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CMN 103 Midterm Paper Sutdy Guide

by: Gillian Notetaker

CMN 103 Midterm Paper Sutdy Guide CMN 103

Marketplace > DePaul University > Communication > CMN 103 > CMN 103 Midterm Paper Sutdy Guide
Gillian Notetaker
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

Notes of what we have gone over in class so far, useful for the midterm paper.
Intercultural communication
Ariana Puentes
Study Guide
communication, Communications, Intercultural, Paper, midterm, Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gillian Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 103 at DePaul University taught by Ariana Puentes in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Intercultural communication in Communication at DePaul University.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Intercultural Communication Notes for Midterm (Paper) Reasons to be Aware of Intercultural Communication Self-Awareness – To gain an understanding of our own personality. Demographic – To critically analyze the evolving domestic and international migration. Economic – To be aware of issues of globalization and the challenges around cultural understanding. Peace – To gain skills to work through issues of colonialism, economic disparities, and racial, ethnic, and religious differences. Ethical – To grasp that ethical principals are cultural and understanding how to be ethical in various settings. - Relativity – No inherent right or wrong. - Universality – Right and wrong are universal. Key Terms Anglocentrism Colonialism Dialogical Approach Diasporic Groups Ethnocentrism Heterogeneous Identity Management Self-Reflexivity History of Intercultural Communication - Edward Hall: Founding father. - Cross-cultural and diversity training needs. - Discovering the importance of nonverbal communication. Proxemics and distance zones. People’s use of personal space. Interdisciplinary Focus - Linguistics: Understand the importance of language and its role in intercultural interaction. - Anthropologists: Understand the role that culture plays and the importance of nonverbal communication. - Psychologists: Understand notions of stereotyping and the way in which prejudice functions and in intercultural interaction. - Affected by how culture is defined. Three Primary Approaches 1. Social Science - Assumption: That human behavior is predictable. - Goal: To describe and predict behavior. - Methods: Quantitative - Limitations: Not culturally sensitive, unable to identify all variables that affect communication. 2. Interpretive - Assumption: That reality is external to humans but also that humans construct reality. Two-way street. - Goal: To understand and describe human behavior. - Method: Qualitative (field studies and observation). - Limitations: Few interpretivists studies and outsiders to the communities under investigation. 3. Critical - Assumption: That examining and reporting how power functions in cultural situations can help people learn how to resist forces of power and oppression. - Goal: To understand human behavior and to change the lives of everyday communication. - Method: Textual analysis. - Limitations: Do not focus on face-to-face interactions and does not allow for data to emerge. Dialectical Perspective - Culture changes as do individuals. - Viewing relationships holistically rather than in isolation. - Holding contradictory ideas simultaneously. Key Terms Anxiety uncertainty management theory Individualistic culture Collectivistic culture Communication accommodation theory Conversational constraints theory Dialectical approach Diffusion of innovations theory Distance zones Face negotiation theory Macrocontexts Proxemics Rhetorical approach Textual analysis Qualitative methods Quantitative methods 10/12 Culture, Communication, and Power Culture - “Learned patterns of behavior and attitudes shared by a group of people” – Text. - There is not one set definition. - Important to reflect on the significance of culture in our own interactions. - How we think about culture frames our ideas and perceptions. - Dialectic approach offers more flexibility in approaching the topic. - The 3 approaches define and view culture differently. Social Science Approach to Culture - “As a set of learned, group-related perceptions – including both verbal and nonverbal language and attitudes, values, belief systems, disbelief systems, and behavior”. - “Programming of the mind” – Geert Hofstede. o Patterns are developed through interactions in the social environment and with various groups of people. - Focus on the influence of culture on communication. - Culture as a collective experience. Interpretive Approach to Culture - “Shared and learned patterns of behaviors and attitudes” – Text. - Focus on how cultural contexts influence communication. - Ethnography of communication: Look for symbolic meaning of verbal and nonverbal activities to understand patterns and rules of communication. - Cultural patterns must posses a symbolic significance: The importance of meaning that most members of a cultural group attach to a communication activity. - Culture involves emotions – embodied ethnocentrism. o Feeling comfortable and familiar in the spaces, behaviors, and actions of others in our own cultural surroundings. Framework of Speaking 1. Scene – Setting of the communication event. 2. Participate – People who perform or enact the event. 3. End – The goal for the participants in communication. 4. Act Sequence – The order of phrases during the enactment. 5. Key – Tone of the conversation. 6. Instrumentality – The channel of communication. 7. Norm – The rules that people follow. 8. Genre – The type or category of talk. Critical Approach to Culture - “The way that people participate in or resist society’s structure” – Text. - View communication and the power to communicate as instrumental in reshaping culture. - Focus on the heterogeneity of cultural groups and the conflictual nature of cultural boundaries. - Cultural processes as dynamic and fluid “organizations of diversity” that extend across national and regional borders within contexts of history and power. What is Communication? - “A symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed” – Text. - Defined in various ways, no single definition. - Defining characteristic is meaning. Social Science Approach to Communication - Highlight the sender/receiver, message, channel, and context. - Emphasize that communication is patterned and can be predicted. - Focuses on the variables on communication. Interpretive Approach to Communication - Highlight the symbolic, processual nature on communication – no inherent meaning. - Each message has more than one meaning. - Emphasis that the process by which we negotiate meaning is dynamic. Critical Approach to Communication - Focuses on the importance of societal forces in the communication process. - Highlight powerful social symbols that communicate meaning nonverbally. The Relationship Between Culture and Communication - Culture and communication are interrelated and reciprocal. - Cultural groups influence the process by which the perception of reality is created and maintained. - Culture influences communication through cultural values. - Hofstede’s value of orientation: o Power distance – social inequality. o Femininity vs. masculinity – the social implications