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Quiz 1 Study Guide

by: jjb13n

Quiz 1 Study Guide PSB 3004C

GPA 2.54

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Quiz 1 Study Guide
Physiological Psychology
Dr Hull
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Physiological Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by jjb13n on Friday January 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSB 3004C at Florida State University taught by Dr Hull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Quiz 1 Study Guide   (Note: The last 2 questions are not included as Dr. Hull said they will not be on the quiz)    Ch. 1  ● In what ways can behavior change the brain?  ○ Learning scores and brain size are correlated  ○ Strength of mating behavior is correlated with hormone levels  ○ Enlarged cerebral ventricles is correlated with schizophrenic symptoms  ● Give an example of how expectation can influence brain activity and perception.  ○ Putting a male in presence of female ­­­> change in hormone levels  ● What did Descartes believe about the pineal gland? What did he contribute to our  understanding of reflexes?  ○ He proposed the pineal gland as the junction b/w mind and body  ○ Proposed concept of spinal reflexes and their neural pathways  ○ Proposed Dualism (idea that humans have a nonmaterial soul as well as a material  body)  ● What did Paul Broca discover about the brain’s localization of language function?  ○ Broca showed that language ability is restricted to a small area, based on a patient  with damage in that area  ● What is one physical sign of schizophrenia?  ○ Enlarged cerebral ventricles  ● Summarize current opinion on the relation between brain size and intelligence.  ○ After correcting for body size, about 10% of variability in IQ can be accounted  for by brain size.  (Highest correlation coefficient reported was 0.38.)    Chapter 2  ● What are the 3 major functional classes of neurons?  ○ Motoneurons  ○ Sensory neurons  ○ Interneurons  ● What is axonal transport, and how is it important to the functioning of neurons?  How can axonal transport be used to study pathways in the brain?  ○ Axonal transport is the movement of materials along microtubules within an axon  ○ We trace axons from one source to another using Tracing Patterns in the Brain:  ■ Anterograde Labeling uses radioactive molecules taken up by the cell and  then transported to the axon tips along microtubules  ■ Retrograde Labeling uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP) ­ it is taken up in  the axon terminals and transported to the cell bodies, then visualized  through chemical reactions  ● Describe the typical synapse. What is the sequence of events at the synapse that is  triggered by electrical activity in the axon?  ○ Info is transmitted across the synaptic cleft (20­40 nm) from the presynaptic  neuron to the postsynaptic neuron via chemical neurotransmitters  ● What are glial cells? Name four types of glial cells and describe their functions.  ○ Astrocytes (star­shaped; recieve neuronal input; monitor activity)  ■ Take up and release neurotransmitters  ■ Regulate ion balance, especially K+  ■ Provide glucose to neurons  ■ Some end on blood vessels and help regulate vasodilation  ■ Some alter shape to impede or promote synaptic connections among  neurons  ○ Microglia  ■ Encircle and remove debris from injured cells  ○ Oligodendrocytes  ■ Small glia that have a few branches to axons → fatty myelin sheaths in  CNS  ○ Schwann cells  ■ whole cell wraps around a small part of an axon in the peripheral nervous  system (PNS)  ● What are the main structural components of a typical neuron and the function of  each? Which part of the neuron “decides” whether to fire an action potential?  ○ Components:  ■ Dendrites (receive info from other cells)  ■ Cell Body (region where inputs are combined and transformed)  ■ Axon (leads away from cell body and transmits the electrical impulse)  ■ Axon Terminals (at end of axon; communicate activity to other cells)  ○ Axon hillock      ● Describe the general function of the sympathetic nervous system. List at least 4 of its  effects. Where do most of its ganglia lie?  What transmitters are released by its  preganglionic vs. postganglionic neurons?  ○ Prepares the body for action  ○ Effects:  ■ Increases blood pressure  ■ Increases breathing and heart rates  ■ Distributes blood to major muscles  ■ Slows digestion  ■ Stimulates ejaculation  ○ Has preganglionic neurons in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord, (innervates  sympathetic chain­­which runs along each side of the spinal column), and several  other ganglia near their targets  ○ Preganglionic transmitter: Acetylcholine (ACh)  ○ Postganglionic transmitter: Norepinephrine (NE)  ● Describe the general function of the parasympathetic nervous system. List at least 4  of its effects. Which transmitter is released by its preganglionic and postganglionic  neurons?  ○ Function: to oppose sympathetic nervous system activity  ○ Effects:  ■ Promotes digestion  ■ Slows heart and breathing rates  ■ Decreases blood pressure  ■ Promotes erection and clitoral engorgement  ○ Acetylcholine    ● Name the 4 lobes of the cortex and give at least one function of each.   ○ Frontal (controls personality and communication)  ○ Parietal (Sensation and Perception)  ○ Occipital (Visual Processing)  ○ Temporal (Auditory Processing)  ● What nuclei make up the basal ganglia? Which disorder results from degeneration  of the major dopamine tract associated with the basal ganglia?  ○ Nuclei:  ■ Caudate Nucleus  ■ Putmen  ■ Globus Pallidus  ■ Substantia Nigra  ○ Parkinson’s disease  ● What is the main function of the thalamus?  ○ Relay sensory info to cortex  ● What are 4 major functions of the hypothalamus?  ○ Feeding  ○ Fighting  ○ Fleeing  ○ Fornicating  ● What is the corpus callosum? What color is it? Why?  ○ Bundle of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres  ○ White  ■  b/c of the axons that coordinate the 2 hemispheres    ● Name 4 structures that can be seen on a mid­sagittal section of the brain.  ○ Hypothalamus  ○ Thalamus  ○ Midbrain   ○ Pituitary  ● Where are the superior and inferior colliculi,and what are their functions?  ○ Midbrain sensory systems; together known as the tectum  ○ Superior colliculi (process visual info)  ○ Inferior colliculi (process auditory info)  ● What are the 2 major dopamine containing tracts?   ○ Nigrostriatal dopamine tract    ○ Ventral Tegmental Area     ● Where is the pineal gland, and what is its function?  What did Descartes think was  its major function?   ○ In front of & b/w the superior colliculi, on the ceiling of the midbrain   ○ Produces melatonin (for sleep)  ○ “Seat of the soul”  ● Where is the cerebellum located? What is its major function?  ○ Where the brain connects to the spinal cord  ○ Motor coordination and learning    ● Where are the pons and medulla? Give at least one function of each.  ○ Pons  ■ Attached to cerebellum  ■ Contains motor and sensory nuclei; gives rise to cranial nerves  ○ Medulla  ■ Marks transition from brain to spinal cord  ■ Contains cranial nerve nuclei that regulate breathing, heart rate, coughing,  vomiting, etc  ● What and where is the reticular formation?  ○ Involved with sleep and arousal, temperature and motor control  ○ Located in midbrain  ● Which brain area controls the pituitary?  ○ Hypothalamus  ● What are the 4 major parts of the limbic system? Give a function of each.  ○ Amygdala (emotional regulation; perception of odor)  ○ Hippocampus and fornix (learning)  ○ Cingulate gyrus (attention, emotions)  ○ Hypothalamus (emotions and motivated behaviors)  ○ Olfactory bulb (sense of smell)  ● How many layers are in the cortex? What are cortical columns?  ○ 6 layers  ○ Neurons in the cortex are organized into​  cortical columns.  ○ Each column is perpendicular to the cortical layers and serves as a unit to process  information.  ○ Cortical regions communicate with one another via tracts of axons.          


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