EBIO Lecture 3 Exam Study Guide
EBIO Lecture 3 Exam Study Guide EBIO 1010-02
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Lecture Exam 3 Study Guide Kingdom Fungi Introduction to Plantae Bryophytes Introduction to Tracheophytes and Pterophytes. Kingdom Fungi Defining Fungi ● Singlecelled (yeast) or multicellular ● Sexual or asexual reproduction ● Extract and absorb nutrients from their surroundings ● Closest kingdom related to animals Anatomy: ● Grow in hypha (hyphae pl.) tangle of tiny filaments ○ What is the benefit? Enormous surface area for digestion ● Mycelium mass of connected hyphae ● Fungal walls include chitin (yes, the same stuff found in exoskeletons of arthropods) ○ In contrast: cell wall of a plant or protist cell is composed of cellulose ● Septum cross walls separating the hyphae ○ BUT there is usually an opening between 2 cells/the septum isn’t complete which explains why fungi grow so quickly→ cytoplasm can stream quickly back and forth, carrying nutrients to the growing tips of hyphae Reproductive Cycle: ● Fungi nucleus is typically haploid (1n) ● Only the zygote is diploid (2n) ● Diploid zygote divides by meiosis to form haploid species ● Spores germinate into haploid hyphae Hyphae may have more than one nucleus: ● Monokaryotic 1 nucleus ● Dikaryoti 2 nuclei Sometimes many nuclei intermingle in the common cytoplasm of the fungal mycelium ● Heterokaryotic nuclei from genetically distinct individuals ● Homokaryotic nuclei are genetically similar to one another Capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction ● Sexual reproduction ○ Fusion of two haploid hyphae of compatible mating types ■ Results in a diploid (2n) cell ○ May form mushrooms or puffballs ● Spores are the most common means of reproduction among fungi ○ May form from sexual or asexual processes ○ Most are dispersed by the wind Nutrition ● Heterotrophic usuallyarasiteor aprobes(organisms that get their nutrients from dead or decaying matter) ● All fungal digestioextracellul fungal strands secrete digestive enzymes to dissolve its food ● Obtain food by secreting digestive enzymes into surroundings and then absorb the organic molecules produced by this external digestion ● Fungi can break down cellulose and lignin ○ Decompose wood ○ Some fungi are carnivorous ● Fungi absorb their digested food directly through their cell walls ● Many species are predators: ○ Fire tiny missiles at passing prey ○ Stun prey with toxic chemicals ○ Enter as tightly wound coil, explosively expand to scramble interior of host Phylum Chytridiomycota → Chytridiomycetes or Chytrids. ● Aquatic, flagellated fungi ● Closely related to ancestral fungi ● Mave motilezoospores (spores with flagella for movement) Phylum Zygomycota Bread molds ● Fungi that produces zygotes ● Lack septa in hyphae except when reproducing ● Not monophyleti still under research ● Sexual reproduction ○ Fusion of gametangia forygosporangium ○ Haploid nuclei faryogamy) to form diploid (2n) zygote nucleus ○ Zygosporangium develops and inside the zygospore develops ○ Meiosis followed mitosis occurs during germination of zygospore ■ Releases haploid spores ● Asexual Reproduction is more common ○ Sporangiosporeshave sporangia that release spores Phylum Glomeromycota ● Glomeromycetes are a tiny group of fungi ● Form intracellular associations with plant roorbuscular mycorrhizae ○ This is a type of symbiosis ○ Mutualism ■ Fungus cannot survive without the host plant ● Fungus gets carbohydrates and plant gets phosphorus ○ Potentially capable of increasing crop yields with lower phosphate and energy inputs ○ Important for evolution of land plants ○ No above ground fruiting structures Phylum Basidiomycota mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, etc. ● Basidiomycetes are some of the most familiar fungi ● Many are food source for people ○ Some, on the other hand, are hallucinogenic or deadly poisonous ● Named for basidium clubshaped sexual reproductive structure ● Reproduction: ○ Karyogamy occurs within basidia ■ Only diploid cell in life cycle ○ Meiosis follows ○ The four haploid products are incorporated into basidiospores ○ Spore germination leads to the production of monokaryotic hyphae ■ Results imonokaryotic mycelium, or primary mycelium ○ Different types of monokaryotic hyphae may fuse ■ Results inaikaryotic myceliu or secondary mycelium ■ Heterokaryotic mycelium ■ Basidiocarps(mushrooms) are formed entirely of secondary mycelium Phylum Ascomycota