AMH2097 Exam 1 Study Guide (Terms List)
AMH2097 Exam 1 Study Guide (Terms List) AMH2097
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Amundson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 332 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Terms List for AMH 2097 Exam 1 Encomienda system – created by the Spanish to control and regulate American Indian labor and behavior during the colonization of the Americas. The Spanish crown granted a person a specified number of natives of a specific community to take responsibility for instruction in the Christian faith, protection from warring tribes and pirates, instruction in the Spanish language and development and maintenance of infrastructure. In return, the natives would give tributes in the form of metals, maize, wheat, pork or any other agricultural product. Diego DeLanda – a Spanish bishop whose writings contain much valuable information on pre Columbian Maya civilization, and his actions which destroyed much of that civilization's history, literature, and traditions. Landa's Inquisition showered a level of physical abuse upon the indigenous Maya that many viewed as excessive, and was at the very least unusual. Protestant Reformation – the 16th century schism within the Catholic Church in Europe; it is Martin Luther who is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation. Luther began by criticizing the selling of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Catholic doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the gospel. Our Lady of Guadalupe – most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in the world, and the world's third mostvisited sacred site. According to tradition, Mary appeared to Juan Diego, who was an Aztec convert to Christianity. She requested that a shrine to her be built on the spot where she appeared, Tepeyac Hill La Florida – refers to the Spanish territory of Florida. Assuming that he had found a large island, Ponce de Leon claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida, because it was the season of Pascua Florida Dutch West India Corporation – eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the Dutch colonization of the Americas. Queen Elizabeth I – After the Protestant Elizabeth ascended to the English throne in 1558, Protestantism became dominant in England, and rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified. In the 1570s and 1580s, Elizabeth's troops crushed the Irish uprising with terrible ferocity, inflicting unspeakable atrocities upon the native Irish people. The English crown confiscated Irish lands and "planted" them with new Protestant landlords from Scotland and England. Although accused of being vain, fickle, prejudiced, and miserly, she proved to be an unusually successful ruler. Sir Walter Raleigh – In 1584, Queen Elizabeth granted Raleigh a royal charter, authorizing him to explore, colonize, and rule any "remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, or inhabited by Christian People," (in return for onefifth of all the gold and silver that might be mined there). He sent others to found the Roanoke Colony, later known as the "Lost Colony". When the supply ship arrived in Roanoke, three years later than planned, the colonists had disappeared. The only clue to their fate was the word "CROATOAN" carved into tree trunks. Jamestown – the first permanent English settlement in the Americas; it followed several earlier failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke. The natives initially welcomed and provided crucial provisions and support for the colonists, who were not agriculturally inclined. Mortality at Jamestown itself was very high due to disease and starvation, with over 80% of the colonists perishing. Tobacco – Many were willing to buy so growing tobacco became very popular in Jamestown. This pressured the colonists to expand their territory because a lot of land is needed for growing tobacco to grow large amounts and because tobacco exhausted the soil. The need for land made Europeans move more inward away from the center of European settlement, which was going in to the native's land. Tobacco quickly became the most valuable crop. By 1616 tobacco was profitless due to overproduction. Maryland – an opportunity to grant religious freedom to the Catholics who remained in Anglican England (Catholics were still a persecuted minority in the seventeenth century). Unlike the religious experiments to the North, economic opportunity was the draw for many Maryland colonists. The first inhabitants were a mixture of country gentlemen (mostly Catholic) and workers and artisans (mostly Protestant). This mixture would surely doom the Catholic experiment. The desire to make profits from tobacco soon led to the need for lowcost labor. As a result, the number of indentured servants greatly expanded and the social structure of Maryland reflected this change. Puritans – Puritans were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries that sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed. Squanto – a Patuxet man who assisted the Pilgrims after their first winter in what is now Massachusetts. He was integral to their very survival. Great Migration – the migration of English people from England to the New World between the years of 1630 and 1640 because King James opposed the growing Puritan population of England. or the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970, had a huge impact on urban life in the United States. Driven from their homes by unsatisfactory economic opportunities and harsh segregationist laws, many blacks headed north, where they took advantage of the need for industrial workers that first arose during the First World War. Roger Williams – a notable proponent of religious toleration and the separation of church and state, and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. Massachusetts wasted no time in banishing him. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay. He is credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America. Anne Hutchinson – Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638. She thought the enforcement of proper behavior from church members conflicted with the doctrine of predestination. She asked simply: "If God has predetermined for me salvation or damnation, how could any behavior of mine change my fate?" This sort of thinking was seen as extremely dangerous. Triangle Trade Route – The Triangular Trade was a system in which slaves, crops, and manufactured goods were traded between Africa, the Caribbean, and the American colonies. Olaudah Equiano – a prominent African in London, a freed slave who supported the British movement to end the slave trade. His autobiography, published in 1789 and attracting wide attention, was considered highly influential in gaining passage of the Slave Trade Act 1807, which ended the African trade for Britain and its colonies. Phillis Wheatley – the first published AfricanAmerican female poet. