Philosophy and Society Midterm Review
Philosophy and Society Midterm Review Phil40075
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Plato: INJUSTICE is when there is conflict in society and when one or more parts of the soul are out of balance and seek to control the remaining. JUSTICE means “Speaking the truth and repaying what one has borrowed.” We can misjudge who is good and who is bad. Social justice consists in harmony among the various parts, classes. Individual justice consists in harmony among the various parts of the personality. Socrates: A just man: Wisdom to rule on behalf of entire soul. Courage to act honorably/hold onto principles despite fear. Temperance to avoid conflict between ruling and subservient elements of the soul. Justice According to Glaucon: Justice-compromise. People are moved by self-interest, only laws force both the just and unjust to accept the principle of equality. Those with no power to take advantage of are better off within the limitations of a justice system. Without consequences and punishments, people who acted within the law would be in danger of being wronged themselves. Power and domination are all people care about. The Value of Justice:Things that have intrinsic value (Joy, love, pleasures), Things we value as instrumental means to an end (Medical treatment, job, money) “Useful, but burdensome things…”, Things that fit into both categories (Health, education) Which category does justice fit? Socrates –Instrumental and Intrinsic Value (not for rewards or avoiding punishment, balance of the soul, you will feel guilty for the rest of your life) Glaucon – Instrumental Value. Gyges Ring (Gluaucon)-Magical ring allows wearer to become invisible. Just man would behave no better than the unjust man when given such power. “Men do right only under compulsion;” Acting justly under such circumstances would be deemed foolish. Invisibility = Secrecy, men have to be forced/compelled to obey the law, people would say you’re an idiot if you don’t take advantage of the ring. Plato’s State:No individual is self-sufficient. All those living and working together with the aim of mutual benefit make up a state. Specialization = All people should be free to pursue the one occupation they are best suited for, labor to be shared to satisfy needs of the state. Only need to worry about performing one job instead of being pulled in many directions. Goal of state is providing well- being to the whole – not focused on individual satisfaction. No position merits special privileges. Corrupt leadership brings down the entire state. Classes of the State: Tradesmen based on natural proclivity. Guardians (soldiers) are chosen for their ability to act in the best interest of the community and not pursue self interest. Guardians enforce the decisions of the Rulers. Rulers chosen from the ranks of Guardians:best of the best. Qualities of the State: wisdom, courage, temperance, justice. War- Inclusion of “wants” will require expansion of the state. Incorporate pursuits that go beyond sustaining bare necessities. Community growth requires territorial expansion. War is the inevitable outcome. State must create an army to defend itself. Citizens cannot defend themselves and also pursue their chosen trade. (Professional army vs. militia). 3 parts of the city and the soul-Reason (Rational), Spirit (Honor) Dual component -it can lead us to a sense of kind of righteous indignation and anger at the sight of injustice, but it can also lead us in a rather contradictory way to desire to dominate and tyrannize over others. Quality possessed by every great political leader and statesman, but also clearly a quality possessed by every tyrant, Appetite-Many headed beast. Chariot Allegory- The Charioteer represents intellect, reason, or the part of the soul that must guide the soul to truth; one horse represents rational or moral impulse or the positive part of passionate nature (e.g., righteous indignation); while the other represents the soul's irrational passions, appetites, or concupiscent nature. Charioteer directs the entire chariot/soul, trying to stop the horses from going different ways, and to proceed towards enlightenment. The Noble Lie-propaganda, myth of the metals (born with a certain kind of metal in us which determines if you are gold silver, brass, which class we are in) Censorship-Plato-you might need complete control over peoples’ thoughts, Poets will be banished from Plato’s just city because of their power to enchant. Must maintain strict control over warrior class – tell lies/myths to maintain order and discipline. Suppress individual desires for the good of the state, examples- classified information that we do not have access to, internet censorship.Women-expected to receive the benefits of the state, need to be raised to contribute to the community, outside of childrearing. Cannot expect any member to be up to the task if they are not provided the proper education. Women must have same training as men – mind and body. Emancipation requires equal education. Natural gifts/talents reside in both sexes. Single, genderless, human virtue. Education is necessary for all. Custom of excluding women is unnatural. Family-Marriages and their procreations will be for the sake of the city. Reproduction is necessary, but emotional attachments that result will be destructive to the city. Rearing of child will be the responsibility of the community. A form of “It takes a village.” No child should know their biological parents and no parent should know their child. Eliminate a sense of “mine.” Abolition of the family is necessary for a just city. Love and emotion can be dangerous. Family is an obstacle to equal education and equal opportunity. Property: Best ordered state - when fewer differences in possessions exist. Guardians would not own property (or