ Merged with Pregones Theater in 2013: — — Resulted in the leading Latino performance in New York City TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) New(er) Creators ¢ Quiara Alegria Hudes — Won the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Water by the Spoonful ¢ Lin-Manuel Miranda — In the Heights (2008) ¢ Won Tony Awards for Best Musical, Original Score, Orchestrations, & Choreography in 2008 ¢ About the multi-cultural community of Washington Heights in N.Y.C ¢ For a Bilingual Writer, ‘No One True Language’ • ate=10-17-2011 • mp3/npr/me/2011/10/20111017_me_17.mp3?dl=1 TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Theatre and the Diaspora Part III: Asian American Defining Asian American Theatre (for this class): } Performances produced by Asian American Theatre companies or Asian American playwrights in the Continental U.S. } Focusing on the Asian American regional theatrical centers of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, and NYC Laws Limiting - Asian Immigration } Page Law of 1875 } Chinese Exclusionary Law of 1882 } Immigration Act of 1924 Negative Depictions } Orphan of China (1767) } “The Chinese Lady”- Afong Moy (1834) } The Chinese Must Go (1879) } Chin Chin (1914) Influences of War } U.S. freezes Japanese assets. (July 1941) } Pearl Harbor. (December 1941) } Internment camps. (February 1942) } Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (August 1945) Emergence of Asian American Theatre } Asian American Movement } Artists of various Asian heritages joined together. } Two key coalitions formed: ◦ East West Players (EWP) in Los Angeles ◦ Oriental Actors of America (OAA) in New York City East West Players } James Hong and Beulah Quo in 1965. } Mako (Makoto Iwamatsu) was artistic director from 1965 to 1989. } Premiere Asian American theatre in the U.S. Oriental Actors of America } Primarily a political group } Protested casting practices } Prosecuted Lincoln Center } Changed name to: ◦ Theater for Asian American Performing Artists (TAAPA) Asian American Theatre Companies } East West Players } Asian American Theatre Company } Pan Asian Repertory Theatre } National Asian American Theater Company NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS &BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) } Over 70 Asian American theatre companies operate in the continental United States. Asian American Theatre Company (1973) } San Francisco } Frank Chin } A writer’s theatre } “Through live performances that express the diversity of Asian American experiences, we seek to enrich American theater and increase the presence of Asian American stories on stage.” Pan Asian Repertory Theatre (1983) } New York City } Tisa Chang } Mission: ◦ Producing new plays about contemporary Asian American themes. ◦ Incorporating traditional Asian performance styles, music, and movement. National Asian American Theatre Company (1989) } New York City } Richard Eng & Mia Katigbak } European and U.S. plays with all Asian American casts. } Adaptations of Western “classics.” Frank Chin (1940) } Major plays: ◦ Chickencoop Chinaman (1971) ◦ Year of the Dragon (1974) } Artistic beliefs: ◦ Playwright is the central visionary ◦ Plays reflect the emotion and language of their culture ◦ Experimental work has literary/artistic merit Philip Kan Gotanda (1951) } Major plays: ◦ The Avocado Kid or Zen in the Art of Guacamole (1979) ◦ The Wash (1985) ◦ After the War (2007) } “Diminished, misunderstood, or ignored”aspects of Japanese-Americans David Henry Hwang (1957) } Major plays: ◦ F.O.B (1980) ◦ M. Butterfly (1988) ◦ Flower Drum Song (2002) } Key to his success: ◦ Right place/Right time NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ASSIGNED TBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) ◦ Combining Eastern and Western visual and storytelling techniques Velina Hasu Houston (1957) } Major plays: ◦ Asa Ga Kimashita (1982) ◦ Tea (1983) ◦ Messy Utopia (2006) } Stories and struggles of (predominantly) Asian American women. } She is Japanese African American. She felt that other Asian American playwrights felt that she was diluting Asian American culture with her work. } But because she lived the life she lived in tea, secluded military town, she really is culturally acutely aware of what it means to be Japanese American. Asian American theatre world treated them like family. Silk Road Rising } Originally the Silk Road Theatre Project } Started in 2002 } Inspired by the events and aftermath of 9/11 } Purpose: supporting playwrights of Asian, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean backgrounds } The DNA Trail (2010) NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS &BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) INTRODUCTION TO REALISM Historical Backdrop • Year of Revolution (1848) o Italy, France, Germany, Poland and Brazil • Desire for political, social & economic reform • Industrial Revolution • The rise of Science and Empiricism § Observation and experience § Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy, Evolutionism, and Socialism Non-Theatrical Influences of Realism August Comte - (1798 – 1857) - “Father of Sociology” Karl Marx- (1818 – 1883) - The Communist Manifesto (1848) Charles Darwin- (1809 – 1892) - Origin of the Species (1859) - Expanded human understanding of evolution, which in turn inspired Realism Theatrical Predecessors • Victor Hugo o Hernani (1830) § Romanticism