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven and transported to North America. She was purchased by the Wheatley family of Boston, who taught her to read and write, and encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent. In 1776, Washington invited Wheatley to visit him at his headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Bacon’s Rebellion – an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon to retaliate for a series of Native American attacks on frontier settlements When Sir William Berkeley refused to retaliate against the Native Americans, farmers gathered around at the report of a new raiding party. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland took place later that year. Germans – Most of them came because of civil unrest, severe unemployment or almost inconceivable hardships at home. This wave of immigration affected almost every city and almost every person in America. From 1820 to 1870, over seven and a half million immigrants came to the United States — more than the entire population of the country in 1810. Impressment – British Navy that would take men eligible for serving the navy. Republicanism – the ideology of governing the nation as a republic, where the head of state is not appointed through hereditary means, but usually through an election , A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed. Liberalism – rejected the notions, common at the time, of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings. The 17thcentury philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition. Locke argued that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property, while adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract. Liberals opposed traditional conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy and the rule of law. John Locke – Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government. Salutary neglect – a large contributing factor that led to the American Revolutionary War. Since the imperial authority did not assert the power that it had, the colonists were left to govern themselves. These essentially sovereign colonies soon became accustomed to the idea of selfcontrol. They also realized that they were powerful enough to defeat the British (with help from France), and decided to revolt. Elected officials saw themselves as the leaders of the English colonies. John Peter Zenger – Zenger was accused of LIBEL, when you published information that was opposed to the government. He printed articles criticizing the royal governor. However, the jury would not find him guilty, promoting the idea of free speech in America. The Great Awakening – A movement of religious revival during the mid to late 18th century. It was a time that saw a dramatic increase in preaching and church attendance, and religious and spiritual matters were brought to the forefront of American life, more so than they had been since before the enlightenment. People not only started to pay more attention to spiritual matters, particularly the Christian faith, but people also started to think about how these things played a role in their everyday lives. Jonathan Edwards – He was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his " Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God " sermon. Plan of Union – a plan to place colonies under a more centralized government, suggested by Benjamin Franklin. French and Indian War – The French and Indian War, a colonial extension of the Seven Years War that ravaged Europe from 1756 to 1763, was the bloodiest American war in the 18th century. The results of the war effectively ended French political and cultural influence in North America. England gained massive amounts of land and vastly strengthened its hold on the continent. The effects of the French and Indian War played a major role in the worsening relationship between England and its colonies that eventually led into the Revolutionary War. Pontiac’s War – In 1763, the Treaty of Paris brought the French and Indian War to a close. American Indians in the Ohio Country feared the loss of their traditional ally (French) and also believed that British settlers would be moving soon across the Appalachian Mountains. To prevent the incursion of whites, Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa encouraged Ohio Country American Indians to unite together and to rise up in 1763. The Ottawa attacked Fort Detroit in May 1763. For Native Americans, Pontiac's War demonstrated the possibilities of pantribal cooperation in resisting AngloAmerican colonial expansion. Neolin – believed that the native people needed to reject European goods and abandon dependency on foreign settlers in order to return to a more traditional lifestyle. He made arguments against alcohol, materialism, and polygamy. Neolin emphasized that the favor of God in blessing the Indians with game to hunt would be spoiled if they did not forsake their evil collusion with the alien white men. Stamp Act – an act of the British Parliament in 1756 that exacted revenue from the American colonies by imposing a stamp duty on newspapers and legal and commercial documents. Colonial opposition led to the act's repeal in 1766 and helped encourage the revolutionary movement against the British Crown. The Levelers – Group of tenants in New York in the 1760s that argued that landlords kept too much land. They believed they lived on the land that they should have owned it. They were removed by their landlords; this caused levelers to form mobs for their cause (would become loyalists during Revolutionary War). Loyalists – The group of American colonist that remain loyal to the king during and after the American Revolution. When the British lost the war many left the United States. The Articles of Confederation – an agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution. The Articles provided a system for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Native American relations. Governed nation during the American Revolutionary War (raised army, paid soldiers) Negotiated the Treaty of Paris at end of war (established independence from Britain and set boundaries for US) Passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 (townships and free public education) Passed the Northwest Ordinance how new territory settled and settlers (Weaknesses: Each state had one vote in Congress, Laws must be approved by 9 or 13 