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by: Danielle Solomon

STUDY!! COMM 10133

Danielle Solomon
Business and Professional Speaking

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Study guides for tests
Business and Professional Speaking
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Solomon on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 10133 at Texas Christian University taught by Arnold-Stamper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Affirming Dignity pg 110 0 Dignity creates conditions in the workplace that improve the bottom line increased job satisfaction selfconfidence and work efforts 0 Effects of reduced dignity I Employees suffer stress anxiety depression headaches ulcers increased blood pressure I Costs Organizations deceased productivity higher turnover absenteeism employee resistance and sabotage and even risks of lawsuits Art of the Apology page 119 Be Honest Don t Manipulate page 115 0 Once people discover they have been manipulated a defensive reaction is almost guaranteed 0 Simple honesty is less likely to generate defensiveness 0 Reputation for candor can earn you the respect of subordinates coworkers and management Business Messages page 405 0 Email 0 Memo I Keep it short I Make the message clear in the opening paragraph I Use formatting to make points clear Cohesiveness page 205 0 Shared and compatible goals Progress toward goals Shared norms and values Minimal feelings of threat among members Interdependence among members Competition from outside the team 0 Shared team experience Conflict pg 125 Table page 128 0 About I The Topic at Hand 0 Topic related disagreements I The process I How to do something I Relational Issues 0 How parties want to be treated by one another I Ego Identity Issues 0 What face are we presenting 0 Approaches I Avoiding I Accommodating I Competing Collaborating I Compromising 0 Handling OOOOO I Negotiate discuss specific proposals to find a mutually acceptable agreement 0 Preparing I Clarify your interests and needs 0 Ends are the goals you want 0 Means are the ways of achieving those goals I Consider the best time to raise the issue 0 Timing I Consider the cultural differences 0 Page 134 I Prepare your statement 0 Think over and practice 0 Conducting I Identify the ends both parties are seeking 0 Focus on needs not on positions I Brainstorm a list of possible solutions 0 Work together to solve the problem I Evaluate the alternative solutions 0 Meets all parties needs I Implement and follow up on the solution 0 Give it a try Conformity page 206 Decision Making Methods page 239 Demonstrate an Attitude of Equality page 115 0 Respect is essential if you take it away it is all people can think about 0 Respect comes from how we construct our messages 0 How we speak and act is more important than the words themselves 0 Non verbals vocal tone and facial expression Dealing with Difficult People and Situations page 120 0 Case Study The Cost of Incivility page 121 0 Negotiate with the offender I One on one or with a mediator neutral meeting place 0 Appeal to a third party 0 Back off I Use other forms of communication then face to face 0 Reframe your thinking I You are not the victim Emotional Intelligence pg 110 Enhancing Organizational Climate pg 111 0 Organizations have their climate but there are micro climates I When a small work group is formed 0 Climates have been linked to productivity job satisfaction and employees willingness to express dissent I Positive climates enhance jobrelated learning in sales organizations Employment seeking letters page 416 0 Cover letters O Followup letters Focus on Problems not Controlling Others page 114 Groups page 187 O O O 0 Optimal size is 57 people I Odd number eliminates the risk of tie votes Shared purpose I Collective goal or they won t collectively accomplish anything Interaction over Time I Develops particular characteristics I Shared standards expectations what contribution ach member is expected Interdependence I Depend on each other Identity I Formal title seen as a distinct outsiders know they are a group Groupthink page 206 0000000 0 Illusion that the group is invulnerable Tendency to rationalize or discount negative information Willingness to ignore ethical or moral consequences of the team s decision Stereotyped views of other teams Team pressure to conform Selfcensorship Illusion of unanimity Mind guards against threatening information Interviewing page 141 0 00000 Planning page 142 Conducting page 147 Information gathering interview page 153 Career Research Interview page 154 Employment Interview page 158 Ethics page 176 Keep an Open Mind page 116 O O Actively listen promotes good relationships You may get a better hearing if you present them as ideas not facts Leadership page 191 Leadership grid page 193 O O Approaches I Trait Approach 0 All leaders possess common traits that lead to their effectiveness I Style Approach 0 The designated leader could choose a way of communicating that would increase effectiveness 0 Authoritarian 0 Democratic 0 Laissezfaire I Contingency Approach 0 The best leadership style is flexible it changes from one situation to the next Becoming a Leader page 195 I Emergent Leader chosen by the members of a group either officially or informally 0 Power and Influence of Members I Designated Leader formal authority