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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Danielle Solomon

Exam 2 Study Guide COMM 20223

Danielle Solomon

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Study guide for exam 2
Communication Theory
Paul Witt
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Solomon on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 20223 at Texas Christian University taught by Paul Witt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
Exam 2 Review Chapter 10 Uncertainty Reduction Theory: Berger 1. Why do we want to reduce uncertainty? a. Increasing predictability b. Make sense of our interpersonal world c. We need to predict and explain 2. When do we especially want to do this? a. Anticipation of future interaction: when we think we might see them again b. Incentive value: they have something we want c. Deviance: they act in a weird way 3. What are the Axioms and Theorems? a. Axiom: self-evident truth that requires no additional proof i. Axiom 1: verbal communication 1. Talk increases/uncertainty decreases ii. Axiom 2: nonverbal warmth 1. Expressiveness increases/uncertainty decreases iii. Axiom 3: information seeking 1. High levels of uncertainty cause increase in information seeking behavior 2. As uncertainty levels decline/information-seeking behavior decreases 3. May seem Erroneous iv. Axiom 4: Self-disclosure 1. Low levels of uncertainty produce high levels of intimacy v. Axiom 5: Reciprocity 1. People tend to give up personal details of their lives at the same rate of the person they are talking to 2. They don’t want to be the only disclosing valuable information without getting some in return vi. Axiom 6: Similarity 1. Similarities between people reduce uncertainty vii. Axiom 7: Liking 1. Increase in uncertainty levels create a decrease in liking and the opposite is true viii. Axiom 8: Shared Networks 1. Shared networks reduce uncertainty b. Theorems: proposition that logically and necessarily follow from 2 axioms 4. Are any of the Axioms Erroneous? a. Axiom number 3 i. As uncertainty behaviors decline, information seeking behavior decreases 5. What are message plans? a. Mental representations of action sequences that may be used to achieve goals i. When you have an overall goal such as to build a friendly and professional relationship with a co-worker, you mentally outline the top things that ensure you can do both. 1. Such as: Friend: smile, eye contact, compliments 2. Such as: Co-worker: Be on time, be clean, knowledgeable b. Passive Strategy: don’t interact directly just observe c. Active strategy: get information from a third party d. Interactive Strategy: seek information directly, face-to-face interaction 6. Critic a. Chapter 11 Social Information Processing Theory: Walther 1. Background information a. Social Presence Theory: Suggests that CMC deprives users of the sense that another actual person is involved in the interaction i. Our communication becomes more impersonal, individualistic, and task-oriented b. Media Richness: classifies each communication medium according to the complexity of the messages it can handle efficiently. i. Face-to-face communication provides a rich mix of verbal and nonverbal cue systems that can convey highly nuanced emotions and even double meanings c. Boundary Condition: a statement that limits the context a theory is meant to describe 2. How does CMC differ from face-to-face communication? a. CMC: computer mediated communication, text-based messages b. CMC is text only communication i. BIG GULP: face-to-face interaction, you get a lot of information at once ii. SIP: CMC users end up with the same quantity and quality of information but it accumulates at a slower rate 3. What is the role of nonverbal cues in CMC, and what does this have to do with time? a. Verbal Cues: when motivated to form impressions and develop relationships, communicators must employ any cue system available. CMC users can create a fully formed impression of others based solely on the linguistic content of online messages. b. Extended Time: it is much slower over text than it is face-to-face. i. About four times longer to communicate online versus in person 4. What aspects of CMC might foster hyper-personal communication? a. Hyper-personal is used to label relationships that are more intimate than romances or friendships would be If partners were physically together b. How senders select, receivers magnify, channels promote, and feedback increases enhanced and selective communication. i. Sender: 1. Selective self-presentation: people who meet online have an opportunity to make and sustain an overwhelmingly positive impression. They can write about their most attractive traits without fear of contradiction. ii. Receiver: 1. Attribution: we observe what people do and then try to figure out what they are really like 2. We will likely over attribute the information we receive and create an idealized image of the sender 3. Social identity DE individuation: CMC users over estimate their similarity with others they meet online in interest groups iii. Channel 1. With time constraints relaxed, CMC users are free to write person-centered messages, knowing that the recipient will read the message at a convenient time. 2. One may plan, contemplate, and edit one’s comments more mindfully than none can in more spontaneous, simultaneous talk. iv. Feedback: 1. Self-fulfilling prophecy: is the tendency for a person’s expectation of others to evoke a response from them that confirms what he or she anticipated. v. This process creates hyper personal relationships only if CMC parties first form highly favorable impressions of each other. 