vs. Neo-classicism § Caused massive riots • Melodrama • Eugène Scribe o well-made play formula • Alexander Dumas fils o Camille (1849) th Major 19 Century Realist Playwrights • Henrik Ibsen o (1828-1906) o A Doll’s House (1879) • August Strindberg o (1849 – 1912) o Miss Julie (1888) • Anton Chekhov TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS &BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) o (1860 – 1904) o The Three Sisters (1901) • George Bernard Shaw o (1856 – 1950) o Mrs. Warren’s Profession (1902) Basic Tenets of Realism • Truth is found in material objects • Truth is verifiable through scientific reasoning • The scientific method will solve social problems • The observation of human problems denotes the highest level of scientific/theatrical practice • The purpose of art is to better (hu)mankind Changes in Staging Practices • Transition to intimate theatre spaces • Three-dimensional scenery • Natural voices and blocking • Fourth wall • The “real thing” onstage. • 1500 people turn to 500 peopl. TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS &BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) FEMINIST THEATRE DEFINGING FEMINISM: ¨ Feminism: Belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. ¨ Three basic types of feminism: ¡ Liberal: Human Universality: Women & men working in the same system, and making it equal for everyone. Stresses women’s equality with men based on universal values. Work for improvement within the system. ¡ Radical: Biological Difference: believe the system itself is corrupt and women should start their own society, because they create life, they believe women are better than men. That revolution needs to occur for change to happen. They stress the biggest difference between the two are the biology. ¡ Materialist: Gender as a Cultural Construct: believe women are not one way and man another, because of biology rather they believe its culture/society. They analyze women as a class, and gender a construct. They minimize the biological differences; they are neo Marxist. Literary Influences on A Doll’s House ¨ Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792): right to an equal education. ¨ John Stuart Mill’s The Subjection of Women (1869) ¨ Maria Eugenia Echenique’s The Emancipation of Women (1876) U.S. Women’s History: First Wave of Feminism ¨ 1848 – First Seneca Falls Convention ¨ 1890 – Wyoming becomes the first state allowing women the vote. ¨ 1900 – Married women allowed some property rights ¨ 1918 – N.Y. state legalizes contraception use in marriage ¨ 1920 – 19 Amendment is ratified. All U.S. women granted suffrage. What is Feminist Theatre? • Feminist theatre is a performance informed and created by the feminist perspectives of its artists, spectators, and critics. • The goal is a re-evaluation or changing of the roles/status of women in society. U.S. Women’s History:Second Wave of Feminism ¨ 1963 – Equal Pay Act ¨ 1964 – Civil Rights Act ¨ 1965 – Regulations on women’s work overturned ¨ 1972 – Title IX/ Use of contraceptives for unmarried individuals legalized ¨ 1973 – Roe v. Wade ¨ 1974 – Women’s Educational Equity Act ¨ 1978 – Pregnancy Discrimination Act NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ASSIGNEBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) ¨ 1993 – Family and Medical Leave Act A Doll’s House (1879) ¨ Why is it Realism? ¨ Social problem addressing? ¨ What type of feminism does the play promote? ¨ Is the play still relevant in today’s society? ¨ Why isn’t it Feminist Theatre? NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) QUEER THEATRE History of Sexuality • Theatre has always challenged sexual norms • Karoly Maria Benkert – in the late 19 century coined the term homosexual • Faults (1906) by Herbert Hirschberg Four Strands of Queer Theatre • Self-Hatred/Self-Doubt ▫ 1930s – 1950s • Activist ▫ 1960s – 1990s • Celebratory ▫ 1990s • Anti-Violence ▫ 1990s – Today Self-Hatred/Self-Doubt • The queer character always dies. • Characters are despised/questioned by self and others for their “difference.” ▫ The Children’s Hour (1934) lilian helman ▫ Cry Havoc (1942) ▫ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955) Activist • Stems from the Stonewall Riot, Gay Liberation Movement, and AIDS activism ▫ AIDS/US (1986) ▫ Angels in America (1993) ▫ Split Britches (1980) Celebratory • Acceptance of non-white queer voices into queer theatre • Celebrates queer community ▫ Love! Valour! Compassion! (1995) ▫ Rent (1996) ▫ Pomo Afro Homos (1991) Anti-Violence • Reaction to a surge in violence during the 90s • Supports federal hate-crime legislation that includes sexual orientation ▫ Stop Kiss (1998) ▫ The Laramie Project (2001) • Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act • Most well known for the creation of a piece titled Interior Scroll Carolee Schneeman. TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONSBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) REACTION TO REALISM Context ž Early to Mid 20 Century ž Post Industrial Revolution ž Questions primacy of Science ž War — WWI (1914-1918) — WWII (1939-1945) Things to Consider When Examining “The Isms” ž Purpose of Art? ž Appropriate Subject(s) ž Effect on Perceiver/Audience Member ž Relationship between Art and Social Reality ž Relationship between Form and Content ž “Truth” Where is it Located? Theatrical Avant-Garde ž Rebellion against society and culture ž Directly reacting to Realism