their own families), rather would receive necessities from the State. Power, money, and perks will turn society corrupt. Philosopher King: Democracy depends on chance and must be mixed with competent leadership, Without able and virtuous leaders, who come and go by chance, it is not a good form of gov. If ruling a state is a craft, then politics needs expert rulers, and they cannot come to it merely by accident. Must be carefully selected and prepared in the course of extensive training. Making political decisions requires good judgment. Philosophers are those who can distinguish between true and false beliefs, who love knowledge and are motivated by the common good. Plato VS Aristotle: Plato-Idealist, World reflects the truth of ideas. Wants to transcend/eliminate human selfishness. Aristotle-Realist, World is the truth – affects our ideas, Acknowledge and mitigate human selfishness. Right/wrong-one ruler(monarchy/tyranny),few rulers (aristocracy/oligarchy), many rulers(constit. Gov or polity/democracy) Aristotle: Polity-A working gov., balance between all parts of the state. No group can/should dominate. “Man is by nature a political animal. Formation of the state is natural. First for satisfaction of basic needs/wants, later for achievement of the higher development of mankind. “A man who lives without a state is either a beast or a god.” Polity (good) occurs when rulers in the interest of the political community as a whole. The problem with democracy as the rule of the many is that in a democracy the many rule in their own interest; they exploit the wealthy and deny them political power. But a democracy in which the interests of the wealthy were taken into account and protected by the laws would be ruling in the interest of the community as a whole, and it is this that Aristotle believes is the best practical regime. Important to combine the institutions of a democracy with those of an oligarchy. For example, in a democracy, citizens are paid to serve on juries, while in an oligarchy, rich people are fined if they do not. In a polity, both of these approaches are used, with the poor being paid to serve and the rich fined for not serving. In this way, both groups will serve on juries and power will be shared. Purpose of City: comes into being to do some kind of good, Political association is natural to man, Partnership, Make possible for citizens to achieve virtue and happiness.The citizens of a political community are partners, and as with any other partnership they pursue a common good. In the case of the city it is the most authoritative or highest good. The most authoritative and highest good of all, for Aristotle, is the virtue and happiness of the citizens, and purpose of the city is to make it possible for the citizens to achieve this virtue and happiness. Slavery-Natural vs. Convention (Legal), Natural slaves exist and aren’t capable of fully governing their own lives, and require other people to tell them what to do. Such people should be set to labor by the people who have the ability to reason fully and order their own lives. Women-“The relation of male to female is by nature a relation of superior to inferior and ruler to ruled.” And just as with the rule of the master over the slave, the difference here is one of reason: “The slave is wholly lacking the deliberative element; the female has it but it lacks authority; the child has it but it is incomplete.” The Poor-Aristotle criticizes existing practice of distributing surpluses to the poor in the form of cash payments, Poor will only demand more. Recognizes that poverty is a genuine problem in a democracy. Provide people with a start for doing work – not lifetime of handouts. Poverty is harmful to the character of the poor and this harms the community as a whole by undermining its stability. Middle Class-Rulers-Middle class is less susceptible to corruption and more guided by reason. Rule by rich or poor represent extremes. Rule by the middle class is difficult to achieve. Criticisms of Plato-Communal property (sameness) threatens the state, Deprive the ruling class of happiness, “Unity is necessary for the city in some respects, but unity in all respects is not.” No change in ruler/ruling class. Citizenship- Achieved through activity, not necessarily birth. Direct participation req. No voting for a representative, “Sharing in decision and office” The citizen has certain freedoms that non-citizens do not have, but he also has obligations (political participation and military service) that they do not have. A good citizen is one who follows the laws and supports the principles of the regime, whatever that regime is. A good man lives a life in accordance with virtue and finds happiness in doing so. Education-Primary job of the state should be to educate the young. Cannot leave it to parents to educate children. Unequal education, Education is the best way to preserve a regime. Having well educated citizens will result in good for the state as a whole. Must teach virtue – again benefits the state. Virtue = Freedom. Justice: In general = observance of the law = virtue, Virtue = theory, Justice – applied, Distributive Justice hands out rewards based on merit, Corrective Justice secures equality by removing advantage from one and adding it to disadvantage of another. Hobbes:Summary=Political theories influenced by English Civil War (1642-1651), Submission to absolute political authority only guarantee of stability, Reciprocal relationship between political obedience and peace, Zero tolerance for political rebellion. SON=State of War, Pre-government; War of all against all. Leviathan – biblical sea monster; all powerful; do not attempt to battle this creature. Type of ruler/government Hobbes sees as necessary to escape the SON maintain peace and security with state that is not God-willed (agrees with