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PURDUE / agronomy / AGRY 32000 / What are the model organisms?

What are the model organisms?

What are the model organisms?

Description

.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-5}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-0,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-1 0}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8 0}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5}ul.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-0}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3 0}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-6 0}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-1}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5 0}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-2 0}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-8}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-1}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-3,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-4 0}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-2}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-1}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-7}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-8}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-3 0}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-6}.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-4}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-8}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-6 0}.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3860piv0iapu-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3860piv0iapu-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jgz1qpt4lxc1-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jgz1qpt4lxc1-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3860piv0iapu-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-4 0}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3860piv0iapu-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3860piv0iapu-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qcszgrz20q28-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_urvkb0eyv3n3-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_urvkb0eyv3n3-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qcszgrz20q28-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_urvkb0eyv3n3-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hc7v1t8kl21y-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-5 0}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_urvkb0eyv3n3-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fxewrd5489z5-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-7 0}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-6}.lst-kix_qcszgrz20q28-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_qcszgrz20q28-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-8 0}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_63t6xptq1yc7-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v7qvu5bn7x72-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_k3vo40vb8mm7-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9omoxjd9n82z-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-4}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_jgz1qpt4lxc1-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_c0hyik8xt404-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-3}.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_k3vo40vb8mm7-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eheb3equwp72-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-7 0}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-3 0}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3z6ykg6mkoj0-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-7}.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-2}.lst-kix_izhch627d3x5-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v7qvu5bn7x72-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_v7qvu5bn7x72-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-8 0}.lst-kix_v7qvu5bn7x72-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_v7qvu5bn7x72-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-6}ol.lst-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sx9q37lf79vd-4 0}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-3}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9fnbahshsj45-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_o2awtw4d1ql3-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_be21yzguujea-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_be21yzguujea-0 0}.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_brtj2nu4y0th-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_z89ofairmtnp-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z89ofairmtnp-5 0}.lst-kix_6l3ixim498dw-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_v7qvu5bn7x72-3 > li:before{content:"● 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AGRY 32000: GeneticsWe also discuss several other topics like uconn econ

Lecture 1

Objectives

  • To understand:
  • Definition of a gene
  • DNA → RNA → protein into flow
  • Genetic diversity

If you want to learn more check out math 3070 class notes
Don't forget about the age old question of Who first used introspection?

Organisms > cells > nucleus with chromosomes > DNA > double helix

Traits are influenced by genes

Genetics: Study of genes, inheritance and inherited traits

  • Transmission genetics: traits passed parent → offspring
  • Molecular genetics: DNA → gene within, between cells
  • Population genetics: changes over time in genetics in pop

We also discuss several other topics like What is a psychologist?

Mendel’s experiments

PP x pp → Pp 1st generation hybrid (all people)

Pp x Pp → PP, Pp, pp 2nd generation hybrid (3:1 purple to white)

  • Blending theory was refused

We also discuss several other topics like How does equilibrium income change?

One gene-one enzyme model

        Gene A → Enzyme A (each gene codes one enzyme only)

                        ⤷ came together to make protein

DNA - responsible for gene inheritance

  • Bases: A-T, C-G pairs

We also discuss several other topics like What refers to a group of nations, territories or peoples under the control of a single entity/ruler?

Gene: fundamental unit of heredity that carries info from one generation to next.

  • A segment of DNA composed of transcribed and regulatory sequences

Central dogma info transfer between biological molecules

               ↷

(Replication) DNA → RNA → Protein

               ◡                :                 :                

                 (Transcription)  (Translation)

Model Organisms: simple, easily manipulated system

  • Characteristics:
  • Short life cycles with rapid development
  • Small adult size
  • Ready availability
  • Tractability
  • Eg. fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster)
  • Large visible chromosomes
  • 14-day life cycle
  • Many observable mutations
  • Eg. E. Coli
  • Recombinant DNA techniques
  • .5 hour per generation
  • Eg. Baker’s yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Eukaryote
  • 12 mb
  • Rapid life cycle
  • Eg. Mouse
  • Smallest mammals
  • Very similar to human genes
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Small genome (130 mB)
  • 6 week, small cycle
  • Small size

Applications of Genetics

  • Medicine: disease, diagnostics, research
  • Agriculture: breeding, research
  • Society: evolution, model organisms
  • Science: food safety, biosafety

Genetic Mutations

  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) are most common
  • Lactose Gene variants
  • only present in babies originally
  • In areas where milk was prevalent in adult diets, mutations occurred to be able to produce lactose as adults

Genetic Innovation

  • First GMO animal approved by FDA, Nov 2015

(more sensitive issue than plants)

  • CRISPR-Cas: micro pig
  • Single Δ in DNA (one gene)

DNA Structure and Replication

History of DNA

  • 1910
  • genes and mutations affect phenotype
  • one gene one enzyme hypothesis
  • Genes reside on chromosomes
  • Chromosomes consist of DNA and protein

  • Genetical Material Must
  1. Allow faithful replication
  2. Have informational content
  3. Be able to change

DNA is the genetic material: experiments to prove this

  • Griffith Experiment, 1928
  • Transformation of R cells into S cells

But, what is the identity of “transforming” substances?

  • Avery, Macleod and McCarty, 1944
  • Essential material for transformation was DNA
  • Hershey and Chase, 1952
  • Phages protein and DNA were labeled radioactively, recovered material in host was DNA

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid

  • Four nucleotides bases
  • Puriens: A, G
  • Pyrimidines: C, T, O
  • Structure
  1. Phosphate (-) charge
  2. Sugar (dioxygenase) : links bases and phosphate groups

                        groups are used as links

                        hydroxyl group defines RNA, DNA diff

  1. Bases

(Polymers of nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester bonds)

Erwin Chargaff’s  rule of base composition

  • (T+C) = (A+G)
  • A=T , C=G

1953: Watson and Crick structure model of double helix

  • Sugar phosphate backbone with phosphodiester bonds
  • Bases linked by H bonds
  • A,T have 2 bonds
  • C, G have 33 bonds
  • Antiparallel strands that are complementary
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