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MSU / Biology / BIOL 1144 / What is the study of classifying and grouping organisms?

What is the study of classifying and grouping organisms?

What is the study of classifying and grouping organisms?

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology II
Professor: Thomas holder
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Biology
Cost: 25
Name: BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Jan 11 Notes
Description: Hey! So these are notes from the first week of class! They cover chapters 26-31.
Uploaded: 01/15/2016
6 Pages 67 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews

Arnulfo Olson DVM (Rating: )

I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!



Chapter 26


What is the study of classifying and grouping organisms?



Taxonomy and Systematics 

 Taxonomy  

◦ The study of classifying and grouping organisms  

◦ We classify things based on hierarchical groups  

‣ Each group is called a taxon  

Carolus Linnaeus 1753  

◦ Dealt with plants  

◦ Looked at plants and animals and named them based on shape, color, size, roots, etc.  ◦ Binomial System of Nomenclature  

‣ 2-worded scientific name  

• "Artificial"  

‣ First word is a noun, second word is an adjective  

‣ Done to make it easier for humans  

 5 Kingdom Concept  

◦ Monera - Prokaryotic Cells  


What is the oldest living organisms?



‣ Lack nucleus  

‣ Lack membrane bounded structures  

◦ Protista -Eukaryotic Cells  

◦ Fungi - Eukaryotic Cells  ◦ Plantae - Eukaryotic Cells  ◦ Animalia - Eukaryotic Cells  

 Taxon Hierarchy - gray wolf  ◦ Kingdom Animalia  

◦ Phylum Chordata  

◦ Class Mammalia

◦ Order Carnivora  

◦ Family Canidae

• Nucleus  

• Membrane bounded structure  

◦ Genus Canis (always italicized and a noun) Lupus (always italicized and an adjective)  

 Systematics  

◦ Biological diversity and evolutionary relationships  

◦ Molecular genetics and morphology  


How many species does the kingdom animalia have?



◦ Phylogenetic trees  

 

Chapter 27  

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Diversity  

◦ Kingdom Monera

‣ (2 Domains: Archaea and Bacteria)  We also discuss several other topics like Define molecular biology.

‣ Prokaryotic Cells  

‣ Lack nucleus  

‣ Lack membrane bound structures  ‣ Lack sexual reproduction  

‣ Most abundant!

‣ Fossils - 3.5 billion years (Ancestral to Euks)  

• Species  

◦ Reproductive

◦ Archaea  

‣ "almost" nucleus  

‣ Similar cytoplasm to Euks

‣ Specialized membranes  

‣ Can live in areas others can't  

• Lava, ice, deserts, etc.  

◦ Bacteria  

‣ Proteobacteria "true bacteria"  

‣ Cyanobacteria "blue greens"  

• Photosynthetic  

◦ Produce food (capture sunlight)  

• Transform N2

◦ All Monera

‣ Difficult to determine evolutionary relationships  ◦ Eukaryotic Cells - true nucleus  

‣ "compartments"  

• Cell organelles  

◦ "Internal membrane system"  

Chapter 28

Kingdom Protista  

• Earliest euks

• Most:  

◦ Most environments  

◦ Microscopic  

• DNA - many separate groups  

Algae - "plant-like" (mostly)  We also discuss several other topics like What is the neurotransmitter released in the synapse between the 2 neurons?

• 10 groups  

• Autotrophic - "self-feeding"  

◦ Photosynthesis  

◦ Some "ingest"  

• Unicellular > multicellular  

◦ Giant kelps  

Protozoans - "animal-like"  

• Heterotrophic - "ingest feeding"  

• Unicellular > multicellular  

Fungal-like Protista - "fungi-like"  

• Saprotrophic - "absorb feeding"  

• Multicellular  

• Lightening and volcano activity  ◦ Convert n2

• Most are microscopic  

Chapter 31

Kingdom Fungi  

• Largest organism  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of water that make it such an important medium for life?

◦ Super organism in the ground  

• Soil  

◦ Body is in the soil or within other materials  

• "Conspicuous" portions - mushroom or mold or yeast?  • "Recyclers"  

◦ They break things down  

‣ Those things get used again somewhere else  We also discuss several other topics like Which government did aristotle prefer?

