SOC 100, exam 1 study guide
SOC 100, exam 1 study guide SOC 100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Black in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
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Date Created: 01/13/16
Intro to Sociology Exam 1 study guide This study guide is based off of what Dr. Black gave us in class with all of the answers. 1. The reading material “The Sociological Imagination” By C Wright Mills Mills focuses on personal troubles versus public issues in “The Sociological Imagination”. Personal troubles have to do with an individual. It includes things like finances or an individual being unemployed then becoming depressed. They have to do with the quality of life. A public issue is when a personal trouble becomes a larger problem. An example would be 50% of a class unemployed which then has an affect on society as a whole. Mills says that there is interaction between history and ones self. Example: IT being a fairly new career. The sociological imagination is defined as the quality of mind that allows us to understand the relationship between individual circumstances and larger social courses. Using this, sociologists are able to examine what influences behavior, attitudes, and culture. Dorothea Lange and “The Caption” Lange was hired as a field photographer to document poverty and examine the systems from which people came. She used her camera as a tool to explore, rather than to capture what she already saw. Unlike others, Lange took field notes that consisted of observations, interviews, and data. Lange used her photos, with her field notes, to tell a story. She believed that she wasn’t creating it but perfecting it. Lange believed that pictures allowed one to better understand the conditions of others. She was both an art photographer and sociological researcher. “The Body Ritual Among the Nacirema” Horace Miner This is a satirical narrative about a group of people in North America who idolize their bodies and have various rituals they perform on a regular basis. They are described as people who are obsessed with magic and the healing it provides them. They are portrayed as people who seem almost crazy to do these things that they do. The narrative is actually about Americans (Nacirema spelled backward is American). Miner was portraying America in a way that showed how society is obsessed with beauty and their own self. His point was to show how vain society as a whole is. 2. Sociology: the scientific study of human society and interaction and behavior within groups (society). The Latin root of sociology means the study of how we do things together. C. Wright Mills: wrote “The Sociological Imagination”. Mills was called a pioneer sociologist. He defined the sociological imagination as “how individuals understand their own and other’s past in relation to history and social structure”. Comte: August Comte was not a sociologist but a social thinker. He named the scientific study of social patterns to be positivism. He believed in using the scientific method to study behavior to try and fix with social reforms. Comte wrote about this but never put ay of it to action. Herbert Spencer: “survival of the fittest” he believed in the natural flow of society and didn’t believe that anyone should intervene with it. Functionalism (defined below in section 4). Karl Marx: social historian. He believed that there were two classes of people: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie were the upper class that owned capital (also called the capitalist). The proletariats were the working class who sold their labor to the bourgeoisie. Marx also said that economics was the center of all social activity. He believed that communism was more equitable than capitalism. Emile Durkheim: helped establish sociology as an academic discipline. Believed in the importance of theory in sociology. He was the first to carry out positivism by conducting a study on suicide rates. This led to his idea of social integration and anomie (defined below in section 6). Max Webber: best known for “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (described below in section 3). He also made major methodology to the method of scientific research. He believed that religion advanced capitalism and industrialism. W. E. B. Dubois: Dubois was the first to look at racial inequalities. He wrote “The Souls of Black Folks” which was about racial and economic inequalities. He believed in social reform (positivism) and was the founder of NAACP. 3. The Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber wrote “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” in 1904. Weber believed that religion was the center of all social activity and change based off of Calvinism. He argued that the beliefs of Calvinists led to capitalism. 4. Theoretical perspectives Symbolic Interaction: this is at the micro level, which is a smaller group of individuals. It is the way that people evaluate their relationships with other people, and it’s face-to-face interactions and communication. Symbols are how we label people (ex: teachers/students). George Herbert Mead is considered to be one of the founders of social interaction. Functionalism: this is at the macro level, aka society as a whole. It “sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society”. Some key terms are dysfunction/function, manifest/latent, and equilibrium. Manifest function is the intention of a policy, and latent function is unintended consequences revealed much later in time. Functionalism is attributed to Herbert Spencer. Conflict Theory: this is also at the macro level, which is society as a whole. This looks at society as groups who are in competition over scarce resources. It focuses on the economic conflict between the different social classes. Some key words are inequality, power, competition, and exploitation. Karl Marx is the person most attributed to this theory. 5. The Scientific Method Step 1: Define a specific question/identify a problem Step 2: Gather information do a literature review (read previous articles written on your topic) and observation Step 3: Form a hypothesis, which is an educated guess used to make a statement Step 4: Test the hypothesis. There will be independent and dependent variables. Step 5: Draw conclusions from the data. Data can be quantitative or qualitative based on surveys, interviews, and other methods. Step 6: Publish the results Step 7: Retest/reliability. Someone needs to be able to replicate the results of the experiment. 6. Terms (the terms on the study guide that can be found on the key terms sheet that Dr Black gave us I will not define) Positivism: the scientific study of social patterns Bourgeoisie: the owners of the means of production (the upper class) Proletariat: the laborers who sold their labor to the bourgeoisie (the lower class) Capitalism: an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them Anomie and social integration: “without law” society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness. Social integration is how strongly a person is connected to their social group Reliability: on key terms handout Validity: on key terms handout Operational definitions: on handout Literature Review: on handout Hypothesis: on handout Independent/dependent variables: on handout Hawthorne effect: when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher Pilot Study: subset of individuals conducted on before the survey is done on everyone. It allows the researches to refine and make corrections Open-ended vs. closed ended question: open ended allows for individual answers (why/why not?) these are qualitative. Closed ended have only certain answers (yet/no) these are quantitative Quantitative data: on handout Qualitative data: on handout Field research: on handout Participant research: on handout Ethics: formal guidelines for conducting sociological research Informed consent: researchers must obtain consent before conducting experiments after they have fully informed the participant of the responsibilities and risks of the research. Case study: on handout Interpretive research: on handout Experiment: on handout Secondary vs. primary data: on handout Correlation: on handout Causation: the causal relationship between conduct and result. Correlation does not imply causation Intervening variable: explain the relationship between two other variable Bias: prejudice in favor of or against one thing. Sociologists must remain without bias Survey: on handout Population: on handout Random sample: on handout
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