and responsibility to supervise the task at hand I Selfdirected work teams responsible for managing their own behavior to get a task done Leading and Working in Teams page 184 0 Table page 186 Team vs Individual Performance Meetings page 212 0 Types I InformationSharing I People meet regularly to exchange information I Problem Solving and Decision Making I Decide to take action or make a change I Ritual Activities I The social function choosing to socialize instead of rush home I Virtual Meetings I Teleconferences multiparty telephone calls I Videoconferences 0 Planning a problemsolving meeting page 214 I When to hold it I Setting an Agenda 0 Conducting the Meeting I Identify the Goals I Provide Necessary background information I Show how the team can help I Preview the meeting I Identify time constraints 0 Conducting Business page 221 I Parliamentary procedure I When a group s decision will be of interest to outside I When haste may obscure critical thinking I When emotions are going to be strong 0 Conclude a meeting page 227 0 Follow up page 230 Norms page 202203 Nominal Group Technique page 235 Offering and Responding to Criticism page 116 O Offering Constructive Feedback I Who I Choose the most credible critic I Make sure the criticism is appropriate to the critics role I Framing I Limit the criticism to one topic I Make sure the criticism is accurate 0 If even a small detail is out of line the other person can argue that I Define the problem clearly 0 Facts and examples O Show how your criticism can benefit the recipient 0 Describe the payoffs 0 Remember to acknowledge the positives 0 The criticism doesn t diminish your respect or appreciation for the person in other areas I Delivery 0 Feedback privately 0 In front of people is embarrassing and resentment can be triggered 0 Allow enough time 0 Don t wait until the problem turns into a crisis 0 Avoid sounding and looking judgmental 0 Don t call names use in ammatory labels and don t attribute motives 0 Listen to the other person 0 Ask what they view as the problem 0 Remain calm and professional 0 If necessary request the conversation be finished at a later time 0 Power page 196 O 0 Position Power I Ability to in uence that comes from the position on holds Coercive Power I The power to punish Reward Power I Ability to reward Expert Power I Groups recognition of a member s expertise in a certain area Referent Power I Alludes to the influence member s hold due to the way others in the group feel about them their respect attraction or liking Information Power I Ability of some members to in uence a group because of the information they possess Connection Power I A member s influence can often come from the connection he or she has with influential or important people inside or outside the organization 0 Problem Solving in Group page 230 0 Table on page 232 0 Raising Difficult Issues pg 113 O 0 Table on DefenseReducing and DefenseArousing messages page 114 Use Descriptive Language 0 Responding to Criticism pg 118 0 Seek more Information I Ask for examples or clarification I Guess about details of the criticism 0 quotOh did that happen when I I Paraphrase the critic I When you say I have an attitude it sounds like you think I Ask what the critic wants I How do you think I should behave differently 0 Agree with the Criticism I Agree with the facts I Don t argue with irrefutable facts I Agree with the critic s right to their own perception I I can understand why it might seem that way 0 Emphasize areas of common ground I Share the same point of view 0 Work for a Cooperative Solution I Ask for a chance to state your point of view I Focus on a solution not on finding fault I Respecting Spirituality in the Workplace pg 122 0 Resume s page 409 0 Types page 412 I Reports page 417 Trip Progress Incident Feasibility Report Elements page 419 I Title page I Letter of transmittal I Table of contents I Abstract or executive summary I Exhibits and appendixes I Bibliography of references 0 Sexual Harassment pg 123 0 Types I Quid pro quo this for that I Directly or indirectly threatening not to promote someone who won t date you or do sexual favors I Hostile work environment 0 Any verbal or non verbal behavior that has the intention or effect of interfering with someone s work or creating an intimidating offensive or hostile work environment Unwelcome remarks humor stares hand or body signs an invasion of physical space 0 Avoiding Sexual Harassment Problems I Look at the situation from the other person s point of view I Implement and monitor policies that won t tolerate it I Training to all managers and workers 0 Responding to Sexual Harassment I Consider dismissing the incident if it doesn t interfere with your ability to do your job I Keep a record of the incident for possible future action include date and location I Write a personal letter to the harasser may help them understand OOOOO I Ask a trusted third party to intervene mutual acquaintance can persuade the harasser to stop I Use company channels report the situation I File a legal complaint federal EEOC or state agency Systematic Problem Solving page 235237 Sharing Feedback pg 112 0 Giving Praise I Praise promptly the quicker you can provide positive feedback the more meaningful it will be I Make Praise specific describing what exactly you appreciate makes it easier for the person