yeasts, common molds cup fungi, truffles, and morels ● Serious plant pathogens ● Penicil(used in antibiotic medicines) is produced by genus Penicillium ● Named forascus microscopic, saclike reproductive structure ○ Karyogamy occurs within asci ■ Only diploid nucleus of life cycle ○ Asci differentiate in ascocarp ○ Meiosis and mitosis follow, producing 8 haploid nuclei that become walled ascospores ● Asexual reproduction ○ Conidia formed at the ends of modified hyphae called conidiophores ○ Allow for rapid colonization of a new food source Yeast ● Unicellular ● Most reproduce asexually via budding ● Yeasts can ferment carbohydrates ○ Break down glucose into ethanol and CO2 ○ Used to make bread, beer, and wine ● Used for genetic researchfirst eukaryotes to be manipulated extensively ○ Saccharomyces cerevisiaewas the first eukaryote to have genome sequenced Ecology ● Principal decomposers ● Fungi symbiosis ○ Obligate symbiosis essential for fungus’s survival ○ Facultative symbiosis nonessential ● Interactions ○ Pathogenetic pathogens harm host by causing disease ○ Parasitic cause harm to host (but do not cause disease) ○ Commensal relationships benefit one partner but does not harm the other ○ Mutualistic relationships benefit both partners ■ Lichens ● Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner (usually green algae or cyanobacteria) ○ Usually ascomycetes ● Unable to grow normally without the photosynthetic partner ● Sensitive to pollutants Economic Importance edible, fermentation, used in making many cheeses Agricultural Importance many fungi are agricultural pests Medical Importance fungal diseases (yeast infections, ringworm), fungal antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin), psychoactive drugs ● Fungal diseases are difficult to treat because of the close phylogenetic relationship between fungi and animals Ecological Importance primary planetecomposers. Only fungi can digest lignin (the substance that gives wood its stiffness) Here’s the TED talk video on fungus that we watched in lab! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI5frPV58tY Introduction to Plantae Origin of Land Plants ● All green algae and the land plants shared a common ancestor a little over 1 BYA ○ Not all photoautotrophs are plants because red and brown algae are excluded ● A single species of freshwater green algae gave rise to the entire terrestrial plant lineage ○ Split into two major clades ■ Chlorophytes never made it to land ■ Charophytes sister to all land plants ○ Land plants… ■ Have multicellular haploid and diploid stages (haplodiplontic) ■ Trend toward more diploid embryo protection ■ Trend toward smaller haploid stage (gametophyte stage) Adaptations to Terrestrial Life ● Protection from desiccation ○ Waxy cuticle and stomata ● Moving water through the body ○ Tracheophytes have tracheids ■ Xylem takes water from the roots to the leaves ■ Phloem takes photosynthetic nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant ● Dealing with UV radiation caused mutations ○ Shift to a dominant diploid generation ● Haplodiplontic life cyalternation of generatio ) ○ Multicellular diploid stage sporophyte ■ Produces haploid spores via meiosis ■ Diploid spore mother cells (sporocytes) undergo meiosis in sporangia ● Produce 4 haploid spores→ first cells of gametophyte generation ○ Multicellular haploid stage gametophyte ■ Spores divide by mitosis ■ Produces gametes by mitosis ■ Gametes fuse (fertilization) to form diploid zygote ● First cell of next sporophyte generation ■ Gametangia that make sperm cellsntheridi look different than those that make egg cellrchegonia) Alternation of Generations So, all plants have an alternation of generations. This idea was incredibly confusing to me at first because the teacher was like “the plant’s offspring are different organisms” and I’m here like “well how is this different from any other reproductive cycle because I really hope my children are different organisms from me also”. But the way that I think of it now is that it would be like I had a kid and they were super different looking from me and functioned differently from me but then my kid’s offspring (so my grandchildren) would have similar anatomy and function to my own. That’s kind of how plants work. The offspring of the sporophyte is a gametophyte; the two have different anatomy and function. And then that gametophyte’s offspring is a sporophyte. Basic Plant Anatomy: ● Vascular Plant ○ Root system (anchor) ○ Shoot system (support) ● 3 basic tissue types ○ Dermal outer protective cover ○ Ground function in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion ○ Vascular conducts fluids and dissolved substances throughout the plant body ● Tissues consist of one or more cell types ● Tissue systems – each of these tissue types extends through root and shoot systems ● Meristems→ undifferentiated cells that can divide infinitely and give rise to many types of differentiated cells… they’re like stem cells for plants ○ Extension of shoot and root systems produced pical meristems ■ Located at tips of stems and roots and is covered by a root cap or leaf primordia for protection Vascular tissue ● Xylem principal waterconducting tissue. Also conducts inorganic ions such as nitrates, and supports the plant body ○ Vessels continuous tubes of dead cylindrical cells arranged endtoend ○ Tracheids dead cells that taper at the end and overlap one another ○ Transpiration diffusion of water vapor from plant ● Phloem principal foodconducting tissue in vascular plants Roots→ 4 parts: root cap, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of maturation Stems→ support, undergo growth from cell division in apical and lateral stems, develop into leaves, other shoots, and even flowers Leaves→ initiated as primordia by the apical meristems, principal site of photosynthesis, determinate in structure (growth stops at maturity) ● 2 different morphological groups ○ Microphyll leaf with one vein branching from the stem and not extending the entire length (Phylum Lycophyta, whisk ferns) ○ Megaphylls several to many veins Bryophytes ● Lack vascular tissue Primitive traits: ● Rely primarily on diffusion ● Limited to moist environments ● Bryophytes need water to reproduc sperm are flagellated and must swim to the egg ● Lack a true rootshoot syst roots are tiny rhizoids (epidermal cells that anchor the plant to the soil) ● Sporophytes are not free living Lifecycle ● The leafy green plant we think of as “mossametophyte generation ● The sporophyte generation is not freeliving→ grows out of the tissues of the gametophyte and depends on its parent for nutrition Gametophyte is dominant Phylum Bryophyta Mosses ● Moss species ar ioeciou(distinct male and female plants) ○ Male have antheridia at the top ○ Female have archegonia at the top ● Mosses can reproduce sexually or asexually (by fragmentation) ● Ecological importance ○ Retains moisture and nutrients in ecosystems ○ Functions as a seedbed for higher plants ○ Most abundant plant in polar ecosystems ● Life Cycle: ○ Gametophyte is the dominant stage ■ Spores germinate into tiny green threadsrotonema(looks like green algae) ■ Buds develop into adult gametophytes Phylum Hepaticophyta Liverworts ● Lobes suggest the shape of a liver ● Simplest bodies of any green plant. Looks like a flat scaly leaf with prominent lobes ● Store food as oil, not starch ● Some lack stomata and waxy cuticle ● Life cycle ○ Similar to mossesGametophyte is dominant stage ○ Archegonia hang from the underside of tiny umbrellas ○ Can grow vegetative buds calleemmae cups that break off and grow into a new plant Phylum Anthocerophyta Hornworts ● Gametophytes look like liverworts, but send up a tiny mosslike sporophyte ● More closely related to mosses, because they have stomata ● Symbiotic with cyanobacteriawhich fix nitrogen for the hornworts Introduction to Tracheophytes and Pterophytes Tracheophyte Plants ● Cooksonia the first vascular land plant arose 420 MYA ○ Only a few centimeters tall without roots or leaves ● Anatomy ○ Xylem conducts water and dissolved materials from the roots to the rest of the plant ○ Phloem conducts sucrose and hormones throughout the plant ● Vascular systems allow for enhanced size and height ○ Develops in sporophyte but not gametophyte Heterosporous plants produce two different type of spores (few ferns; all seed plants) ● Megaspore grows into female gametophyte ● Microspore grows into male gametophyte Homosporous plants produce a single type of spores (most ferns and allies) Evolution from aquatic to truly terrestrial plants ● Evolution of the spore was the key to the bryophytes’ emergence onto land ● Evolution of vascular tissue and seeds let tracheophytes become fully terrestrial ● Euphylls→ true leaves. Evolved as a response to global environmental change. A web of tissue stretched between small terminal branches Many similarities to bryophytes ● Ferns and fern allies have freeswimming