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ANTH 209 - Midterm #1 Study Guide - Winter 2016 (Daniel J. Hoffman)

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by: Royce Bayley

ANTH 209 - Midterm #1 Study Guide - Winter 2016 (Daniel J. Hoffman) ANTH 209

Marketplace > University of Washington > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 209 > ANTH 209 Midterm 1 Study Guide Winter 2016 Daniel J Hoffman
Royce Bayley
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Complete Midterm #1 Study Guide
Anthropology through Visual Media
Daniel J. Hoffman
Study Guide
ANTH, ANTH 209, Hoffman, Winter
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"No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!"
Hassie Homenick

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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Royce Bayley on Friday January 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 209 at University of Washington taught by Daniel J. Hoffman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Anthropology through Visual Media in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 01/15/16
ANTH 209 – Midterm #1 – Daniel J. Hoffman "The Myth of Photographic Truth" - Considering the idea that images hold truth as a myth, not because images don't tell the truth, but because the truth is always inflected with culture; never pure and uninfluenced by contextual factors. Formal Analysis - Describing image details like point of view, framing (tight/wide), impact of color, social context, and relationships between elements Semiotics - It's an analytic method where one takes apart the signs and symbols in a message to investage the meaning withhin the image itself, and how this meaning is brought into the image; connotative and denotative meanings Ideology - (Semiotic Analysis term) The shared set of values and beliefs that exist within a given society and through which individuals live out their relations to social institutions and structures. Over time. these values and beliefs appear naturally and become common sense. Basically, it's when the connotative meanings becomes denotative and common sense. Denotative Meaning - (Semiotic Analysis term) The literal and face-valued meanings of a sign. Connotative Meaning - (Semiotic Analysis term) All the social, cultural, and historical symbolic meanings that are added to a sign's literal meaning. Icon - (Semiotic Analysis term) an image (or person) that symbolizes or refers to something with significance beyond its individual components. Iconic Sign - (Semiotic Analysis term) A sign where the signifier literally resembles the signified. (Charles Peirce) Indexical Sign - (Semiotic Analysis term) a signifier image that is caused by what is being signified. It indicates those signs in which there is a physical causal connection between the signified, because both existed at some point within the same physical space (Charles Peirce) Signifier - (Semiotic Analysis term) the given name/term but not the actual thing/object; the word, image or object within a sign that conveys meaning. Ex. the word "chicken" and the actual creature we call chicken Signified - (Semiotic Analysis term) the actual thing/object; the mental concept of the referent, which together with the signifier makes the sign. Ex. The signified of a smiley face is happiness. Sign - (Semiotic Analysis term) signifier + signified; describes the relationship between a vehicle of meaning, such as a word, image, or object, and its specific meaning in a particular context. Referent - (Semiotic Analysis term) the thing that exists in the real life, what the signifier is referring to. Interpellation - (Semiotic Analysis term) (Louis Althusser) a term that describes the process by which ideological systems call out to or irresistibly "hail" social subjects & tell them their place in the system. Floating Signifier - (Semiotic Analysis term) (Ernesto "Che" Guevara) It's an empty signifier that's loose enough to mean many things to many people. It's altered and exploited, strayed from original message and ideals. Discourse - (Discursive Analysis) body of knowledge that both defines and constricts what can be said about something; the way thinking is framed and how knowledge is produced. Panopticon - (Discursive Analysis) (Michael Foucault) characterizing the ways that modern social subjects regulate their own behavior. This term is borrowed from Jeremy Bentham's idea of a panoptic prison, in which the prisoner can always be observed but the guard in the watch tower, yet not know when that gaze is directed on him and when it is not. Discipline - (Discursive Analysis) discourse disciplines subjects, hard to break away from the norm; becomes natural and common sense. Viewer - individuals who bring their personal contexts, codes, and conventions to the image. Audience - the assembled spectators of a public display, such as a play, movie, concert, media or image. Encoding - the production of meaning in cultural products. Decoding - the process of interpreting and giving meaning to cultural products in conformity with shared cultural codes. Dominant/Hegemonic Reading - (Stuart Hall) Dominant ideologies that are often offered as common sense, with no room for negotiation. the social subjects, whether whether like it or not, unquestioningly accept the message that the producers are transmitting to them. Negotiated Reading - (Stuart Hall) one in which consumers accept some aspects of the dominant readings and rejects others. Oppositional Reading / Subversive Reading - (Stuart Hall) taking Hegemonic code and decoding it into its opposite meaning; one in which consumers fully reject the dominant meaning of a cultural product. This can take the form not only of disagreeing with a message but also of deliberately ignoring or even appropriating and changing it. An image read differently than what was intended. Bricolage - (Dick Hebdige) "repurposing"; the practice of working with whatever materials at hand to create new meanings Ex: the punk practice of wearing safety pins as body ornamentation. Counter-Hegemonic Bricolage - (Robert Goldman) "re-appropriation"; the practice used by marketers and advertisers to "borrow" and sell as commodities aspects of bricolage style. Orientalism - (Edward Said) It's the practice of representing the culture or the world of the exotic other in a stereotypical way. Gaze - who gets to look at whom and in what conditions; what the technology is used at work; gives a relationship by the image, power, sexuality, and gender. Ex. The gaze can be motivated by the subject's desire of control over the object it sees, and an object can likewise capture and hold the look. Appropriation - the action of taking something for one's own use, typically without the owner's permission. The act of borrowing, stealing, or taking over others' works, images, words, meanings to one's own ends. Psychoanalytic Theory - (Sigmund Freud, psychoanalyst) how the mind works that emphasizes the role of the unconscious and desire in shaping a subject's actions, feelings and motives. Semiotic Analysis - looks further than just the surface (deeper, symbolic meaning) and what that meaning signifies. Discursive Analysis - how an image can influence and discipline it's viewers, deciding what is acceptable and normal. 3 ways to approach an image "anthropologically" - 1) What is conveyed in the image? 2) What is the "social life" of the image? 3) What are the conditions of an image's production? Louis Althusser - Power and its impacts; "Interpellation...the irresistible hail." Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence Ideologies are sets of ideas and beliefs shaped through the unconscious in relationship to other social forces Michael Foucault - Discourse. Not just spoken language but the institutional practices through which meaning is produced. Helps us understand how power systems work to define how things are understood and spoken about in a given society. Karl Marx - Analyzed the role of economics in the progress of history, the ways that capitalism works in terms of class restrictions (dominant class owns/controls newspaper, tv, film, and can control the content generated) Stuart Hall - Modes of encoding and decoding images: 1. Hegemonic or dominant reading 2. Negotiated reading 3. Oppositional reading Ernesto "Che" Guevara - His picture became a hallmark, altered and exploited. It strayed from his original messages and ideals; capitalism at play. Example of a floating signifier. Jeremy Bentham - philosopher with the idea of a panoptic prison, in which the prisoner can always be observed but the guard in the watch tower yet not know when that gaze is directed on him and when it is not. Roland Barthes - the cultural and political perspectives of readers are never fully according to the intentions of the producer or author Marxism Theory - A theory that analyzes both the role of economics in the progress of history and the ways that capitalism works in the terms of class relations.


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