HUN1201 Exam 1 Study Guide
HUN1201 Exam 1 Study Guide HUN1201
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HUN1201 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Jafari-Nasabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 424 views.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
1 NUTRITION EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 Food pathway: Ingestion Absorption Transportation Digestion Excretion PellagraNiacin deficiency – 3Ds (Diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia) cornbased diets are a major cause b/c corn is deficient in tryptophan and niacin Deficiency diseases: caused by poor nutrition; scurvy (ex: lack of vitamin C) and chronic disease (ex: heart attack and stroke) type II diabetes Obesity = BMI of >30 Healthy People 2020 – attempts to increase quality and years of healthy life and based on every 10 year agenda Nutrients – chemicals in foods for growth and function; organic (contain carbon; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins) and inorganic (MINERALS and water) o MACRONUTRIENTS – provide energy and are needed in high amounts (carbohydrates, lipids/fats, proteins) Carbohydrates = 4 kcal/gram Protein = 4 kcal/gram Alcohol = 7 kcal/gram Lipids = 9 kcal/gram o micronutrients – facilitate the release of energy and required in small amounts (vitamins, minerals, water); can be destroyed by light, heat, air, etc. Alcohol is a DRUG/TOXIN! Glucose – stored as glycogen in liver and muscle o Mature red blood cells (RBCs) only use glucose for energy o Oxidation of glucose produces 4 kcal/gram Lipids – insoluble in water (triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids) o Stored as adipose tissue (body fat) o Provide fatsoluble vitamins Proteins – vital for building new cells/tissues, maintaining bone, repairing tissues, regulating metabolism, and regulation fluid balance Minerals – inorganic and exist in the simplest possible form (can’t be broken down further or destroyed by light/heat) o Major minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Magnesium, and Sulfur (can people suck pussy can men suffer) vs. Trace minerals: others Vitamins – Fat soluble: A, D, E, K (a dog eats kibble) and Water soluble: others Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) – dietary standards for healthy people only and includes: 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) 2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 3. Adequate Intake (AI) 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) 5. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) 6. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) 2 Determining Nutrient Needs: o EAR – intake that will meet the needs of half of individuals in lifestage or gender group of the HEALTHY population (used to define RDA of a nutrient) o RDA – use the EAR as a base and meet the needs of practically all HEALTHY populations o AI – reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient for healthy people o UL – maximum daily amount that appears safe for most healthy people Establishing Energy Recommendations: o EER – average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance for healthy people o AMDR – range of intakes for adequate energy and reduce risk of chronic disease; AMDR for Carbohydrates is 4565%, Fat is 2035%, Protein is 1035% Primary deficiency (direct consequence of inadequate intake) vs. Secondary deficiency (person cannot absorb enough of nutrient, too much nutrient is excreted, nutrient is not utilized efficiently) Subclinical deficiency – occurs in early stages; few or no symptoms Covert symptoms – hidden and require lab tests or other procedures to detect (overt = obvious symptoms) CHAPTER 2 The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: A statement of identity, Net contents of the package, Ingredient list (must be listed in descending order by weight, therefore; the first product listed is the predominant ingredient), Manufacturer’s name and address, and Nutrition information. The Daily Values (DV) Estimate of individual foods’ contribution to total diet % DV If food contains ≥ 20% of nutrient, it is an excellent source (1019 = good source, ≤5% = low) Nutrients and health claims must meet FDAapproved definitions (Ex: “low in sodium” indicates that the particular food contains ≤ 140 mg of sodium per serving) Sodium free < 5 mg Calorie free <5 kcal Low calorie ≤ 40 kcal **All per serving Fat free < 0.5 mg Saturated fat free < 0.5 g Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Developed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services) Updated every 5 years (Most recent update was in 2005) Four Key Recommendations: (Balance Calories to maintain weight, Consume fewer foods "of concern", Consume more healthful foods and nutrients, Follow healthy eating patterns) Increased recommendation for vitamin D Reduce consumption of these foods 3 Sodium – linked to high blood pressure and calcium loss Fat – consume "healthy" fats in moderation; avoid trans and saturated Sugars – contribute significantly to obesity and tooth decay Alcohol – provides no nutrients and can lead to numerous serious conditions if consumed in excess Consume More Healthful Foods Increase intake of fruits and vegetables Make at least 50% of your grain foods "whole grain" Choose fatfree or lowfat milk/dairy products Choose proteins lower in solid fats and Calories, such as lean beef, skinless poultry, and seafood Choose foods that provide fiber and key nutrients, including potassium, calcium, and vitamin D Physical Activity Physical fitness includes cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise 30 min daily minimum of moderate activity most days of the week 6090 min/day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss Food Groups to Encourage Sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needs (provide key nutrients: vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, potassium and magnesium) Choose a variety from five vegetable subgroups Wholegrain foods (Choose 3 or more ounces/servings per day) Lowfat or fatfree milk or equivalent (Choose 3 or more cups/servings per day) Sodium and Potassium Potassium is linked to bone health (prevents osteoporosis) Excess sodium consumption: Linked to hypertension in some people and can cause loss of calcium from bones Key recommendations: o Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt) o Consume potassiumrich foods (fruits, vegetables) MyPlate is intended to help Americans Five food groups: 1. Grains – Foods in this group provide fiberrich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium (3 cups/servings) 2. Vegetables – Eat more dark green and orange veggies and more dry beans and peas; provide fiber and phytochemicals, carbohydrates, vitamins A & C, folate, potassium, and magnesium (2.5 cups) 3. Fruits – provide fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins A & C, folate, potassium, and magnesium (1.5 cups); avoid fruit juices… 4. Dairy – People who can't consume dairy can choose lowerlactose or lactosefree dairy products or other calcium sources, such as: calciumfortified juices; soy and rice beverages; provide calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin 12, and many are fortified with vitamin A and D (3 cups) 4 5. Protein and Oils – Protein: phosphorus, vitamins B6 and B 12magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin (55 oz. per day) Oils: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetables o Sources of omega3, vitamin E and essential fatty acids o Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat, Less than 300 mg of cholesterol o Trans fats should be as low as possible o Total fats: 20–30% of total calories (lean protein sources) Phytochemicals: Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance health Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffee May reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease) MyPlate Serving Sizes The number of servings for each section of the pyramid is based on the recommended calorie level Ounceequivalent: A serving size that is 1 ounce for the grains and the protein sections of myPlate Grains (1 ounceequivalent) 1 slice of bread 1 cup readytoeat cereal 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Vegetables (1 cupequivalent) 2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach) 1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli) Meats (1 ounceequivalent) 3oz. meat is 3 ozequivalents 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 ozequivalents in the meat and beans group There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any food Adaptations of previous versions of USDA Food Guide Pyramid: Athletes—emphasized hydration 5 Children and adults over age 70 Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Ethnic and cultural variations: Mediterranean Diet and Pyramid (This diet has received widespread attention for its many healthful impacts) MEAT is eaten only occasionally (monthly) Eggs, poultry, fish and sweets are consumed weekly or less Primary fat used in food preparation is olive oil, a healthful monounsaturated fat Daily foods include highquality grains, fruits, beans, nuts, vegetables, cheese and yogurt; providing a diet high in fiber, rich in nutrients, and relatively low in unhealthy fats and sugars CHAPTER 13 Body Mass Index Less than 18.5 (underweight) Greater than 2530 (OVERweight) Greater than 3040 (obese) Greater than 40 (morbidly obese); body weight exceeding 100% of normal BMI = [weight (lbs)/height (inches)^2] x 703 Fat Distribution “Appleshaped” is more common in men and more at risk for chronic disease than “Pearshaped” (women and less risk for chronic disease) Measuring body fat by: o Underwater weight o Skinfold measurement o Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) o Dualenergy xray absorptiometry (DXA); most accurate o Bod Pod Gaining or Losing Weight depends on: Energy intake vs. expenditure (about 3500 kcal will result in gain of 1lb) Family history Smoker/nonsmoker 6 Behavioral and social factors Childhood obesity **KNOW HOW TO CALCULATE ENERGY INTAKE! (percent of a certain macromolecule; carbohydrate, protein, fat, or alcohol consumption) Energy Expenditure is based on three components: Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Thermic effect of food (TEF), Energy cost of physical activity o BMR is energy to maintain resting functions of the body and is determined by the amount of muscle (more muscle, higher BMR) High metabolism (Hypothyroidism) has a low BMR Low metabolism (Hyperthyroidism) has a high BMR o Thermic effect of food is about 510% of energy content of a meal o Physical activity is about 1535% of total daily energy output Direct calorimetry – method that measures the amount of heat that body releases Indirect calorimetry – estimates energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production Genetic Factors: Height, weight, body shape, metabolic rate About 25% of one’s body fat is due to genetic influences ** Proteins affect the regulation of appetite and storage of body fat: Leptin acts to reduce food intake Ghrelin stimulates appetite and Peptide YY (PYY) decreases appetite Uncoupling proteins in brown adipose issue increase energy expenditure (found in children; high amount of mitochondria) CCK and Gallbladder Cholecystokinin (CCK) is produced by intestinal cells and stimulates the gallbladder to secrete bile o CCK in liver bloodstream received by gallbladder (which contracts) secretes bile Increase Satiety (lower food intake) Hormones— serotonin and CCK Increase in blood sugar after meal, stomach expansion, nutrient absorption from small intestine