flagellated sperm, larger nonmotile egg ● Sperm must swim through water, so ferns and allies are limited to moist environment ● Sporophyte develops directly from the gametophyte Differences between bryophytes and ferns ● Sporophyte is the dominant stage in ferns ● Ferns and fern allies monoecious antheridia and archegonia on same plant ● Gametophytes are freeliving plants, very small, only develop in moist areas ● Sporangia attached to sporophylls ● Sporophylls organized into clubshaptrobilus ● Plant growth assisted rhizomes, modified underground stems that help spread it around Strobilus Phylum Lycophyta Club Mosses ● Sister group to ferns and other fern allies ● Tropical species are mostepiphytes(plants that grow on other plants) ● Temperate species grow in forest understory in small clusters ● Lycophylls (microphylls) small, simple leaf with one vascular strand (vein) ● Have sporophylls organized introbili ○ These fall to the ground when ripe and release spores ● Gametophytes are independent, freeliving, look nothing like the parent plant Phylum Sphenophyta Horsetails ● Closely related ferns ● Equisetum is the only surviving genus of this phylum ○ May be the oldest living plant on Earth ● Anatomy ○ Leaves are little more than flattened stems ○ Hollow stems are ribbed, jointed, whorl of leaves arise at each joint ○ Stems are very rough to the touch ○ Highly branched vegetative stalks (look like a horse’s tail) ○ Unbranched reproductive stalks, tipped with a large strobilus bearing sporangia ○ Homosporous spores dispersed by elater (like little springs that launch the spores), develop into a tiny green gametophyte Phylum Psilophyta Whisk Ferns ● Closely related to ferns ● Only living vascular plants that lack true leaves or true roots ● Found in tropical, subtropical habitats, and is a common weed in greenhouses ● Small sporangia are bright yellow, form along the upper stems ● Gametophytes are tiny threadlike plants that lack chlorophyll ○ Symbiosis with fungi to get nutrients Phylum Pterophyta ferns ● Clusters of sporangia are cor (sorus) ● Sorus often protected by an umbrellalike structure called an ndusium ● Mostly homosporous, though some are heterosporous ● Fern life cycle differs from that of a moss→ much greater development, independence, and dominance of the sporophyteGametophyte lacks vascular tissue ○ Spores germinate into a tiny heartshaped autotrophic gametophyte callrothallus ○ Archegonia and antheridia on lower surface archegonia at the notch of the heart, antheridia near the rhizoids ○ Sperm swims across to reach the egg ○ Early stage of sporophyte is caiddleheadbecause it looks like the spiral on a violin Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Seed plants ● First fully terrestrial plants ○ Sperm no longer needs water to reach the egg ○ Seeds keep embryos from drying up ○ Seeds can be modified for dispersal ● No longer rely on flagellated sperm to reproduce→ pollen grain moves through the air to reach the egg. Pollen grain is carried by wind, water, and animals (pollinators) ● All adult sporophytes of seed plants, like those of primitive plants, produce haploid spores by meiosis ● All seed plants are heterosporous ● Spores develop from a spore mother cell ○ Microsporesdevelop in a microsporangia, from a microscope mother cell ○ Megaspores develop in a megasporangia, from a megaspore mother cell ● Spores develop into tiny gametophytes, smaller than those of ferns and fern allies ○ Microsporesdevelop into male gametophytes ○ Megaspores develop into female gametophytes ● Sporophyte is the dominant generation Seed ● Embryo protected byntegument ○ An extra layer or two of sporophyte tissue ○ Hardens into seed coat ● Megasporangium divides by meiosis inside ovule to produce haploid megaspore ● Megaspore produces egg that combines with sperm to form zygote ● Also contains food supply for the embryo ● The seeds allow the embryo to be dormant 2 gendered gametophytes ● Male→ pollen grains. Dispersed by a wind of pollinator. No need for water ● Female→ develop within an ovule. Enclosed within diploid sporophyte in angiosperms Gymnosperms ● Plants with “naked seeds” ● 4 living groups ● Lack flowers and fruits ● Have ovule exposed on a scale (modified leaf) Phylum Coniferophyta pines, spruces, firs, cedars, and others ● Coastal redwood tallest living vascular plant (100 meters) ● Bristlecone pine oldest living tree (4,900 years) ● Found in colder and sometimes drier regions of the world ● Gametophytes ○ male→ pollen grains ■ Develop from microspores in male cones by meiosis ○ Female ■ Pine cones form on the upper branches of the same tree ■ Larger than males and have woody scales ■ Two ovules develop on each scale ● Each ovule contains a megasporangium ○ Each megasporangium will become a female gametophyte Phylum Cycadophyta Cycads ● Sporophytes resemble palm trees ● Palmlike shrubs and trees, with crown of very thick leaves atop unbranched stems ● Dioecious, separate male and female plants ● Leaves are incredibly well defended ○ Sharp tips on leaves. Toxic secondary compounds, including neurotoxins and carcinogens Phylum Gnetophyta ● Xerophytes plants adapted to arid conditions ● Only gymnosperms with vessels in their xylem ● Ephedra, like whisk fern, is a “stem plant”, photosynthetic with no leaves ○ Source of the drugphedrine… pulled from markets in 2004 because it was causing strokes and heart attacks in diet pills ● Common in deserts of the American West and Mexico, grows everywhere except Australia Phylum Ginkophyta ● Only one living species remains Ginko biloba ● Dioecious male and female reproductive structures form on different trees ● Seeds are covered by a fleshy coat ○ The Ginko Conspiracy… They removed the female ginko tree that shades Tulane’s President’s fancy Lexus… Angiosperms Flowers house the gametophyte generation ● Morphology: ○ Modified stems bearing modified leaves ○ Primordium develops into a bud at the end of a stal edicel the p ○ Pedicel expands at the tip to form a receptacle, to which other parts attached ○ Flower parts are organized in circles called whorls ■ Outermost whorepals ■ Second whorletals ■ Third whortamens(androecium) ● Pollen is the male gametophyte ● Each stamen has a pollenbeanthe and afilamen (stalk) ■ Innermost whorynoecium/carpel ● Consists of one or more carpels ● House the female gametophyte ○ Ovule enclosed in diploid tissue at the time of pollination, develop into seed ○ Carpel a modified leaf that covers seeds, develops into fruit wall ■ 3 major regions: ● Ovary swollen base containing ovules ● Stigma tip where pollen lands ● Styl neck or stalk Phylum Anthophyta ● Water lilies one of the first clades to evolve ● Angiosperms quickly became the dominant plants, although gymnosperms continue to rule in cold, dry, or sandy habitats ● Oldest known angiosperm rchaefructu. Discovered in mainland China ● Flowering plants are superior competitors ○ Able to survive in a greater variety of habitats ○ Mature more quickly ○ Produce greater number of seeds ○ Fruit for seed dispersal ○ Widerbore vessels to conduct water ○ Animals aid in pollination can survive as small scattered populations, whereas windpollinated species need dense populations ● Can be perennials or annuals ● Leaves are thin blades, diversity of shapes Coevolution occurs when an evolutionary change in one organism leads to an evolutionary change in another organism that interacts with it ● Evolution of fruit dispersal aligns with evolution of animal population ○ Fruits function to disperse seeds→ animals eat fruit, but don’t digest seeds ○ Tiny hooks and spines attach to animal ○ Also dispersed by wind or water ● Flowers that rely on animal pollination have showy petals to attract the pollinators… advertise their reward of nectar, sugar water, to attract pollinators Flowering plants go to great lengths to avoid pollinating themselves ● Chemical pollen and ovule are chemically incompatible ● Architectural stamens and stigma are arranged to avoid contact ● Temporal pollen and stigma mature at different times Seeds are an important adaptation ● They maintain dormancy under unfavorable conditions ● They protect the young plant when it is most vulnerable ● They provide food for the embryo until it can produce its own food ● They facilitate dispersal of the embryo Fruits ● Contain 3 genotypes ● Most simply defined as mature ovaries (carpels) ● During seed formation, the flower ovary begins to develop into fruit ● It is possible for fruits to develop without seed development ○ Bananas are propagated asexually ● Dispersal: ○ Ingestion and transportation by birds or other vertebrates ○ Hitching a ride with hooked spines on birds and mammals ○ Burial in caches by herbivores ○ Blowing in the wind ○ Floating and drifting on water Angiosperm Reproduction ● Singlemegaspore mother cell in ovuleundergoes meiosis ○ Produces 4 megaspores ■ 3 disappear ■ Nucleus of remaining megaspore divides mitotically ● Daughter nuclei divide to produce 8 haploid nuclei ○ 2 groups of 4 ● Integuments become seed coat ○ Form micropyle ● Embryo sac= female gametophyte ○ 8 nuclei in 7 cells ○ 8 haploid daughter nuclei (2 groups of 4) ■ 1 from each group of 4 migrates toward center ● Functions as polar nuclei may fuse ■ Egg ● 1 cell in group closest to micropyle ● Other 2 are synergids ■ Antipodals ● 3 cells at other end ● Pollen production occurs in the anthers ○ Diploid microspore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce four haploid microspores ○ Binucleate microspores become pollen grains ● Pollination ○ Mechanical transfer of pollen from anther to stigma ○ Pollen grains develop a pollen tube that is guided to the embryo sac ○ One of the two pollen grain cells lags behind ■ This generative cell divides to produce two sperm cells ■ No flagella on sperm ● Double Fertilization ○ One sperm unites with egg to form the diploid zygote ○ Other sperm unites with the two polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm ■ Provides nutrients to embryo ● Sporophytes form sporangia ○ Stamens are highly modified sporophylls ○ Sporangia are located on the stamens, inside the anthers. Each anther holds four microsporangia ● Microspore mother cell divides by meiosis to form four haploid microspores ○ Each microspore develops into a multicellular pollen grain ○ Pollen grains are the male gametophytes ○ Microspore divides into a tube cell (will form pollen tube) and a sperm cell (nucleus will act as sperm) ● Mature male gametophyte is reduced to only three cells ● Double Fertilization!!! ● Life cycle: Monocots and icots ● Many ways to tell them apart at a glance ○ surest way is to plant one, and see how many seed leotyledons) come up ● If a single seed leaf emerges from the seed, it’s a monocot ● If two seed leaves emerge from the seed, it’s a dicot There are many other ways to tell monocots and dicots apart ● Monocots have flower parts in 3’s or multiples of 3 (3 petals, 3 stamens, etc.) ● Dicots have flower parts in 4’s, 5’s, or multiples of 4 and 5 ● Leaf venation: dicots usually have netlike venation and monocots usually have parallel venation ● Organization of the vascular bundles Test Content: 20 fill in the blank Features of fungi and plants Taxonomy About 15 multiple choice 10 matching Fungi and plant reproduction and life cycle He’ll give you a term and you match it to which phylum it’s in Short answer response (very short answer) About 25 points Fungus and plant structure Alternation of generations and general reduction in gametophyte generation Taxonomy and characteristics of fungi and plants Evolution and adaptations of plants Life cycles: Know structures and features of each phylum. Compare and contrast ife cycle Taxonomy: Kingdom Fungi Phylum Gloceromycota Phylum Basidiomycota Phylum Zygomycota Phylum Ascomycota Kingdom Plantae Bryophytes need water to reproduce Phylum Bryophyta ground mosses Phylum Hepaticophyta liverworts Phylum Anthocerophyta hornworts (I remember this because tric eratops have horns Tracheophytes: have vascular tissue Ferns and Fern Allies: no true root/shoot system. Still need water to reproduce Phylum Lycophyta club mosses Phylum Sphenophyta horsetails Phylum Psilophyta whisk ferns Phylum Pterophyta true ferns Gymnosperms: “naked seed” plants have true root/shoot system Phylum Coniferophyta conifers. Evergreens. Cones for gametangia Phylum Gnetophyta desert plants. ephedra. Phylum Cycadophyta cycads. Like little palm trees. Phylum Ginkophyta ginkos Angiosperms: flowering and fruits Phylum Anthophyta double fertilization creates fruit Practice Test Multiple Choice: 1. A mass of hyphae in a fungus is commonly referred to as a(n) a. Mycelium b. Mycorrhizae c. Conidium d. Sporangium e. Ascus 2. The cell walls of fungi are made up of polysaccharides including a. Polyglycans b. Phospholipids c. Bilipid layers d. Glycolipids e. Chitin 3. What are found in archegonia? a. Eggs b. Zygotes c. Sperm d. Spores e. None of the above 4. Which of the following plant phyla consists of plants that lack a vascular system? a. Coniferophyta b. Gnetophyta c. Anthophyta d. Bryophyta e. Pterophyta 5. What is the function of xylem tissue? a. To transport carbohydrates b. To transport chloroplasts c. To transport water and dissolved nutrients d. To transport children to school e. To transport meristems 6. What is the function of the sori found on the underside of fern fronds? a. Gas exchange b. Preventing