notes and final review guide
notes and final review guide CJ 100
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatum Messer on Friday January 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 112 views.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
NOTES highlighted sections= important to know for exam About poise function Most visible presence of gov’t in us Images from policing come mainly from fiction FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT Transportation security administration Provide security for nations transportation systems (TSA) FEDERAL AIR MARSHAL Highest firearm qualification standards in the law enforcement community US CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION Us border patrol Protect 1900 miles of border with Mexico 5000 miles of our border with Canada CBP OFFICER (customs and border protection) US SECRET SERVICE Originally established in 1865 solely to suppress the counterfeiting of US currency Dual mission now: protection of national and international leaders and safe guard air financial infrastructure FBI #1 priority is to protect the us from terrorist attacks US MARSHALS SERVICE Nations oldest and most versatile federal law enforcement agency. Serves as the enforcement arms of federal courts Apprehend more than half of all federal fugitives, protect the federal judiciary operate the witness security program and transport fed. Prisoners along with seize criminal property EMPLOYMENT IN THE FIELD Experience/ internships Foreign languages Physical fitness Background (criminal/ social media) Firearm proficiency Police and Job stress External stress- real thoughts and danger Organizational stress – scheduling changes irregular work hrs and detailed rules and procedures History of Policing Early middle ages The frankpledge system required that groups of 10 called tithings agreed to uphold law keep order and bring violators to court In 1829 sir robert peel created the first official police force in London “Bobbies” Policing was localized to prevent a national force that would threaten civil liberties POLICING IN AMERICA By 1840 the political era of policing had emerged In 1845 new York city established the first full time paid police force in the US (bonus on the quiz) The professional model era Focused on attaining a more efficient govt and a crime fighting focus The police have to get out of politics and vice versa The community policing era Greater emphasis on keeping order and providing services to the community Broken window theory PREVENTATIVE PATROL Kansas city preventative patrol exp. 3 sections were divided into reactive patrol Proactive patrol and a control group Increasing level police patrol had no effect on overall crime rate HOT SPOTS Research shows that crime is not spread evenly Resources should focus on concentration policing efforts to hot sports or high crime areas RAPID RESPONSE TIME Studies have shown that response times have little impact on the ability of officers to intercept a crime in progress and arrest the criminal In about ¾ of crime calls the police are already in a reactive role FOOT VS MOTORIZED PATROL Research finding Foot patrols do not have a great impact on reducing crime Citizen satisfactory with police increases Increased foot patrol do reduce fear of crime DO DETECTIVES REALLY SOLVE CRIMES? Detectives were responsible for clearing less than 3% of all index crimes Reality is bulk of detectives time is spent on cases that will never be solved So who is responsible for solving majority of crimes? ------ answer= patrol officer THE GOALS OF PUNISHMENT RETRIBUTION --- deserved punishment “Eye for an eye” Pay their debts to society DETERENCE --- criminal punishment used as a basis for affecting the future choices and behavior of individuals Potential offenders will consider costs vs crime General deterrence provides ex to general public Specific deterrence --- targets the decisions and behavior of offenders who’ve been convicted INCAPACITATION Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society (prison) Capital punishment is the ultimate method Selective --- targeting repeat offenders with longer prison terms (career criminals) DEATH PENALTY AS CRIMINAL PUNISHMENT The us supreme court suspended its self from amid debates concerning the 8 amend. Furman v Georgia --- suspended death penalty but also held states rewrite death penalty laws Holding : supreme court found that the death penalty was being imposed in an unconstitutional manner Never ruled death penalty itself as unconstitutional WHICH STATE HAS THE LARGEST TOTAL # OF DEATH ROW INMATES AS OF JULY 1, 2014? California – 743 total Rehabilitation Goal of restoring a convicted offender to a constructive place in society through training and therapy Focuses on the offender – offenders are treated not punished Judges should avoid fixed sentences instead of using max or min guidelines to release offenders when rehabilitated POLICE RESPONSE AND ACTION Police are mainly reactive Usually arrive at the scene after crime was committed Incident driven policing focuses on priority calls ABUSE OF POWER Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force What is excessive force- any force beyond what is necessary to arrest suspect Use of deadly force TENNESSEE V GARNER “fleeing felons” Probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious physical injury CAUSATION OF RESULT Result--- occurs because of the commission of the actus reus DIRECT V CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE Direct--- demonstrates proof beyond reasonable doubt Circumstantial--- requires inference from a jury (majority in court) POLICE CORRUPTION Grass eaters: officers who accept payoffs that the routines of police work bring their way Meat eaters: officers who actively use their power for personal gain Bail: pretrial release Bail is a sum of money or property specified by a judge that the defendant must present to the court in order to gain pretrial release Bail will be forfeited if the defendant does not appear in court as scheduled NO CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BE RELEASED ON BAIL REFORMING BAIL SYSTEM Pretrial release methods Citations : starting to be issued for more serious offenses Release of recognizance Judges discretion if defendant is reliable and has roots in community 10% cash bail BAIL BONDSMAN Private business that loans money to def. who lack to make bail Charge a fee (usually 5-10% of bail amount) To put up money to gain the defendants release If charges dropped the bondsman still keeps the fee paid to make bail ELEMENTS OF A CRIME Actus reus --- the evil act Act or conduct that is prohibited by law Must be a voluntary act or a qualifying omission Voluntary--- performed consciously as a result of effort Omission--- failure to perform an act when physically capable MENS REA: Evil mind Level of intent to commit an actus reus Varying degrees of murder BONUS--- strict liability --- have actus reus without evil mind--- no intent but still punishable ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES Specific circumstances which must surround the actus reus (criminal act) ZODIAC MURDERS CASE Northern California Originated name zodiac in letters taunting the police Zodiac claimed 37 murders in letters only 7 of which were confirmed AURTHUR LEIGH ALLEN suspect almost found guilty had heart attack right before being found guilty. FINAL EXAM GUIDE!!!! 1. Police officers • Educational background • Reality of work and job description • Stress and work life balance 2. Detective / Investigator • Real world vs tv • How you get there • A day in the life 3. Attorney / lawyer • Law school and how you get there • Passing the bar • Reality of work • Specialty areas (prosecution, defense, civil) • Criminal defense attorneys make the big money 4. Judge • How you get there is 8-10 years of attorney 1. Probation or parole officer • Reality of work 1. Correctional officer • Work environment • Reality of work • Good way to get experience 2. Federal investigator • Reality of work 3. Crime scene investigator • Education/training 4. Intelligence careers • Education background • Foreign languages • Reality of work 5. Private investigator • Work environment • As a career 6. Bondsman/ Bounty Hunting • Nature of work 7. Clinical Psychologist • Nature of work • How you get there • Closest to profiling • Completing PHD program- (5-6 years) • Need to be psych. Major and CJ major or minor
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