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INTA 3231 Final Study Guide

by: Emma Browning

INTA 3231 Final Study Guide INTA 3231 A

Emma Browning

GPA 4.0

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Completed term list of everything on the Government and Politics of Japan final. Contains everything from the modern history of Japan to the current governmental system.
Gov't & Politics-Japan
Dr. Brian Woodall
Study Guide
International Affairs Government Politics Japan
50 ?




Popular in Gov't & Politics-Japan

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Browning on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INTA 3231 A at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Dr. Brian Woodall in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Gov't & Politics-Japan in International Studies at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Government and Politics of Japan Test 2 Study Guide: 1947 (MacArthur) Constitution – new constitution of Japan, at first Matsumoto was supposed to write it but Macarthur was like “no, the emperor can’t be sovereign and we need to do other stuff” so he appointed Whitney to write the constitution (organized people into 8 subcommittees), abolished war, no peerage, British budget system, forced democracy on Japan while making them ratify it so it seemed like their idea, emperor not sovereign but figurehead, freedom of religion/fair elections/universal suffrage/no discrimination/bicameral diet with house of reps and house of councilors, proportional voting system, article 9, PM and Cabinet must be civilian, both houses elected The 1955 System – LDP merges the Liberal Party and Japan Democratic Party to unite against the Japan Socialist/Communist left and right merger, ends up ruling politics kinda through the 70s until 1993, LDP cabinets, 1.5 party system, LDP MPs=ex-bureaucrats/career politicians 1960 Security Treaty crisis – people thought Japan was too dependent on the US for security, protest mounts but LDP wins vote, still more demonstrations afterward, PM stabbed and head JSP guy killed (Japan gets more latitude for military, still under US Nuclear umbrella), main oppositions from students/left because Kishi wanted to revise Article 9 (left embraced Article 9) Article 9 – controversial part of Japanese constitution, constitutionally abolishes having a military (really, outlawing war, period) Critical juncture – an outside event that happens that demands immediate, completely different reforms that change the path of a country (contrasted with tipping point, which is a lot of little things adding up) Democratic Party of Japan – centrist party founded in 1998, beat LDP in House of Reps in 2009, twisted diet period, 2009-2012, did progressive measures like free high school, unemployment insurance; platform is pro-food safety, environment, eliminate inequalities; people are not very experienced in leadership Ikeda Hayato – career bureaucrat, business first, got to be Minister of Finance really quickly, singled out for promotion by Yoshida, PM 1960-64, implemented Dodge line, income-doubling plan actually work, in high-growth years, followed Kishi as PM (after Mutual Security Crisis turned things around), investment into growth industries Institution – humanly devised constraint that structures behavior, produces winners and losers (has tensions and distribution of consequences) Institutionalization – the process of adopting reforms into the already existing institution so that it becomes a part of society (in a structured/highly formalized system Nobusuke Kishi – PM 1957-60, “reform bureaucrat” who wanted state guiding the economy, financial/economic manager for Manchukuo, let him go before trials, helped organize LDP merger, thought Mutual Security Treaty went too far, rammed through Diet and signed unpopular security treaty for security crisis LDP – Liberal Democratic Party, created when Liberal and Democratic Party merge to fight off the Japan Socialist party merging, was super huge and had control over Japan from 1955 when it was created through to the 1990s, and again now (more conservative party, extremely favors business over people’s rights), “phantom party” with no grassroots support (support for candidates, not party), “federation of factions” that endorse candidates, allocate posts and funds, and do constituent services (still had plurality in the 1970s) Lockheed Scandal – Lockheed sent people to Japan to get them to buy the L-1011, $3 million sent in bribes to PM Tanaka, lots of other people, Tanaka eventually resigns