Locke on this point.) Human Nature-Self-interested-All men pursue only what they perceive to be in their own individually considered best interests, Reasonable-Rational capacity to pursue desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. Self-preservation requires utilizing natural resources and using force to take them from others. Conflict was inevitable where resources were scarce or where arrogant people tried to dominate and exploit others. Since people are roughly equal in physical strength and intelligence, this struggle could never be resolved. In a state of anarchy, every man for themselves, No one tells you what to do and there is no voting, usually ends up in people fighting over food, water, land and other things. There is no police to keep the peace. Continual danger of theft and enslavement meant that even those peaceably inclined might often feel that the only rational course would be to launch a pre-emptive strike, No gov., Baseline against which we can judge system of gov., No industry, arts, science, etc., because people are in a constant state of fear for survival, No property rights, State of nature is a state of war, Everyone decides for themselves how to act. Every person is judge, jury and executioner. A situation of no government “would make impossible all of the basic security upon which comfortable, sociable, civilized life depends.” His assumptions are 1. that people are generally similar in strength and intellect, so there won’t be easy to dominate/rule. (Even the strongest person has to sleep sometime.) 2. People generally shun death – will do most anything to preserve their own life. 3. People have a tendency for partiality – local affection, yes, but it only goes so far. 4. People are sensitive to slights/insults. Want people to have a good opinion of them. 5. Curious about causes of things and anxious about the future, so they tend to find comfort in religious beliefs. Property-exists only after the creation of a sovereign power capable of enforcing contracts. In the state of nature/war, property did not exist. People might agree (say) to divide a certain field between them, but without a coercive power, either side could renege on the bargain whenever it was convenient. (Not to mention outsiders, who might intrude). Right of Nature-Basic right to preserve our own well-being. Do whatever we must – governed by our own reason and judgments. Becomes a right “to all things.” Social Contract- When we renounce part of our rights, we enter into a social contract with the ruling authority. View that moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon an agreement to form the society in which they live. The contract is the agreement between people to agree to be governed in order to leave the instability and insecurity of the state of nature. To ensure their escape from the State of Nature, they must both agree to live together under common laws, and create an enforcement mechanism for the social contract and the laws that constitute it. The Sovereign- Any government better than civil war. While living under the authority of a Sovereign can be harsh (Hobbes argues that because men’s passions can be expected to overwhelm their reason, the Sovereign must have absolute authority in order for the contract to be successful) it is at least better than living in the State of Nature. No matter how much we may object to how poorly a Sovereign manages the affairs of the state and regulates our own lives, we are never justified in resisting his power because it is the only thing which stands between us and what we most want to avoid, the State of Nature. Totalitarian. No separation of powers, Abuse of power cannot be resisted, Legitimacy does not depend on how government comes to power, Subjects can disobey if life in danger, Allows for resistance to defend family and honor. But, will suffer the consequence for disobedience. Political Obedience = Peace. Morality/Religion-Without government/the sovereign for enforcement, concepts such as good and bad are words only – no Hobbes Locke Huma Man is not by nature Man is by nature a n a social animal, social animal. meaning behind them. Strongly argued for separation of church and state Natur society could not Sovereign should determine proper form of religious worship. e exist except by the No duty to God outweighs duty to obey political authority. The Social Contract power of the state. is the most fundamental source of all that is good and that which we depend Confli Men cannot know Peace is the norm, ct good and evil, and should be the upon to live well. Our choice is either to abide by the terms of the contract, or return to the State of Nature. Individual Liberty- therefore can only norm. We can and Negative freedom, Freedom is where the law is silent, however self interest live in peace with should live together will lead people to abuse their freedom. Fear and liberty consistent. subjection to the in peace by absolute power of a refraining from Citizens bound by the covenant. common master. abusing each other’s Laws are artificial chains – constructed by subjects themselves. property and Freedom vs. Protection Submission necessary for human advancement. persons, and for the most part we do. No rights without mechanism of enforcement. Submitting to the sovereign is Social Submit to the Give up right to necessary for human Contr sovereign; retribution to flourishing.Women-Insists on equality of all people, very explicitly including act renounce/transfer impartial judge. women. People are equal because they are all subject to domination, and all rights in exchange Retain right to life, potentially capable of dominating others. Hobbes maintains that women can for security. liberty and gain right be sovereigns; authority for him is “neither male nor female.” Rebellion- to protection of