Genetics BIOL 2012 Study Guide Test 1
Genetics BIOL 2012 Study Guide Test 1 BIOL 2012
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chris Bonty on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2012 at a university taught by Bethany Zolman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Genetics study guide test 1 Things to know: - 3 levels of genetic transmission - Parent to offspring (transmission genetics) - DNA/Gene action within and between cells (molecular developmental genetics) - Over generations with in a population. (Population-evolutionary genetics) - Blending theory: -Somatic cells: -Gametes: - Central Dogma: -Regulatory Elements: -Gene Expression: - Amino acids: -DNA Replication: -Transcription: -Codon: - Model Organism: -DNA Polymerases: -Nucleases: -Ligases: - Transformation: - Genetically Modified organism (GMO): - DNA sequencing: - Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs): - De novo mutations: - Point Mutations: -Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL): -Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs -Germline: - Genome: -Karyotype: - Purines: - Pyrimidines: - Nucleotide: - Chargaff’s rule: -Methods of DNA Replication (conservative/dispersive/semiconservative): Replication fork: Okazaki fragment: - Tautomerization: - Tautomers: - Replisome: -Beta clamp: - Processive enzyme: - Single Strand Binding proteins(SSBs): - Helicases: - Topoisomerases: - Difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic replication: - Daughter molecules: - Cell phases: - Origin Recognition process ORC’s: - Telomeres: - Telomerase: - Poly morphisms: -Tyrosinase: - Threshold trait: - Categorized trait: - Stature/Continuous trait/strand: -Dimer: - Discontinuous strand: - Transcription Bubble - Termination site: - (UTR) untranslated region: -Promoter: - Hair pen loop: - Consensus sequence: -(TF’s) Transcription factors: - CTD Carboxyl Terminal domain: - Capping enzymes: - Spliceosome: - Splicing: - Proteins, Enzymes, and their functions - DNA polymerases along w/ (pol 1/pol 3): - Primers: - Primosomes: - Sigma 70: - Alternative splicing messenger: - RNA World Theory: -TATA Box: - (TBP) TATA Binding Protein: - (GTF’s) General Transcription Factors: - Elongation: - Initiation: - Upstream: - Downstream: - Coding strand: - Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): - Micro RNA(miRNA): - Small interfering RNA (siRNA’s): - Long noncoding RNA (lnRNA): - Transcript RNA (tRNA): - Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - Messenger RNA (mRNA): - Functional RNA: -Know how to read pedigrees, diagrams, and how some of the experiments of previous great scientist turned out, Also how processes occur differently in prokaryotes v.s. Eukaryotes 1) What 3 key parts must heredity material possess? 2) What traits are required of a model organism (3+)? 3) What 3 main components make up DNA 4) Which bases are Purines and which bases are pyrimidines? 5) Which base pair has 3 H- bonds? Which has 2? Which is more stable(hard to separate)? 6) What is the key differences between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase? 7) How do promoters Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes differ in gene regulation methods? 8) What problems would an individual have with DNA synthesis if they had a telomere mutation and why? 9) What would happen if we had a topoisomerase mutation and why? 10) If a bacterium’s DNA polymerase synthesizes one strand of DNA at a rate of 50,000 bases per minute, has 5 replication forks (A normal bacteria has only 2) and the bacteria replicates every 50 minutes. Calculate # of nucleotides in the bacterial Chromosome. 11) What direction does RNA polymerase synthesize? 12) What chemical bonds are in a DNA double Helix? 13) What would happen if Sigma 70 was inhibited? 14) Why is RNA produced only from the Template strand and not both? 15) What is the importance of the Beta clamp? 16) What are G-U bonds great for in RNA? 17) Below is a diagram of a newly-formed replication fork. • Draw the new strands, including the polarities (5' and 3') of the daughter strands and arrows to indicate in which direction they are elongating. • Indicate the direction of replication fork movement. • Draw the positions of helicase, topoisomerase, and single stranded binding proteins. • Add labels for the leading strand, lagging strand, Okazaki fragment, and the origin of replication ANSWER KEY 1-16 1) - Every cell must have same genetic makeup (allow faithful replication) - Must encode for proteins (informational content) - Must be able to change/mutate 2) Small, In expensive, Easy to maintain, Short generation turn over/life cycle, small genome, easy to mate/cross hopefully high # of offspring. 3) - Shape double helix - Held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases of each pair - Deoxyribose sugar units connected by phosphodiester linkages 4) - 2 bases A & G are purines (double ringed structures) - 2 bases C & T are pyrimidines (single ring structure) 5) - G-C base pairs have 3 H bonds while A-T pairs have only 2 - G-C is more stable 6) - Key difference between RNA (can start new chain de novo) and DNA polymerase (elongates DNA strands cant start them) 7) Eukaryotes have 1 promoter per gene while prokaryotes may have 3 genes per promoter. 8) .Because Telomere are the repetitive Nucleotide sequences at the end of the DNA sequence that protects the chromosome from deterioration and problem fusing 9) If this enzyme was to malfunction we would supercoils accumulate resulting in chromosomal instability also do the singled stranded breaks that form we may see DNA fragmentation, thus halting DNA replication. Topoisomerase is a protein that relaxes and unwinds the DNA. 10) 50,000 x 50 x 10 = 25,000,000 11) Only in the 5`-3` direction 12) H- bonds along with phosphodiester and triester bonds 13) Sigma 70 is required for the initiation of RNA synthesis and this protein enables RNA polymerase to bind to gene promoters. So if this protein was having issues, RNA polymerase may start having issues binding to gene promoters and RNA synthesis may slow down drastically or come to a complete stop. 14) RNA polymerase only synthesizes in the 5`-3` direction so it will always choose the inverted strand (the template) 15) Beta clamp holds enzymes on to DNA so they can be continuous and copy thousands of nucleotide versus only 10 or 20. 16) G-U bonds are great for structural support in RNA and create the ability for RNA to fold
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