after money veins from his dummy companies went to LDP candidates, also general contractors scandal, recruit scandal, Sagawa scandal (all through 70s to 90s, associated with LDP, led to lack of faith in LDP (also wouldn’t reform electoral system, LDP split and some created their own political parties and no confidence vote happened) Mutual Security treaty – between US and Japan, right after SFPeaceTreaty, basically lets the US take control of Japanese defense since they can’t have their own army, US keeps military bases in Japan like Okinawa Nixon Shocks – Nixon takes America off the gold standard, which means that since Japan’s exchange rate is fixed to America’s, Japan’s is now floating, too, Japan had to prevent the Yen from increasing in value and had to buy $1.3 billion, Japan banks couldn’t stop yen from appreciating against dollar and therefore hurting exports, led to halt in economic growth, him negotiating with actual China when US had earlier told Japan to recognize Chiang-Kai-Shek government by SFPeaceTreaty (Taiwan) which was pretty embarrassing Oil Shocks – 1973, OPEC announces oil embargo against US and its allies (including Japan), oil prices go up a lot, really hurts Japan economic growth, Japan’s economy shifts towards electronics and automobiles (away from oil-intensive industries), opens door for career politicians to do more lobbying and be more important because no more immediate budget growth Okinawa reversion – Kishi and Sato PMs “selling thread to buy rope” (restricting textiles to America to buy back control of Okinawa), Nixon stops exports since the South was unhappy with the textile competition, eventually treaty signed to give Japan control of Okinawa back Ozawa Ichiro – “shadow shogun” career politician who founded parties, last LDP PM during the 1955 system, left LDP because of corruption and founded New Frontier party, modal personality of new change agent of anti-LDPers Policy Tribes (Zoku) – kinda like caucuses or iron triangles, groups of LDP members would have particular expertise in an area and just dominate that area in policy and lawmaking, ran by career politicians (expertise by being Ministers or on Diet Committees), deal with policy, acquire a lot of knowledge Postal privatization – people in the triangle didn’t want it privatized because they were benefitting, but it was wasteful, barely won in non-LDP controlled lower house but lost in LDP controlled upper house because postal workers did a lot of lobbying, postal rebels in LDP expelled during new elections, postal service privatized Presidential system – opposite of parliamentary system, where executive branch is separate from legislative and the head of government and head of state are the same person, executive is elected, legislature can’t really dismiss them Koizumi Junichiro – PM during twisted diets, tried to reign in debt, targeted postal iron triangle, legend of Koizumi stuff, POSTAL PRIVATIZATION, lipstick assassins to get rid of LDP defectors Yoshida Shigeru – PM 1946-47, 48-54, one man Yoshida (very autocratic, kinda rude to people (called diet guy a fool)), San Francisco peace treaty (signed/negotiated), Mutual Security Treaty, MacArthur Constitution, in charge during occupation, replaced by Hatoyama in the middle (promised to give it back to Hatoyama since he was purged but that really didn’t happen), ousted in 1954 Westminster model – kind of parliamentary system with a bicameral system (lower house and upper house), prime minister supported by the parliament, separate head of state, lower house can do confidence motions or rejecting a budget Twisted Diet – period from 2007 to 2012 where one major party would control one of the bicameral houses, leading to gridlock and nothing happening Tanaka Kakuei – example of career politician in power, PM 1972-74, politician for 42 years, big on pork spending (build tunnel for 200 snowed in people), “kingmaker” (specialist for every policy), lots of public works; PORK BARREL, LDP, Lockheed Scandal Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers – aka General Headquarters, MacArthur’s title, viewed as imperial force in Japan, also included officers of occupation until Japan Constitution ratified and government back to being stable Self-defense forces – Japan is allowed to have its own “self-defense” military forces, established in 1954, manage internal affairs, Socialist parties against it because they’re pacifist Sato Eisaku – PM 1964-67/70, bureaucrat, Administrative Vice Minister of Finance (big deal because it’s a pretty high position), dealt with