Intolerable, citizens have right to self defense if lives are in danger, obligation property. ends when Sovereign can no longer protect its subjects. Plato VS Hobbes: Rebell No right to rebel; any If a ruler seeks ion ruler is better than absolute power, if he Plato- People want what is intrinsically good. Capable of doing wrong due to desires, not fundamental flaws. being at war. acts both as judge Natural hierarchy among citizens. Sovereign can do no and participant in Democracy tends to undermine the expertise necessary to properly govern wrong, because disputes, he puts lawful and unlawful, himself in a state of societies. Hobbes- Human appetite is strong. good and evil, are war with his subjects People want what is in their own self interest. All men (and women) are basically equal. merely commands, and we have the Democracy fosters destabilizing dissension among subjects. Locke: merely the will of the right and the duty to ruler. kill such rulers and Summary: Individual rights, their servants. Liberty, Privacy, Toleration. Political Society b/c Civil government is the Civil Civil society is a Civil society precedes remedy for the challenges of the state of nature, Societ creation of the state. the state, both Consent to the will of the majority y morally and Political Power: Not all governments are a product of violence and force. historically. Society “Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws with penalties of creates order and death, and consequently all less penalties, for the regulating and preserving grants the state of property, and of employing the force of the community, in the execution of legitimacy. such laws, and in the defence of the common-wealth from foreign injury; and Role Whatever the state The only important all this only for the public good”, No divine right of kings. (Agrees with of the does is just by role of the state is to Hobbes on this) State of Nature: State of Nature is a state of liberty where State definition. All of ensure that justice is persons are free to pursue their own interests and plans, free from society is a direct seen to be done. interference, and, because of the Law of Nature and the restrictions that it creation of the state, Protection of life, and a reflection of liberty, and property. imposes upon persons, it is relatively peaceful. No government with real political power, the will of the ruler. Equality – state of liberty, not license, Main purpose of the -Constitutionalism: Not necessarily a state of war, state is to keep Government limited subjects out of war by the law Pre-political, but not pre-moral, A sense of common obligation is in each with each other. person from the beginning. For Locke, liberty is not the right to do everything, -Judge but rather to do anything in accordance with the law of nature Not made of individuals, rather small societies. -Absolutism: No limit to government power Relatively peaceful. Natural Rights- Life, liberty and property Should help one another if it does not hurt us. -Master Law of Nature- Basis of all morality, given by God, commit no harm to others with regards to their “life, health, liberty, or possessions.” Reason is the law of nature. Offenders of the law of nature may be punished by anyone, but punishment must not be cruel and only proportionate to the crime. Punish crime and prevent like offence. When following the laws of nature, you are following the dictates of your own reason and nothing else. Problems in State of Nature: (Locke calls them “inconveniences”): 1.) Law not clear 2.) No third party judge 3.) Weak can’t achieve justice. Ultimately, even though we may know right from wrong, we have biases, and need objective source of law. These deficiencies of the state of nature can lead to state of war State of War: Men fail to abide by the law of reason, Attempt to subjugate others creates enemies, Slavery, Lawful to kill in name of self defense, Lack of a common judge, Cruel and unusual punishments, Difference between crimes, Revenge keeps us/brings us back to SON. Punishments based on popularity. Property disputes would be major reasons for conflict in SON.Property-Use what you can; surplus to others – no waste, Limits on how much you can own.Private property is when labor is mixed with raw materials of nature. Introduction of money. Increased conflict. Political Society: Government’s prime goal is to protect property, Property = Life, Liberty and Estates, Laws now regulate the right to “doing whatsoever” to defend oneself. Individuals completely give up right to punish transgressors. One joins the political body, either from its beginnings, or after it has already been established by others, only by explicit consent. Signing the social contract gives us Laws, Judges to adjudicate laws, and Executive power necessary to enforce these laws. Government: representative government like English Parliament, Hereditary House of Lords and an elected House of Commons. Representatives to be only men of property and business. Consequently, only adult male property owners should have the right to vote. Locke was reluctant to allow the property-less masses of people to participate in government because he believed that they were unfit. The supreme authority of government, Locke said, should reside in the law-making legislature, like England’s Parliament. The executive (prime minister) and courts would be creations of the legislature and under its authority. Extent of Legislative Power: Goal=preservation, no right to destroy, enslave or impoverish subjects, Bound by promulgated, standing laws, Cannot seize property without consent, Power to make laws must stay with those chosen by the citizens. “Govern lightly,” Freedom of citizens is a good thing – no government interference, Allows truths to be uncovered and allows people, as rational beings, to discover their own truth. Revolution: Right to revolution when government tries to subjugate citizens or does not protect citizens’ rights to life, liberty and property. Government declares war on the citizens. For example, gov. dissolves the legislature and denies people ability for make laws.TJ borrowed from Locke when writing the Declaration of Independence. Used Locke to justify revolution against the King. When gov. fails the people, can undo the contract and revert back to SON/write a new contract. For Hobbes and Locke, freedom (not necessarily a good thing) is where gov.does not interfere. Hobbes: “where the law is silent, the citizen is free to do what ever he or she chooses to do.