excessive water loss c. They contain the spores d. They aid in photosynthesis e. Sori have no known function 7. Approximately how many extant species are in the phylum Ginkophyta? a. 1 b. 10 c. 100 d. 1,000 e. 10,000 8. Ephedrine is a stimulant that is derived from a species of which phylum? a. Hepaticophyta b. Coniferophyta c. Pterophyta d. Gnetophyta e. Gingophyta 9. What does it mean if a plant is dioecious? a. There is double fertilization of the embryo. b. Pollination and fertilization are separate events. c. There are separate male and female sporophytes. d. The sporophyte and the gametophyte are on the same plant. e. It is heterosporous 10. All species of Phylum Anthophyta have a. nectaries b. animal pollinators c. scented flowers d. fleshy fruits for dispersal e. ovules enclosed in carpels 11. Why is external water not essential for fertilization in seed plants? a. The sperm cells in seed plants are capable of resisting desiccation. b. Seed plants use pollen instead of sperm for fertilization. c. Pollen grains are transported by wind or an animal. d. Sperm cells are used to transport pollen to the archegonia. e. Ovules are contained within the pollen. 12. Pollen comes from the a. Carpel b. Petal c. Stigma d. Anther e. Style 13. Double fertilization occurs when a. the sperm and tube nuclei fertilize the egg. b. two sperm cells fertilize the two polar nuclei. c. one sperm fuses with the egg and the other sperm fuses with both polar nuclei. d. the polar nuclei fuse with the egg after it has fused with the sperm. e. None of the above. 14. Some species of mosses and liverworts can reproduce asexually by producing little vegetative buds in ________ that can grow into new gametophytes. a. Sporangia b. Sporophyte c. Archegonia d. Gemmae cups e. None of the above 15. A tracheophyte is any plant that has a. Stoma b. Seeds c. Flagellated sperm d. Vascular tissue e. Guard cells 16. Brewer’s yeast and the antibiotic producing fungus, Penicillium, are members of this phylum a. Ascomycota b. Basidiomycota c. Chytridiomycota d. Glomeromycota e. Zygomycota ShortAnswer questions 1. Describe how fungal mitosis is different from animal mitosis. 2. Define mycorrhizae. Which phylum of fungi forms a mycorrhizal association with plants? 3. Review the life cycle of Zygomycota. What is a gametangium? A zygosporangium? 4. How is the function of fungi and bacteria similar in many ecosystems? 5. Describe alternation of generations in plants. Sketch the plant life cycle and label two life stages and two cell processes. 6. What is produced in a gametangium? A sporangium? Which process of cell division occurs in each structure? 7. Review the life cycle of Phylum Bryophyta. Elaborate on your discussion from question 5. 8. Compare and contrast the morphology of the three moss phyla: Bryophyta, Hepaticophyta, and Anthocerophyta.. 9. What are two ways bryophytes and pterophytes are similar and two ways they are different? 10. Review the life cycle of Phylum Pterophyta. What is a prothallus, a fiddlehead? 11. Compare and contrast the morphology of the gametophyte plant in the phyla Bryophyta and Pterophyta. 12. How does the pine tree (Coniferophyta) life cycle differ from the life cycle of ferns (Pterophyta) and mosses (Bryophyta)? How are these life cycles similar? 13. What is the importance of seeds and fruits to plants? 14. Explain the process of double fertilization and the formation of the endosperm. 15. Compare and contrast the four phyla of gymnosperm plants. 16. What are the four whorls of a flower and the function of each? Answer Key: 1. A 2. E 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. C 11. C 12. D 13. C 14. D 15. D 16. A Short Answer: 1. Describe how fungal mitosis is different from animal mitosis. Fungi nucleus is typically haploid (1n) Only the zygote is diploid (2n) Hyphae can have more than one nucleus Monokaryotic 1 nucleus Dikaryotic 2 nuclei 2. Define mycorrhizae. Which phylum of fungi forms a mycorrhizal association with plants? Glomeromycota form intracellular associations with plant roots crbuscular mycorrhizae ■ This is a type of symbiosis ■ Mutualism ● Fungus cannot survive without the host plant ○ Fungus gets carbohydrates and plant gets phosphorus ■ Potentially capable of increasing crop yields with lower phosphate and energy inputs ■ Important for evolution of land plants 3. Review the life cycle of Zygomycota. What is a gametangium? A zygosporangium? ● Sexual reproduction ○ Fusion of gametangia forms a ygosporangium ○ Haploid nuclei fusearyogamy) to form diploid (2n) zygote nucleus ○ Zygosporangium develops and inside the zygospore develops ○ Meiosis followed mitosis occurs during germination of zygospore ■ Releases haploid spores ● Asexual Reproduction is more common ○ Sporangiospores have sporangia that release spores 4. How is the function of fungi and bacteria similar in many ecosystems? They are decomposers!!! 