Okinawa issues and Okinawa reversion (accused of selling out textile industry to buy back Okinawa sovereignty, agreed to export restrictions on Japanese textiles), struck deal with US to get control back, won Nobel Prize for Peace (nuclear principles), dealt with Nixon shocks San Francisco Peace Treaty – peace treaty between Japan and America, ends Japan being imperialist power, compensation to POWs, returned sovereignty to Japan, legal status of Taiwan (recognizing as China, not actual Mao Zedong government), ends occupation of Japan, 1951 Parliamentary system – system where the executive comes from, and is accountable to, the legislature (a parliament) so the executive and legislature are extremely interconnected; head of state different from head of government 3.11 – March 11, 2011, the date of the Fukushima disaster in Japan. The nuclear reactor was damaged from a massive earthquake/tsunami, which then caused the old reactors to all melt down. Due to poor handling of the crisis, lots of people lost faith in the government. 1% ceiling – it was announced in 1976 by PM Takeo that self-defense force spending would never exceed 1% of the total GDP; this was observed until the mid-80s, but is back today (even though Japan has one of the biggest military budgets in the world) Abe Shinzo – current Prime Minister of Japan, in LDP, (2006-2007, 2012-present), has had lots of problems (affiliation with Nippon Kaigi, Yasukuni shrine incident, etc), career politician, negotiator for hostages, “Abenomics” (fiscal stimulus, monetary easing, structural reforms, stop inflation), security policy, first LDP-er after DPJ in charge) Administrative Vice Minister (jimujikan) – each ministry has multiple bureaus and multiple sections, but used to be only three people from government overseeing – one minister and two vice ministers (one of whom in charge of administration), now different (see bottom of doc) Agricultural cooperative (nokyo) – organized collectives of farms (lots and lots of people in Japan are farmers); one of the most important lobbyists in Japan (LDP likes to listen to them) Aso Taro – PM 2008-2009, also in Nippon Kaigi, very conservative, reading mistakes, in LDP, couldn’t “read the air”, related to Yoshida Shigeru Bubble economy – 1986 to 1991, real estate and stock prices hugely inflated (also crazy money supply) C Northcote Parkinson – British naval historian who came up with Parkinson’s Law after observing the British Colonial Office’s size through the years Cabinet – executive branch of government, consists of PM and his own handpicked advisors; cabinet has to all resign if no-confidence vote passes Cabinet government – a government where executive power resides in a cabinet of ministers who are individually and collectively responsible to the Diet Cabinet minister – member of the cabinet, picked by minister (usually from his party) from the bureaucracy or legislature Civil Society – society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity (start of civil society = start of pollution Diet/stop being developmental state); one of three domains in government (state, business, civil society (people, NGOs, etc.)) Clean Government party – originally the political arm of a religious sect of Buddhism; supports the LDP and is part of its coalition, platform based on humanitarianism, centrist/right, Dango system – competitive bidding system for construction projects in the government, very corrupt, not really successful collusion (only ten firms designated to bid, there’s incentives to cheat, taking turns) Deliberative Council (shingikai)– groups of non-bureaucrat people (like professors/well-known people) within the bureaucracy who actually do all the policy writing/advising; lots of different councils for each ministry, in reality they’re controlled by the bureaucracy (members chosen by bureaucracy) Descent from Heaven (Amakudari) – career bureaucrats retire early (around age 50), then descend into corporations, quasi public institutions, and elective politics (the corporations with the retired bureaucrats usually get lots of subsidies/projects/other government perks) Developmental state – from 1945 to 1970, Japan was in the process of redeveloping after WWII – bureaucrats were in charge, the focus was on building the economy, and things got very polluted Duverger’s law – number of relevant/active political parties = number of members in a district plus one Emperor – head of state of Japan; no longer considered divine Emperor Akihito – current Emperor of Japan Export friction – Japan produces so many