of having been born male or female. o Ways of dealing with uncertainty, controlling aggression, and expressing emotions. o Long-term vs. short-term orientation to life. - Seek to understand communication patterns that are situated socially and give voice to cultural identity. - Look at communication ritual and see culture as performative. - Communication as way of contesting and resisting the dominate culture. The Relationship Between Communication and Context - Created by the physical or social aspects of the situation in which communication occurs. - Is neither static nor objective. - Is multilayered. - Consists of the social, political, and historical structures in which communication occurs. The Relationship Between Communication and Power - Power is pervasive in communication interactions. - Communication is rarely equal. - Those in power create and maintain communication systems that reflect, reinforce, and promote their own way of thinking and communicating. - Parts of group-related power: 1. Primary – Age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities, race, and sexual orientation. 2. Secondary – Educational background, geographic location, marital status, and socioeconomic status. - Come from social institutions and the roles individuals occupy in those institutions. 10/19 History of Intercultural Communication - A dialectical interplay between past and present. - The history that we know and our views of hat history are influenced by our culture. - How we think about the past influences how we think about ourselves and others. - Contextualize intercultural communication. - Culture and cultural identities have no meaning without history. - No single version of the past. Types of Histories - Political: focus on political events. - Social: seek to understand the everyday life experiences. - Intellectual: focus on the development of ideas. - Absent: part of history that was not recorded or missing. - Family: identify each cultural habits/traits and family’s participation in historical events. - National: gives us a shared notion of who we are and solidifies our sense of nationhood. - Cultural Group: helps us understand the identities of various groups. History, Power, and Intercultural Communication - Power is a major factor in the writing of history. - Dictates what is taught and what is silenced, what is available and what is erased. - Influences the content of the history we know and the way it is delivered. - Political texts reflect the disparities of access of political participation in various countries at various times in history. - The grand narrative dominated how people though of past, present, and future. o Leads to some “truths” over other possible conclusions. - Power is the legacy. History and Identity - Allows us to make sense of who we are and who we think others are. - Tells us about how our culture negotiates its relation to the past, as well as how we view the relations of other nations and cultures to their pasts. - History is inescapable. Types of Identity Histories - Nonmainstream: hidden histories; suppressed or marginalized in our understanding the past. - Sexual Orientation: experiences of gays and lesbians. - Diasporic: ways in which international cultural groups were created through transnational migrations, slavery, religious crusades, etc. - Colonial: legitimate international invasions and takeovers. - Socioeconomic: economic and class issues that prompted many people to emigrate/migrate. - Religious: how religious matter have shaped events and issues. Intercultural Communication and History - People bring 4 elements of personal history to intercultural communication: 1. Childhood experiences. 2. Historical myths. 3. Language competence. 4. Memories of recent political events. - Contact hypothesis: communication between groups is facilitated simply by putting people together in the same place and allowing them to interact. o Will only work if certain conditions are met:  Group members must be of equal status and relatively equal numbers.  Contact must be voluntary, extend beyond the superficial, have institutional support, and promote similarity and individuations of group members.  There should be maximum cooperation among participants. Negotiating Histories Dialectically - Recognize that we all bring our own histories to interactions. - Understand the role that histories play in identities. - Be aware of you own historical blinders. Key Terms - Contact hypothesis - Diaspora - Grand narratives - Hidden histories - Modernist identity Identity - A concept of who we are. - It serves as a bridge between culture and communication. - Through communication we come to understand ourselves and form our identity. - We develop multiple identities that come into play at different times, depending on the context. - Characteristics of identity may be understood differently depending on the perspectives that people take. Social Science and Identity - Emphasizes that identity is created in part by the self and in part in relation to group membership. - Self is composed of multiple identities and these notions of identity are culture bound. - Identities are self0created, formed through identity conflicts and crises, through identity diffusion and confusion. Interpretive and Identity - Emphasizes that identities are negotiated, co-created, reinforced, and challenged through communication with others. - Believe that our identities are expressed communicatively – in core symbols, labels, and norms. Critical and Identity - Emphasizes the contextual and conflictual elements of identity development. - Pays particular attention to the societal structures and institutions that constrain identities and are often the root of injustice and oppression. - Identity is not constructed alone. Theories and Terminology - Impression management theory: how people present themselves and how they guide the impression others form of them. - Negotiation theory: the process of communicating one’s own desired identities while reinforcing or resisting other’s identities. - Avowal: the process by which individuals portray themselves. - Ascription: the process by which others attribute identities to them. - Interpellation: the communication process by which one is pulled into the social forces that place people into a specific theory. Universal Aspects of Identity 1. Individualized identity: the sense of self as independent and self- reliant. 2. Familial identity: the sense of self as always connected to family and others. 3. Spiritual identity: the identification with feelings of connectedness to others and higher meanings in life. Social and Cultural Identities - Gender - Age - Sex - Race - Ethnicity - Religion - Class - Nationality - Region Personal Identity - The sum of all our identities. - May not be unified or coherent. - We are who we are BUT contextual and external forces constrain and influence our self-perceptions. - We use the various ways that identity is constructed to portray ourselves as we want others to see us. Identity and Communication - We assume knowledge about another person’s identity based on his or her membership in a particular cultural group. - Identity characteristics can form the basis for stereotypes and prejudice. - We negotiate our identities in our everyday interactions.


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