“ Locke: Limited gov. Positive Liberty: Freedom is the opportunity to do what is worth doing. Negative Liberty: Freedom is the absence of external obstacles. Plato, Aristole: Aim of state was to make citizens moral. Hobbes: Aim of state is security Locke: Aim of state is protection of life, liberty and property. Rousseau returns to desire to instill morality in citizens. Rosseau- Summary: Addresses the relationship between the state and the individual. Believes that society is based upon some implicit contract. The contract delivers us from some “prior state of nature.” The contract implies that the ruler is the people’s agent, not their master. Negative view on philosophy b/c Felt it was used to defend tyrannical governments. Moved people away from their natural instinct of compassion. Opinion of ourselves is more derived from the opinion of others. Rousseau loved by liberals and dictators, alike. Path breaker for French Revolution. Communist leaders latched on the idea of general will. Themes: Rule is only legitimate when there is consent. Individual justice sacrificed to collective justice. Potentially dangerous concept. Good government means a popularly elected legislature and executive by aristocracy. Public possessions are superior to private ones. General will is not the sum of all individual wills. Oldest (and only natural) society is the family-Model for all political associations, First law is self-preservation-Adults are their own master. State of Nature- Peaceful and idealistic time-People lived solitary lives, Family only natural society; limited in its bond. Unlike Aristotle, man is not a political animal. Needs easily satisfied by nature. Many resources + small population = no competition. Morally pure, endowed with capacity for pity. Not inclined to bring harm to others. Private property is the beginning of the end of man’s state of simplicity and pureness of soul. When someone’s right to private property was recognized, it was the beginning of civil society or government. First to say that nature has limited resources and that we are putting our own survival in danger by over-exploiting it.Slavery: No one has natural authority over another. To take away another’s liberty is against the natural order. Cannot renounce rights. Social Contract: Exchange natural freedom for civil freedom, Hobbes’ “right to all,” Because you can only keep natural liberty if you are strong enough. Might is right.” Civil liberty is protected by the general will. Political institutions are a blessing. Achieve moral freedom through obedience to the law. Construct political institutions that allow for the co-existence of free and equal citizens in a community where they themselves are sovereign. For Rousseau, the only thing that made humans different from animals is his free will, something constantly placed in danger whenever man enters into society. Goal: Aim of the contract is to protect and defend with the common force the goods and person of each member. Consistent with Locke (and to an extent, Hobbes). Contract must ensure not only the conditions for mutual protection and the preservation of self and property, but rather also that in uniting with one another, he says, each person obeys only himself and then he says, "remains as free as they were before." The General Will- The general will is the only legitimate sovereign. Private Will = Self interest. General Will = Common Good. Indestructible, though can be encroached upon. Sovereign is not a third party, but the people acting as a collective. No conflict between private and general will in well-ordered society. For this to be true, cannot have wide differences in social and economic levels. The Citizen: Rousseau wants a return of the concept of the citizen. Looks to Rome and Sparta for examples of citizenship. Calls for a spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion to the common good. Patriotic devotion upon which citizenship is founded. Spartan mother example-did we win the war first concern. Hobbes quote-“in the state of nature, we have a right to all things,” meaning the right to one thing becomes the right to all things because of an absence in morality. Locke says “Liberty, not license” meaning Liberty is freedom within the law of nature; license is the freedom to do whatever you want to do. So this state of liberty is not a state of license for there is no liberty to destroy oneself/to destroy in general. Rosseau-social contract is to remedy the problems in society, naturally happens, you get envious of others and their possessions and conflicts happen, sometimes a man has to be “forced to be free,” obedience to the law leads you to moral freedom. Hobbes-sovereign and no separation of power and people create gov. in exchange for law and order, Locke-legislative branch and power goes with the law makers and people are born with natural rights but give up some freedom to protect these rights (representative Democracy), Rosseau-all the power goes to general will and a direct vote and direct representation so that everyone’s actual voice is heard (direct Democracy)
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