to continue that behavior I Praise progress don t always look for perfection I Praise intermittently too much praise can sound insincere praise from time to time when it will have the most effect I Relay Praise you will win the gratitude of the person you are complimenting show your own sense of security and team spirit informing others about information they will value I Praise Sincerely be aware of the cultural rules Show Concern for Others page 115 O Indifference lack of acknowledgement or concern for others is likely to trigger a defensive reaction Team page 188 Roles pg 199 O 0 Clear and inspired shared goals I Know why your team exists purpose is important A resultsdriven structure I Getting the job done in the most effective manner Competent team members I Skills necessary to accomplish the task Unified commitment I Group s goals above their personal interests Standards of excellence I Outstanding work is the norm External support and recognition I Appreciative audience Principled leadership I Leaders who create a vision of the team s purpose and challenge members to get the job done Using Descriptive Language page 114 Writing Well page 402 O O Adapt to your Audience I Make the receivers needs the subject of your first sentence I What do they need to know Build Goodwill I Emphasize positive concepts rather than negative ones 0 State what can be done rather then what hasn t I Adopt a helpful and respectful approach 0 Avoid blaming others and using You language I Organize Carefully 0 List all the items you need to cover and organize them into logical categories 0 Build coherence in each paragraph I Be Accurate Clear and Professional 0 Proofread carefully Use precise terms that give specific detail Use the active voice for more lively and direct writing Use names and titles consistently Refer to an individual s age race or different ability only if necessary Avoid jargon Avoid slang and pop culture terms oncise Omit needless words and phrases Eliminate who is and that are Don t overuse intensifiers 0 quotreally very so 0 Avoid fumblers 0 quotwhat I mean is I Pay attention to Appearance 0 Three occasions where handwritten notes are appropriate 0 Thank you notes personal messages of congratulations or condolence or jot a note to a colleague IBe 0000000000 TERMS 1 Action Items a Specific tasllts assigned during the course of a meeting 2 Authority Rule a The designated leader makes the final decision 3 Brainstorming a One way to boost creativity free thinking and minimizes conformity 4 Bullying a Intense malicious ongoing and damaging i Aggression controlling through fear and intimidation ii Criticism nitpicllting unreasonable demands iii Deviousness passiveaggressive dishonest indirect behavior iv Gatekeeping Controlling the resources needed 5 Cohesiveness a Degree to which members feel themselves part of a team and want to remain with that team 6 Consensus a Collective group decision that every member is willing to support 7 Conflict phase Storming a After the group members understand the problem and have a feel for one another 8 Descriptive Language a I language focus on the speaker instead of judging the other person 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Direct Questions a Aimed at a particular individual who is addressed by name Expert Opinion a When a single person has the knowledge or skill to make an informed decision the group may best be served by relying on this Emergence Phase norming a The members end their disagreement and solve the problem Emotional Intelligence a Ability and skills of interacting well with others Face a The identity each of us strives to present i Competence commitment fairness honesty reasonableness professionalism Forming a Testing the waters members may not know each other first phase Group a An assembly of people Groupthink a An unwillingness to examine ideas critically Hidden Agenda a Personal goals that are not made public Incivility a Exchange of seemingly inconsequential inconsiderate words and deeds that violate the conventional standards of workplace conduct Can range from insensitive texting to rude name calling Interview a Two party interaction in which at least one party has a specific purpose that usually involves the asking and answering of questions LeaderMember Exchange a Views leadership as a collection of multiple relationships with members each one unique Meeting Minutes a A written record of the major discussions held decisions made and action items Motions page 222 a When a member wants the group to deliberate they introduce a motion Majority Vote a Needs only the support of most of the members Minority Decision a A few members make a decision affecting the entire group Nominal Group Technique pg 235 a Giving every member s idea an equal chance to be considered Nemawashi a Japan problem solving meetings are preceded by a series of onetoone sessions between the participants to iron out issues Norms a Informal often unstated rules about what behavior is appropriate Orientation Phase a First phase in a groups development Overhead Questions 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a Directed toward the group as a whole and anyone is free to answer Organizational Climate a Underlying nature of relationships in work groups Parliamentary Procedure a Set of rules that governs the way groups conduct