exports (through Priority Production System) that especially in the area of textiles, cars, and semiconductors, there’s disagreements with the countries they export to (because Japanese stuff is so cheap it messes with the local economies) Factions (LDP) – LDP is a “federation of factions”; since the party is so huge and there’s multiple members per district, the factions have to distinguish themselves somehow (by being slightly more conservative or liberal than the others), offer lots of services to followers of faction Federation of Economic Organizations (keidanren) – voice of big business, accelerate economy, one of three major economic organizations, interest group, LDP supports them, industry associations have representatives at keidanren Four great pollution diseases – including cadmium poisoning, methylmercury, and sulfur dioxide, due to improper handling of industrial waste during developmental state era, led to public awareness and more environmental regulations being put in place (pollution Diet) Fukuda Yasuo – PM 2007-2008 (LDP), one of the Obochan (related to other PMs) Futenma Air Base – on Okinawa, very close to civilian populations so lots of controversy on if it should be moved, flights causing noise/airplane crash Girard Incident – 1957; American military officer shoots and kills woman picking up shell casings, demoted in rank to private Government rice price setting – government bans rice imports from other countries and sets the price for rice really high so there can be food security/quality control, Japanese government will buy rice at that price, farmers votes for LDP Hatoyama Yukio – PM 2009-2010, AKA E.T., from DPJ (first one), close to China and US, lots of education policy Head of government – chief of executive branch, presides over cabinet, implements laws and supervises bureaucracy Head of state – chief public representative, ceremonial role, sometimes can sign off on bills, in Parliamentary separate from head of government Henry Kissinger – important to Nixon shocks/oil shocks, really intertwined with Nixon Intra-party Factions – factions within a party that help distinguish candidates, especially in the case of the LDP where the main party in power has no competition but still needs to run against itself Japan Communist Party – obvious what it stands for, still a slightly relevant party in Japan but is really small, defends Article 9 but still wants Japanese sovereignty, illegal until 1946, been around forever, furthest left Japan Socialist Party – has like five people in the diet, defends Article 9, opposes supporting US< carbon tax, pro-environment, used to be more important (were what caused the LDP to merge together to stop the giant JSP block) Kan Naoto – PM 2010-2011, while minister of health admitted to HIV-tainted blood, DPJ, bad China relations b/c Senkaku, PM for 3.11 Kasumigaseki - district in Japan, figuratively refers to bureaucracy in general Lost decades – 1990 to 2010, basically after bubble burst the GDP fell and price levels stagnated while real wages fell, so just the meh recession time Lucky Dragon incident – first American military scandal post-WWII; 1954 by Bikini Atoll, the US did nuclear tests and Japanese fishermen happened to be there Market access friction – hard to enter Japanese markets, especially in construction, because everything is so institutionalized Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry(METI) – created after 2001 Central Government Reform, controls industrial/trade policies, energy security, arms exports, liberal atmosphere, organized into Bureaus, equivalent is DoC and DoD, basically just oversee industry and grow industry Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)– ran most of Japanese industrial policy, was absorbed into METI in 2001, regulator on industry, foreign policy complements domestic interests, does same stuff as METI Ministry of Munitions – created in 1943 to support Japan’s war effort, wanted to increase aircraft productions, minister = Tojo, deputy = Nobusuke Kishi, absorbed into MITI after WWII Miyazawa Kiichi – PM 1991-1993, Bush threw up on him, did financial reforms after bubble collapse, deals with LDP scandal, let Japan send peacekeeping forces oversees, got busted in financial scandal and no-confidence resigned, last LDP PM before coalition government Nakasone Yasuhiro – PM 1982-1987, improved relations with China/USSR, best buddies with Reagan, seen by some as too militaristic, privatized Japan rail; deregulation, Japanese Reagan basically National Diet (kokkai) – Japan’s bicameral