• Heterotrophic/Saprotrophic  

• A few are eaters  

◦ Parasitic  

• The body > mycelium - composed of filaments called Hyphae • "Fruiting bodies" - they're representing the reproductive side  • Spores - reproductive cells  

• Rhizomorphs - water transporting filaments  

• Cell Walls - with chitin  

Chapter 29 & 30  

Kingdom Plantae 

• 300,000+ species  

• Multicellular and eukaryotic  

◦ No single cell algae  

• Most are autotrophic - "self feeding"  

◦ Everything else is dependent upon photosynthesis  • Mostly terrestrial  

◦ Most in the ground/soil  

‣ Even the ones in the water are anchored in the ground  • Food storage compound = starch  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the seven themes of psychological science?

• Photosynthetic pigments =  

◦ Chlorophylls a and b, B-carotene  

‣ a = primary We also discuss several other topics like What are the three domains of nutrition diagnosis?

• Cell wall -cellulose > internal support  

◦ Cellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate in the world  • 3 Characteristics > Plant Kingdom  

Land Plants - Kingdom Plantae

• Ancestor - algae (green)  

◦ Algae is aquatic  

• Fossils - 400 mybp (million years before present)  • Life on land -must get H2O from soil  

◦ Roots  

10 Major Groups of Plants  

• Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts) 6500  

• Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts) 100  • Phylum Bryophyta (mosses) 12,000  

Number of species

"Bryophytes"

Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes) 1000  Phylum Pteriodophyta (ferns and allies) 12,000  

• Phylum Cycadophyta (cycods) 300  

• Phylum Ginkgophyta (ginkgo) 1  

• Phylum Gnetophyta (gnetophytes) 300  • Phylum Coniferophyta (cone-bearing trees) 500  

Pteriodophytes

Gymnosperms = "naked seeds"  

• Phylum Anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plant) 300,000  ◦ 90% are in this group  

Bryophytes-  

• Reproduce by spores (no seeds)  

• Non vascular  

◦ Lack conducting tissues  

‣ Xylem, phloem  

◦ Don't have water  

• Smallest plants - 1/2 M  

• Require external water for reproduction  

◦ Sperm swims in water to where egg is  

Pteriodophytes -fossil record (extensive)  

• Small - 10 M  

• Reproduce by spores  

◦ No seeds  

• Vascular tissues (conducting)  

◦ Xylem - conduct H2O and minerals  

◦ Phloem - conduct food  

• "True" roots, stems, and leaves  

• Require external water for reproduction  

Gymnosperms - cone-bearing trees (mostly)  • Oldest living organism  

◦ Bristlecone Pine  

‣ 446 years old  

• Biggest organism  

◦ Giant Sequoia  

• Tallest Organism  

◦ Redwood  

‣ 160 or so M  

• Vascular tissues - xylem and phloem  

• "naked seeds"  

◦ Advanced character  

Angiosperms = "enclosed  seeds"  

• Within a fruit/vessel

‣ Within seeds:  • Embryo  

• Stored food  

Exposed  (Not enclosed)

• Protective covering called integument  

‣ Seed has "survival value"  

• Does not require external H2O for reproduction  ◦ Pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location  

Angiosperms  

• "enclosed seeds"  

◦ Within fruit/vessel  

• Vascular tissues - more advanced; most complex  • Seed:  

◦ Embryo  

◦ Stored food  

◦ Protective coverings - 2 integuments  

• Better "survival value"  

• Flowers - attract pollinators  

• Fruits - enclose/protect seed and assist with seed dispersal  • 300,000+ species in this group  

• Doesn't require external H2O for reproduction  

◦ Pollen tube delivers sperm to the egg  

Kingdom Animalia  

• 1.5-3 million species  

◦ Half are insects  

• Single ancestor  

◦ Flagellated protist  

• 35 Animal Phylum(s)  

• More similarity within animal genomes than other kingdoms  • Characteristics  

◦ Multicellular  

◦ Lack cell walls  

◦ Sexual reproduction - mobile, small sperm and larger egg  • How Genes:  

◦ Determine the shape of the embryo  

• Nervous Tissues - (mostly)  

• Cell Junctions  

◦ Anchoring  

◦ Gap  

◦ Tight  

• Proteins binding cells  

Classification/Systematics  

• Molecular genetics  

• Development (embryonic)  

• Morphology  

• Body Plans: 4 morph. and developmental features  ◦ Body Symmetry  

◦ Number of Tissue Layers  

◦ Presence/Absence of a "True" Body Cavity  

◦ Patterns of Embryonic Development  

• Metazoans (multicellular and animal)  

◦ Parazoa (sponges)  

◦ Eumetazoa (all others)

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