Decrease Satiety (increase food intake) 7 Hormones—betaendorphin (exercise) Neuropeptide Y (produced in hypothalamus), and decreased blood sugar levels WEIGHT LOSS DIETS Moderatefat, HIGH carb, moderateprotein diets • Balanced in nutrients: • 20−30% calories from fat, 55−60% from carbohydrate, 15−20% from protein • Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, DASH diet, and the USDA MyPyramid • Gradual weight loss of 12 pounds per week • Typical energy deficits = 500−1,000 kcal per day Highfat, low carb, highprotein diets • 55–65% of total energy intake as fat and less than 100 g of carbohydrate per day • Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution, Protein Power • Causes ketosis • Decreases blood sugar and insulin levels • Reduces appetite • Concerns about longterm compliance, potential health risks, and side effects Lowfat and verylowfat diets • About 11−19% of total energy as fat • Verylowfatdiets contain less than 10% • Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease and The New Pritikin Program • Complex fiber and carbs • Regular physical activity • May decrease LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin levels, and blood pressure Metabolic Syndrome A cluster of factors increases risk for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke: Abdominal obesity, >40 inches for men, > 35 inches for women, Triglyceride levels > 150 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol levels <40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women, Blood pressure (> 130/80 mm Hg), Fasting blood glucose > 100 mg/dL CHAPTER 13.5 Anorexia Nervosa • Potential deadly eating disorder • Female/male ratio is 9 : 1 • 5−20% of females with anorexia will die from complications within 10 years of diagnosis • Most common and most deadly psychiatric disorder diagnosed in women and leading cause of death in females between the age of 15 and 24 years • History of sexual abuse is present in 50% of cases • Amenorrhea – No menstrual periods for at least 3 months (occurs with insufficient energy to maintain normal body functions) • Health risks: Energy and nutrient deficiency, Electrolyte imbalance, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular problems, Bone problems Bulimia Nervosa (more common than anorexia) 8 Affects more women than men, Predominantly seen in teenage girls and young women Female/male ratio is 10 : 1; Affects 1−4% of women 1% of bulimia patients will die from complications within 10 years of diagnosis Occurs on average at least 2/weekly for 3 months Signs: Chronically inflamed and sore throat, Swollen glands in the neck and below the jaw, Eroded enamel due to acid injury and increasingly sensitive and decaying teeth Most common cause of death is arrhythmia, usually related to hypokalemia from laxative abuse and vomiting ALCOHOL • A drink is the amount of a beverage that provides approximately 1/2 fluid oz of pure alcohol • 12 oz of beer • 10 oz of wine cooler • 45 oz of wine • 1.5 oz of 80proof whiskey, scotch, gin, or vodka • Proof is a measure of the alcohol content of a liquid • Recommended in “moderation” • 1 drink per day for females • 2 drinks per day for men Social and health benefits • Reduced stress and anxiety; enhanced selfconfidence • Improved appetite and dietary intake • Reduced cardiovascular risks: o ↑ HDL (“good” cholesterol) o ↓ LDL (“bad” cholesterol) o ↓ Abnormal blood clot formation • Resveratrol – phytochemical found in red wines, grapes, and nuts (may lower risk for certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and liver disease) Concerns • Is linked to increased risk for: • Breast cancer • Hypertension • Hemorrhagic stroke • May increase total energy intake, increasing the risk of overweight or obesity • Alcoholic beverages fail to trigger the satiety response • Potential alcoholdrug interaction • Magnifies the effect of drug • Increases the risk of GIbleeding, stomach bleeding, or liver damage 9 Alcohol Absorption • Absorbed directly from the stomach and small intestine • Absorbed into the blood and transported to be metabolized by the liver • Liver typically oxidizes alcohol at a constant rate (about 1 drink per hour) • Consuming foods with some fat, protein, and fiber can reduce blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by up to 50% • This rate varies with the individual’s gender, genetic profile, state of health, body size, use of medication, and nutritional status • Excess alcohol goes back into the blood Firstpass metabolism: small amount of alcohol is oxidized in the GI, before being absorbed into the bloodstream • Gastric (Stomach) ADH • Reduce alcohol absorption • Genetic and gender differences in amount of ADH activity • Note: ADH is present in both the stomach and the liver Hangover consequences include: • Fluid/electrolyte imbalance • Stomach and gastric irritation/inflammation • Metabolic disturbances • Biological disturbances Alcohol Abuse • Alcohol poisoning – serious metabolic response to very high intakes o Reduces oxygen level reaching the brain; can result in death from respiratory or cardiac failure • Binge drinking = consuming 5 or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion (men) or 4 or more (women) • Chronic drinkers experience: o Metabolic tolerance o The liver becomes more efficient in its breakdown of alcohol o BAC rises more slowly after drinking o Functional tolerance o Individuals show few signs of impairment /intoxication, even at high BAC • Reduced liver function • Cirrhosis of the liver – endstage liver disease Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Causes malformations of developing fetus's face, limbs, heart, and nervous system Child will suffer from emotional, social, learning, and developmental disabilities (effects are permanent)
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