legislature (House of Representatives/Councillors), chooses PM Noda Yishihiko – PM 2011-2012, DPJ, phased out nuclear power, entered negotiations in Trans-Pacific Partnership, dealt with some Senkaku Islands (bought the islands from people), last DPJ PM Northern Territories – disputed territory between Japan, Russia, and some Ainu; SF Peace Treaty said Japan couldn’t claim them but didn’t say Russia could, and Japan says specific islands are still theirs Nuclear Regulation Authority – established in 2012 to ensure nuclear safety after Fukushima (not under authority of METI from Nuclear Safety Commission), has a bit more power, not under METI (that was conflict of interest because METI wants to grow business), safety and industry separated (METI=industrial promotion, safety = Ministry of Environment), actually have been pretty tough Parkinson’s Laws – bureaucracy always gets bitter (multiplication of subordinates and work) Parliamentary Secretary – part of political oversight of ministries, under senior vice ministers (MAX POLITICAL OVERSIGHT OF MINISTRIES NOW IS 6) Personal Support Organization – campaign organization for an individual politician; LDP most famous for them, collect money and votes; only work because LDP doesn’t have grassroots support Phantom party – LDP has no real grassroots support for its party; people will support individual people running for office but the party has no real “feet” PKO Bill –1992 after 1991 Gulf War, lets SDF perform duties of Peacekeeping Forces for UN, people thought that sending Japanese military overseas wasn’t good, thought it wasn’t really helping domestic security Pollution Diet – in 1970, people started to push back on environmental issues, causing the diet to pass 14 laws at once to combat pollution, ended up cleaning up a lot of Japan’s pollution Postal family/triangle – postmasters – diet – bureaucracy, all really linked so made postal privatization really hard Press clubs – sometimes you have to be in a press club to get access to certain news conferences, back in the late 1800s members of the press were required to be in a club, now it’s more open, Prime Minister – head of government in Japan, chosen from Diet Priority Production System – after WWII, government would target and develop key industries to help the developmental state grow Regulatory Capture – political corruption in regulatory agency where it listens to special interest groups from the sector it’s actually trying to regulate Richard Nixon – did Nixon shocks on Japan (Nixon takes America off the gold standard, which means that since Japan’s exchange rate is fixed to America’s, Japan’s is now floating, too, Japan had to prevent the Yen from increasing in value and had to buy $1.3 billion, Japan banks couldn’t stop yen from appreciating against dollar and therefore hurting exports, led to halt in economic growth, him negotiating with actual China when US had earlier told Japan to recognize Chiang-Kai-Shek government by SFPeaceTreaty (Taiwan) which was pretty embarrassing) Ronald Reagan – part of Ron-Yasu friendship with Yasuhiro Nakasone, basically they were best buddies Senior Vice Minister – the two people from the actual government that head up bureaucracy ministries Senkaku Islands – fought over by China (Taiwan, but China thinks they control Taiwan) and Japan. United States kinda gave control of them to Japan but China says no (Japan builds on them) Takeshima – islands in Sea of Japan that Japan and South Korea argue over (they’re really tiny but have good fishing areas as well as maybe natural gas) (pretty much South Korea’s) Textile Wrangle – trade imbalance b/w US and Japan, led to Okinawa reversion Three non-nuclear principles – Eisaku Sato wanted to end US Occupation of Okinawa and wanted to keep nuclear weapons away from Okinawa, created principles (nonproduction, nonpossession, nonintroduction – promote peaceful nuclear power, work towards global disarmament, rely on US Nuclear deterrent (MAD)) (produce/possess/permit), under security policy, not really followed well University of Tokyo – most prestigious university in Japan, where most PMs and other high-ranking people go to school Used to be: Minister – Administrative Vice Minister – Parliamentary Vice Minister After 2001 – reorganized: Minister – Senior Vice Minister(2) – Parliamentary Secretary(3) Koizumi – Abe – Fukuda – Aso – Hatoyama – Kan – Noda - Abe (lots related to other PMs)(Abe/Aso/Fukuda = obochan, also Hatoyama(fourth gen politician)) (DPJ PMs: Hatoyama/Kan/Noda)


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