ž Belief in Subjective Truth(s) ž Manifestoes ž Pushes the boundaries ž Pro war. Symbolism (Late 1800s-Early 1900s) ž Superficially resembles Realism ž Not interested in the subconscious, it’s all about how you stage the play. ž All in the production values. ž An emphasis on production & using codes to speak to an audience. ž Playwrights: Chekhov, Ibsen, Maeterlinck ž EXAMPLE: A scream at night might represent death. The breaking of violin strings may represent the end of an era. Futurism (1909-1930s) ž Filippo Marinetti ž One occurred in Italy and one in Russia. ž Anti-historical and anti-establishment ž Political ž Extreme Audience Confrontation ž Glorification of… — Future — Technology — Speed — Aggression Pieces called Syntesi. TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Dada (1916-1920) ž Started in Zurich (neutral nation in WWI) ž Tristan Tzara ž Random and Spontaneous ž Devalue language ž Extreme audience confrontation ž Apolitical, but anti-war (Strong antiwar sentiment.) based on spontaneity and randomness. ž Dada – opened a French dictionary and picked a random word. ž Spoken language is deceptive. Gadji beri bimba By Hugo Ball gadji beri bimba glandridi laula lonni cadori gadjama gramma berida bimbala glandri galassassa laulitalomini gadji beri bin blassa glassala laula lonni cadorsu sassala bim gadjama tuffm i zimzalla binban gligla wowolimai bin beri ban o katalominai rhinozerossola hopsamen laulitalomini hoooo gadjama rhinozerossola hopsamen bluku terullala blaulala loooo Characteristics of Surrealism ž Realized in Film and Visual Arts ž Juxtaposed Images ž Makes the Familiar Strange ž Absolute Dream Reality ž Subconscious Absurdism (1940-1960) TH NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ABOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) ž Post WWII ž Primarily in Theatre ž Inspired by Existentialism — Humans simply exist- Not born with Purpose- have to devise it ourselves. — Create Your Own Meaning — Camus, Kierkegaard, Sartre Characteristics of Absurdist Theatre ž Violent and grotesque ž Comedic Form ž Devaluation for language- language has lost it’s meaning- use sounds for meaning. ž Rejects causality and resolution (cyclic plot) ž Open to interpretation ž Playwrights: Eugene Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet Experimental theatre: 1. Laurie Anderson: This artist explores ideas of racial politics in her scaled down mixed media performances. NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & ASBOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) Happenings, Performance Art, and Solo Performance Happenings • Happenings: events that happened without frames, plots, or marks of traditional arts. • Heyday during the 50s and early 60s • Coined the term - Allan Kaprow • Purpose: Demystify art and debunk the establishment. • Performed by anyone. • Inspired by Dada, collage and drip artists, the Bauhaus, modern dance, and Surrealism Qualities of Happenings • Erases/Challenges line between art and life • De-emphasizes traditional arts • Simultaneous performances in different places • Performance times are varied and non-sequential • Performed only once • No audience, only participants • Sequence of events occurs by chance Jim Dine The Smiling Workman (1960) “I love what I’m…” Performance Art • Term first used around 1970 • Interdisciplinary • Postmodern • Artists use themselves as material • More Visual vs. Verbal • More Process vs. Performance • Traditional and Non-traditional performance spaces • A merging of Happenings, fine arts, and danc. • Focus on the relative truths and subjectivity. Performance Art Techniques • Body as Art • Living Sculpture NOTES ARE FROM TEACHERS PRESENTATIONS & BOOK (BEDFORD INTRO TO DRAMA: COMPACT (P) Edition: 7 ) • Instructions and questions • Body in Space • Ritual • Autobiography • Life Style • Live/Living Art • Physical Theatre • Mixed Media Solo Performance • Performer as main creator • Exceedingly well crafted, though often seems spontaneous • Emphasis on storytelling and character • Demands the active involvement of the audience. • Performance focused • Is a part of every cultural history N.E.A Four • 1990 • Artists Involved: – Karen Finley – Tim Miller – Holly Hughes – John Fleck • Allowed for a discussion on censorship, decency, and federal arts funding • The available NEA program funds for 2014: $124,740,722 National Funding for the Arts • In October 2012, NEA inaugurated a partnership with the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to measure the American creative sector on a macroeconomic level for the first time. The BEA created an Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account to calculate the arts and culture sector’s contributions to the Gross Domestic Project (GDP), reflecting the research office’s agenda to see how the arts affect various aspects of human life. Among the new estimates for 2012 (the most recent year for which they have data), the arts and culture production contributed more than $698 billion to the U.S. economy, or 4.32 percent of GDP, more than construction or transportation and warehousing. Approximately 4.7 million workers were employed in the production of arts and cultural goods, receiving $334.9 billion in compensation. Artist arrested for attaching ‘Frank’ to a part of their anatomy and performing the work in front of the Eiffel Tower: Steven Cohen


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