business and make decisions in meetings Praise Messenger a Letting people know you have heard others saying complimentary things about them Reinforcement phase Performing a 4th stage members not only accept the decision but also actively endorse it Relevancy Challenge page 224 a The questioner tactfully asks a member to explain how an apparently offtrack idea relates Relay Question a When the leader refers a question one member asks to the entire group Reverse Question page 223 a Member asks the leader a question and the leader refers the question back to the person who originally phrased it Risky Shifts a The likelihood of the group to take positions that are more extreme than the members would choose on their own Virtual Team a Function without being in the same place at the same time Work Group a Small interdependent collection of people with a common identity who interact with one another usually facetoface over time to reach a goal Workplace Dignity a Person s ability to gain a sense of selfrespect and selfesteem from her job and to be treated respectfully by others You Language a They point a verbal finger of accusation at the receiver quotYou re Lazy BampP Genden Anatomy Women have a larger corpus coliseum connects the two hemispheres Women have more dendrite connections between brain cells Women have a more developed limbic system 0 Women more prone to depression sad 0 Men withdrawal angry Men concentrate more deeply Men are more spatially aware Equal IQ range 0 6x more gray matter men 0 10x more gray matter women Both Genders have two duties Frame your communication to suit the other person s tendencies Recognize your own tendencies and how they affect your own understanding and responses Suggestions for women Don t make him guess hits feel like nags Get to the point Use facts not feelings Stay on topic Sidebyside encourages more discussion less eye contact Express appreciation Suggestions for men Don t try to x it while she s talking Acknowledge understanding Affirm feelings Step into the puddle with her Answer every time Say quotI m sorryquot more often Taylor your message to the receiver to have the best change of your message being received the you way you intend Analyzing the Audience 0 Process of customizing your speech material to your speci c audience 0 Keep your audience foremost in your mind at every step 0 What you wearvisual aidscolors Who is the audience 0 Decision makers How much do they know 0 Or not know 0 What do they want to know 0 Address their interests 0 Identify the prospects needs and show how the product can satisfy them 0 What are their personal preferences 0 Do they prefer a formal or casual presentation 0 Which demographic preferences are signi cant 0 Gender age cultural background economic status 0 What size is the group 0 Bigger the group wider range of audience concerns 0 What are the Listener s attitude 0 You as a speaker 0 About your subject Analyze yourself as the Speaker 0 Your goal why are you speaking Your knowledge are you an authority 0 Your feelings about the topic when you are excited about a topic your delivery improves Analyzing the Occasion Facilities Room arrangement page 255 0 Time 0 The time of day you will be speaking o The length of time you have to speak Major points should be made in the rst 6 minutes Context 0 Preceding speakers current events Appearance 0 Take cues from audience on attire and occasion One step better then audience slightly more formal 0 Color choice 0 Darker colors project more authority 0 Bright colors friendly and warm 0 Dress conservatively Con dent and comfortable Communication Apprehension Nerves fear of things going wrong 0 Body is preparing for a physical escape in a mental situation 0 76 of people feel nervous Can learn to channel fear and re label it as excitement Audience greatly underestimate the fear of the speaker More nervous when it is new or high stakes information Conclusion 0 The review 0 Restatement of your thesis and a summary of your main points 0 Closing statement 0 Gives your remarks a sense of completion 0 lncite your listeners encourage them to act or think in a way that accomplishes your purpose 0 Types 0 Return to the theme of your opening statement 0 Appeal for action ask for your desired result 0 End with a Challenge Why settle when you can reach your dreams its up to you Delivery vs Content 0 A mediocre speech with effective delivery is a good speech An excellent speech with poor delivery is an ineffective speech Eye contact Builds trust and credibility Helps audience focus on speech Increases audience s con dence in you 0 Gets feedback on audience research 0 95 of the time you should have eye contact with your audience 0 Establish eye contact before beginning the speech Gather info 0 Ask the person who asked you to speak 0 Ask others 0 Research Gestures Can make the meaning more clear 0 Avoid extremes uid 0 Adjusted to size of the audience based on if they can see them or not 0 Whole hand not ngers International Audience pg 252 Introduction 0 Two parts 0 Attentiongetter o Thesis statement 0 10 and 15 of the time less than 1 minutes of a 5 minute talk 0 Functions 0 Capture the listener s attention 0 Give your audience a reason to listen Your message is important to them 0 Set the proper tone for the topic and setting Establish rapport 0 Establish your quali cations Non