1. Self-fulfilling prophecy is triggered when the hyper positive image is intentionally or inadvertently fed back to the other, creating the CMC looking-glass self. Chapter 13 Communication Privacy Management Theory: Petronio 1. What are the five core principles of CPM? a. People believe that they own and have a right to control their own private information b. People control their private information through the use of personal privacy rules c. When others are told or given access to a person’s private information, they become co-owners of that information d. Co-owners of private information need to negotiate mutually agreeable privacy rules about telling others e. When co-owners of private information don’t effectively negotiate and follow mutually held privacy rules, boundary turbulence is likely to result. 2. What are two types of boundaries? a. Collective privacy boundary: i. An intersection of personal privacy boundaries of co-owners, all of whom are responsible for the information. 1. While the co-owner feels responsible for the information, they don’t necessary share the same rules about what is to happen with this information b. Mutual Privacy boundary: i. A synchronized collective privacy boundary that co-owners share because they have negotiated common privacy rules 1. Collaborate drawing the same borders around their common piece of informational real estate. 3. What are different types of co-ownership? a. Shareholder: a confident fully committed to handling the private information according to the original owner’s privacy rules i. When the co-owner agrees the original owner calls the shots with the information b. Deliberate Confidant: intentionally seeks private information, often in order to help others out i. Doctors, counselors, attorneys, and clergy c. Reluctant Confidant: a co-owner of private information who did not seek or want it i. Information by accident: this means he or she will be even less likely to cede control of revealing/concealing to the original owner 4. What is boundary turbulence, and how does it occur? a. Disruption of privacy management and relational trust that occurs when collective privacy boundaries aren’t synchronized. i. Examples: 1. Fuzzy Boundaries: people not discussing prior to sharing information what can and cannot be revealed. 2. Intentional Breaches: a. Breaking the confidence of someone for own personal gain or to make the other person look bad b. Confidentiality dilemma: breach the privacy boundary to promote the original owner’s welfare 3. Mistakes a. Letting secrets slip out when their guard is down such as: maybe after a few drinks b. Miscalculation in timing i. Someone overheard on accident from around the corner, or getting on an elevator, talking loud on the phone 5. From where do our privacy rules come from? a. Our own personal experiences with information 6. Critic a. Clarity is a problem Chapter 15 Social Judgment Theory: Sherif 1. What is ego-involvement? a. Refers to how crucial an issue is in our lives. Is it central to our well- being? Do we think about it a lot? Does our attitude on the matter go a long way in defining who we are? b. Our favored position anchors all our other thoughts about the topic 2. What are the three latitudes? a. Latitude of Acceptance: the range of ideas that a person sees as reasonable or worthy of consideration b. Latitude of Rejection: the range of ideas that a person sees as unreasonable or unacceptable c. Latitude o Non-commitment: the range of ideas that a person sees as neither acceptable nor objectionable. 3. How do they change based on ego-involvement? a. Someone who is highly ego-involved in an issue i. Latitude of non-commitment is almost non-existent. ii. Wide latitude of rejection iii. Small latitude of Acceptance 4. What are contrast and assimilation errors? a. Contrast effect: happens for messages in the latitude of rejection i. We judge them as more different from the anchor point then they actually are 1. If you are really strong in one are, and strong arguments for the opposite side will not change your mind 2. Messages in the latitude of rejection and acceptance are not persuasive because they do not move your anchor point. They are either rejected or seen as the same to what you already think. b. Assimilation: happens for messages in the latitude of acceptance i. We judge them as more similar to the anchor point then they really are 5. What messages are most persuasive, according to the theory? a. The most persuasive messages are either at the edge of the latitude of acceptance or in the latitude of non-commitment. b. Large changes only happen over a long period of time. Chapter 16 Elaboration Likelihood Model: Petty & Cacioppo 1. What is the difference between the central and peripheral routes? a. Central: cognitive i. Involved in what you are thinking about ii. Scrutinize the message iii. Takes time, effort, and pick the ideas apart iv. Strong attitude change 1. Resistant to counter persuasion 2. Predicts behavior 3. Committed to change b. Peripheral: mental shortcut i. Base decision on stuff you can observe and come to a decision without thinking 1. Do I like the speaker? 2. Are they good looking? 3. Do they have authority? 4. Is it funny? ii. Week attitude change 1. Temporary 2. Vulnerable to counter persuasion 3. Does not predict behavior 2. When are we motivated to process messages by each route? a. Do you care about the issue? i. Willing to think through it b. Do they have a high need for cognition? c. Ability i. Are they distracted ii. Is the audience worn out iii. Are they able to process through the central route 3. How is the argument strength related to persuasion outcomes? 