5. Describe alternation of generations in plants. Sketch the plant life cycle and label two life stages and two cell processes. Alternation of generations is the alternation between the sporophyte and gametophyte stages in Kingdom Plantae. 6. What is produced in a gametangium? A sporangium? Which process of cell division occurs in each structure? The gametangium produces gametes which fuse into a sporangia zygote and the sporangium produces spores that grow into the gametangia 7. Review the life cycle of Phylum Bryophyta. Elaborate on your discussion from question 5. In Phylum Bryophyta, the gametophyte stage is dominant (the “moss”) and then a sporophyte grows out of the gametophyte. Spores form in the sporangia and then are released to grow into gametangia. 8. Compare and contrast the morphology of the three moss phyla: Bryophyta, Hepaticophyta, and Anthocerophyta. ● Bryophyta: “moss” gametophyte and little stemlooking thing is the sporophyte ● Hepaticophyta: liverworts. gametophyte looks like waxy leaves and the sporophyte looks like an umbrella ● Anthocerophyta: hornworts. Have a liverwort morphology in the gametophyte stage and a moss’s morphology for the sporophyte 9. What are two ways bryophytes and pterophytes are similar and two ways they are different? ● Similarities: they still need water to reproduce because the sperm are flagellated. They use spores. Both do not have true rootshoot systems ● Differences: bryophyte gametophyte stage is dominant while pterophyte sporophyte stage is dominant. Pterophytes are vascular plants. 10. Review the life cycle of Phylum Pterophyta. What is a prothallus, a fiddlehead? ● Prothallus: gametophyte stage. Looks like a little heart ● Fiddlehead: a young fern leaf. Looks like the spiral on a violin 11. Compare and contrast the morphology of the gametophyte plant in the phyla Bryophyta and Pterophyta. ● Bryophyta: dominant. Large and widespread. Moss. ● Pterophyta: microscopic. Nondominant stage. Looks like a heart. 12. How does the pine tree (Coniferophyta) life cycle differ from the life cycle of ferns (Pterophyta) and mosses (Bryophyta)? How are these life cycles similar? ● Coniferophyta have separate male and female structures for producing the gametophytes. The gametophytes become a seed. 13. What is the importance of seeds and fruits to plants? ● Seeds: ○ They maintain dormancy under unfavorable conditions ○ They protect the young plant when it is most vulnerable ○ They provide food for the embryo until it can produce its own food ○ They facilitate dispersal of the embryo ● Fruit: ○ Entices animals to eat them and after digestion and defecation, the seeds will be viable for growth ○ Provides nutrients to the seed 14. Explain the process of double fertilization and the formation of the endosperm. Each pollen particle has two sperms. When the pollen lands on the stigma, one sperm travels down the style and fertilizes the egg in the flower’s ovary. The other sperm fertilizes the two polar cells in the flower’s ovary which creates a 3n cell. The 3n cell divides and becomes the carpel (the fruit part of the plant) while the 2n zygote develops into the seed. 15. Compare and contrast the four phyla of gymnosperm plants. ● Coniferophyta: forms pine cones as the female gametangium. Monoecious. ● Cycadophyta: look like small palm trees. These bad boys are literally all over campus. They are dioecious which means that there are distinct male and gametophyte plants ● Gnetophyta: ephedra. Have evolved to thrive in hot, arid environments. Dioecious. ● Ginkophyta: ginko trees. Only one species in the phylum. dioecious. 16. What are the four whorls of a flower and the function of each? ● Flower parts are organized in circles called whorls ○ Outermost whorl epals ○ Second whorl etals ○ Third whortamens(androecium) ■ Pollen is the male gametophyte ■ Each stamen has a pollenbeanthe and afilamen (stalk) ○ Innermost whorynoecium/carpel ■ Consists of one or more carpels ■ House the female gametophyte
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