verbal behaviors help boost 0 Introduce your thesis and preview your presentation Main Points 0 Should be stated as claims asserting a fact or belief All points should develop the Thesis 0 Contain no more than ve main points 0 Parallel in structure 0 Should contain only one idea Movement 0 Last thing for a speaker to master Purposeful movement 0 Casual Unnecessary movement 0 Swaying back and forth 0 Fidgeting 0 Avoid walking in front of the screen Opening Statements Asks a question rhetorical question 0 Tell a story 0 Present a quotation Make a startling statement 0 Refer to the audience 0 Needs concerns or interests 0 Refer to the occasion Use humor Posture Position and attitude of body parts Arms in the air while practicing to make you less nervous 0 Avoid sitting during a presentation 0 Formal not okay to perch on something 0 Informal okay to lean 0 Power positions quotGumbee positionquot planted with feet wide hard to move around Primary Recency effect 0 First and last things are the most important 0 Include all audience members while giving eye contact Presentation planning pg 249 o More than 3 weeks to plan for a good impromptu speech 0 Hour per minute 0 Spend on hour of preparation time for every minute you will be speaking 23 hours researching the audience 0 91 between preparation and speaking time Questions for Audience Adaptation How can you make your topic more relevant to your audience 0 How can you establish common ground with them 0 How can you establish credibility about the topic Selling to Seniors case study pg 254 Symptoms of Nervousness 0 Heart rate increases Blushing increased blood ow Knees shake Vocal chords higher and weaker Hands sweatyshaky o Stiff ngers Mouth goes dry Digestive system affected Nausea Bathroom break Tactics to deal with fear 0 Reduce anxiety 0 Control energy to use it to your advantage 0 First 3 minutes are the worst for everyone then levels start to decrease Transitions Words or sentences that connect the segments 0 Functions 0 Promote clarity o Emphasize important ideas 0 Keep listeners interested Characteristics of good ones 0 Promote clarity emphasize important ideas and keep listeners interested 1 Refer to both preceding and upcoming ideas 2 Should also call attention to themselves 0 Let listeners know you are moving from one point to another Terms Articulation clarity in speaking the words clear adding or leaving out sounds slurring quotmush mouthquot Brie ng short talks that give already interested audience the speci c information they need to do their job Causeeffect shows that certain events have happened or will happen as a result of certain circumstances 0 Content actual information you want to convey word choiceillustrations Conversation Stvle enthusiasm vocal expressiveness spontaneity Comparative Advantage several alternatives sidebyside o Audience is considering an idea that you are against Chronological Pattern arranges your points in according to the sequence in time 0 Criteria Satisfaction sets up criteria the audience will accept then shows how your idea meets them 0 Venture capitalist o Seeking investors 0 Delivery nonverbal way you express it tonepitch Desired outcome the reaction you want from the audience Egocentrism judging others culturevaluesand beliefs as inferior to your own Extemporaneous presentationpanned and rehearsed but not memorized 0 Key points familiar notes are brief and legible o Fillers unnecessary sounds umm like ya know 0 Fluency ow of speaking 0 Final report completion of an undertaking Feasibilitv Reports evaluates one or more potential action stems and recommends how an organization should proceed General Goal inform persuade and entertain broad indication of what you are trying to accomplish Goal statement identi es the who what how when and where ofyourgoa Impromptu Presentation unexpected usuay something you already know about Anticipate what you might be asked focus on audience and situation organize thoughts etc pg 318 Motivated Sequence ve step scheme boost the audience s involvement in interest oAttention need satisfaction visualization action Manuscript presentation speakers read their remarks word for word Memorized presentation memory sounds memorized Pronunciation using the accepted standard sounds and accents of words Pauses used for emphasis PitchIn ection high or low 0 Carries most of the expression 0 Nervous pitch can make it go higher than normal o Variation to make a point ProblemSolution simplest persuasive theme something is wrong here is how you x it 0 Rate speed of speaking Reports account of what you and your team has learned or done Speci c Goal outcome you are seeking whom you want to in uence what you what them to think or do how when and where you want them to do it Stereotyping oversimplifying images of people all members of a certain State anxiety particular state of anxiety in certain situations group are the same Status Report progress report Spatial Pattern organizes material according to how it is put together or where it is physically located Trait anxiety pre disposed to anxiety Thesis central idea or key idea single sentence that summarizes your message Topical Pattern groups your ideas around some logical themes or division in your subject Volume loudness o Loud enough to be heard but not shouting


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