4. Critic a. Chapter 17 Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Festinger 1. What is dissonance? a. Distressing mental state that people feel when they find themselves doing things that don’t fit with what they know, or having opinions that do not fit with other opinions they hold 2. What are the three mental mechanisms people use to reduce dissonance? a. Selective Exposure: the tendency people have to avoid information that would create cognitive dissonance because it is incompatible with their current beliefs i. People tended to select information that lined up with what they already believed and ignored facts or ideas that ran counter to those beliefs b. Post decision dissonance: strong doubts experienced after making an important, close-call decision that is difficult to reverse i. The more important the issue ii. The longer an individual delays in choosing between two equally attractive options iii. The greater the difficulty involved in reversing the decision once it has been made 3. What is minimal justification, and why does it work? a. A claim that the best way to stimulate an attitude change in others is to offer just enough incentive to elicit counterattitudinal behavior b. Change the behavior change the attitude c. Over just enough incentive, not to much not to less i. It makes them like the behavior without getting attached to the incentive 4. What are three alternative explanations for research findings related to the theory? a. Self-Consistency: the amount of dissonance a person can experience is directly proportional to the effort he or she has invested in the behavior. i. Attitude/behavior inconsistency leads to dissonance. With a change in attitude the dissonance can be reduced. b. Personal responsibility: i. It’s the knowledge that one’s actions have unnecessarily hurt another person that generates dissonance ii. Cooper said dissonance is: A state of arousal caused by behaving in such a way as to feel personally responsible for bringing out an aversive event. c. Self Affirmation to Dissipate Dissonance i. High self-esteem is a resource for dissonance reduction ii. Steele believes that denial, forgetfulness, and trivialization of the incident are alternatives to attitude change, but only for the person who already has high self-esteem. 5. What is the theory’s chief weakness, according to Griffin? a. There is no way to measure dissonance Chapter 22 Rhetoric: Aristotle 1. What is logos? a. Logical appeals b. Move from a specific characteristic to a more general claim 2. What is the difference between an enthymeme and an example? a. Moves from a more general claim to a specific issue i. Major premise: you should eat healthy food ii. Minor premise: Spinach is a healthy food iii. Conclusion: You should eat spinach 3. What is pathos? a. Emotional Appeals i. Appealing to your emotions/heart 4. What is ethos, and what are its three components? a. Ethical approach b. Three components i. Perceived Intelligence 1. Are you competent in the area you are discussing ii. Goodwill 1. Having someone’s interest at heart 2. Caring about someone else 3. Putting the needs of someone else above your own iii. Virtuous character 1. Value 5. What are the five canons of rhetoric? a. Invention: a speakers hunt for arguments that will be effective in a speech b. Arrangement: avoid complicated schemes of organization c. Style: Metaphors: they help an audience visualize d. Memory: good speakers draw on collection of ideas and phrases stored in the mind e. Delivery: naturalness is persuasive: artifice or staged communication is opposite Pulling from knowledge and other areas where you are flexible and invent arguments what you have prepared might not match the mood of the audience. Chapter 23 Dramatism: Burke 1. In this theory, what is the role of guilt? a. It is the catchall term for every form of tension, anxiety, embarrassment, shame, disgust, and other noxious feelings. b. All communication stems from guilt 2. What is identification, and how is it related to persuasion? a. The recognized common ground between speaker and audience, such as physical characteristics, talents, occupation, experiences, personality, beliefs, and attitudes. b. The more overlap between substance of the speaker and the substance of the listener the greater the identification c. Without identification there is no persuasion i. Without some kind of division there would be no need for identification 3. What is the dramatistic pentad? a. Act: what was done b. Scene: where the act took place c. Agent: who did the act d. Agency: how the act was done e. Purpose: why the speaker is talking about the act 4. In the pentad, what is a ratio? a. A lot of responsibility on the person who did the act b. Terrorists doing evil acts i. Emphasis and responsibility is definitely with the terrorist 5. What are the god terms and devil terms? a. God term: words to which all other issues are subservient: i. Best and most positive b. Devil term: word that sums up all that is bad and evil 6. What is perspective by incongruity? a. Juxtaposing two unlike things to see one or both in a new light i. The Boston marathon bomber on the cover of rolling stone 7. What are mortification and victimage? a. Mortification: confession of guilt i. I am the scapegoat b. Victimage: i. An external enemy is the scapegoat ii. Passing the blame


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