states, amendments had to be approved by all 13 states, Congress cannot tax, Congress cannot control trade between states or with foreign countries, No executive or judicial branch, Congress had to ask the states for money) Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. The ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation Gradual Emancipation – method of ending slavery in countries where slavery was legal. This involved the person who was recognized as the owner of a slave being compensated monetarily or by a period of labor (an 'apprenticeship') for releasing the slave. This proved unpopular, as for the slaves it amounted to little more than continued mandatory servitude, while it placed an added burden of wages on the former owner. Judith Sargent Murray – (17511820) She was the first American woman to write in favor of women’s rights. Her education was limited (compared to her brothers) due to colleges excluding women. Her political beliefs on women were influenced by her religion (universalism). She argued that women’s inferiority was influenced by limited education. She was a feminist and believed gender roles limited women. She wanted women to be seen as individuals. The Age of Reason – Written by Thomas Paine; influenced patriots to continue in the American Revolution. He wrote the pamphlet from prison in France, argued that Christianity worshiped a man (Jesus) rather than a god. It was a denial of god in order to worship a man. He asked his readers to reconsider the bible; you shouldn’t let priests influence your decisions (caused only 1020% of Americans to attend church) Supported by antifederalists who sought to question the elite. Election of 1800 – The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party; proFrench and pro decentralization DemocraticRepublicans under Jefferson, against incumbent Adams’s proBritish and procentralization Federalists (Jefferson won). Alien and Sedition Acts – Great Britain began enforcing the Alien and Sedition acts; these bills increased the number of years before immigrants could be seen as North Americans. It would be used to convict Republicans (antifederalists) who supported the French. Lewis and Clark Expedition – Louisiana Purchase was sold to Thomas Jefferson from the French, who sought to give up expeditions in North America. Which would lead to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The travel diaries would include experiences with tribal groups who would teach them about trading and greeted them with hospitality. Sacagawea would join their expedition and return home after 2 years. Elizabeth Freeman – was among the first black slaves in Massachusetts to file a "freedom suit" and win in court under the 1780 constitution, with a ruling that slavery was illegal. The Second Great Awakening – Christianity would become central to American culture; preachers were open in their desire to convert ANYONE (women, rich, poor, indigenous, slave, etc.) and would particularly influence black men and women. Richard Allen – a minister, educator, writer, and one of America's most active and influential black leaders. In 1794 he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), the first independent black denomination in the United States. African Methodist Episcopal Church – a predominantly AfricanAmerican Methodist denomination based in the United States. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. Gabriel’s Rebellion – was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twentyfive followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions. Second Middle Passage – The second stage of the transatlantic slave trade was also called the Middle Passage. The Middle Passage was a horrifying experience for slaves headed to the Americas. Slaves were quartered on ships for up to two months and treated as cargo. They were often chained in shackles and kept below deck where they had to lay down because there was less than three feet of height. There was never enough food or fresh air for the slaves. Many of the slaves died of starvation and disease. Denmark Vesey – In 1820 he was alleged to be the ringleader of a planned slave revolt. Vesey and his followers were said to be planning to kill slaveholders in Charleston, liberate the slaves, and sail to the black republic of Haiti for refuge. They were arrested before the rising could begin, and Vesey would be condemned to death. Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World – arguably the most radical of all antislavery documents, caused a great stir when it was published in September of 1829 with its call for slaves to revolt against their masters. The goal of the Appeal was to instill pride in its black readers and give hope that change would someday come. Reform Movements: Temperance – a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements typically criticize excessive alcohol consumption, promote complete abstinence, or use its political influence to press the government to enact alcohol laws to regulate the availability of alcohol or even its complete prohibition. Dorothea Dix and Treatment of the Mentally Ill – a devote Methodist who convinced the state to reform the treatment of the mentally ill; an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. Utopians: Shakers and Oneida – Shakers were founded in the 18th century in England, having branched off from a Quaker community. They were known as "Shaking Quakers" because of their ecstatic behavior during worship services. Shakers today are mostly known for their celibate and communal lifestyle, pacifism, and their model of equality of the sexes, which they institutionalized in their society in the 1780s. They are also known for their simple living, architecture, and furniture. **Quakers were the first to join the abolitionist movement. Sylvester Graham – Presbyterian minister that preached that a vegetarian diet was a cure for alcoholism, and, more importantly, sexual urges. The main thrust of his teachings was to curb lust. While alcohol had useful medicinal qualities, it should never be abused by social drinking. For Graham, an unhealthy diet stimulated excessive sexual desire which irritated the body and caused disease. Nat Turner – an AfricanAmerican slave who led a slave rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Virginia. They went from plantation to plantation they gathered horses, guns, freed other slaves along the way, and recruited other blacks that wanted to join their revolt. At the end of their rebellion they were accused of the deaths of fifty white people. Frederick Douglass – tried to escape from slavery twice before he succeeded. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement. Douglass wrote and published his first autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, in 1845. Underground Railroad – a network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19thcentury enslaved people of African descent in the United States in efforts to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. Fugitive Slave Act – required that all escaped slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters and that officials and citizens of free states had to cooperate in this law (many Northerners opposed this). War of 1812 a military conflict, lasting for two and a half years, fought by the United States of America against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies. Freedom’s Journal (1827) – the first African American owned and operated newspaper in the United States. Editorials deriding slavery, racial discrimination, and other injustices against African Americans were aimed at providing a counter weight to many of the white newspapers of the time period which openly supported slavery and racial bias. Jarena Lee – African American woman that would be the first woman authorized to preach by Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1819. In one year alone, she "travelled two thousand three hundred and twentyfive miles, and preached one hundred and seventyeight sermons." Maria Miller Stewart – an AfricanAmerican servant who became a journalist, lecturer, abolitionist, and women's rights activist. The first American woman to speak to a mixed audience of men and women, whites and black, Stewart was also the first AfricanAmerican woman to make public lectures, as well as to lecture about women’s rights and make a public antislavery speech. Angelina Grimke & Sarah Grimke – American writers, orators, educators, and Quakers who were the first American women advocates of abolition and women's rights. They would speak out against the cruelty of slavery and spoke on their firsthand experiences with slavery on their family's plantation. Believed that their family would go to hell for the way their family treated black slaves. Also spoke for women’s rights. The Seneca Fall’s Convention – the first women's rights convention organized by female Quakers local to the area. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman”. Held in Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over July 19–20, 1848. Attracting widespread attention, it was soon followed by other women's rights conventions. Trail of Tears – In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died. Andrew Jackson – assured the Indian leaders that they could become “civilized” and unite with the Americans. His main priority was to push the Cherokee out of their land, and implemented the “Trail of Tears”. John Ross – Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828–1866, serving longer in this position than any other person. Described as the Moses of his people, Ross influenced the Indian nation through such tumultuous events as the relocation to Indian Territory and the American Civil War. The Treaty Party was convinced to sign the Treaty of New Echota on December 29, 1835, requiring the Cherokee to leave by 1838. Neither Ross nor the council approved it, but the Federal government regarded the treaty as valid. It would send the Army to move those who did not depart by 1838 in an action known ever after as the "Trail of Tears." John Ridge – Ridge was chosen for the Cherokee National Council and became a leader in the tribe. Believing that Indian Removal was inevitable, they supported making a treaty with the United States government to protect Cherokee rights. He was a signator to the Treaty of New Echota of 1835, by which they ceded Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands in Indian Territory. The land cession was opposed by the majority of the tribe and the Principal Chief John Ross, but the treaty was ratified by the US Senate. Sequoyah – developed the writing system for the Cherokee language; their literacy rate quickly surpassed that of surrounding EuropeanAmerican settlers. Potato Famine Throughout the Famine years, nearly a million Irish arrived in the United States. Famine immigrants were the first big wave of poor refugees ever to arrive in the U.S. and Americans were simply overwhelmed. Upon arrival in America, the Irish found the going to be quite tough. With no one to help them, they immediately settled into the lowest rung of society and waged a daily battle for survival. Americans were slow to accept the Irish as equals, preferring instead to judge them by the cartoon stereotypes of drunken, brawling Irishmen published in newspapers of the day. “Bridgets” brought the Irish into the American melting pot: the Irish domestic servant; bridgets were young Irish women who emigrated from Ireland between 1840 and 1930. Gottfried Duden a German emigration writer of the early 19th century. His famous book gave romantic and glowing descriptions of the Missouri River valley between St. Louis and Hermann, Missouri. KnowNothing Party also known as the American Party, was a prominent United States political party during the late 1840s and the early 1850s. The American Party originated in 1849. Its members strongly opposed immigrants and followers of the Catholic Church. The KnowNothings feared that the Catholics were more loyal to the Pope than to the United States. More radical members of the KnowNothing Party believed that the Catholics intended to take over the United States of America. Nativism the policy of protecting the interests of nativeborn or established inhabitants against those of immigrants. MexicanAmerican War marked the first U.S. armed conflict chiefly fought on foreign soil. It pitted a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionistminded administration of U.S. Mexico had lost about onethird of its territory, including nearly all of presentday California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. People v. Hall an appealed murder case in the 1850s in which the California Supreme Court established that Chinese Americans and Chinese immigrants had no rights to testify against white citizens. The ruling effectively freed Hall, a white man, who had been convicted and sentenced to death for the murder of Ling Sing, a Chinese miner in Nevada County. The ruling effectively made white violence against Chinese Americans unprosecutable, arguably leading to more intense whiteonChinese race riots. Afong Moy first female Chinese immigrant to the United States. On November 6, 1834, the Carne Brothers ran their first ads announcing the exhibition of the Chinese Lady, whom they renamed Afong Moy. The ads offered this description: “she was nineteen years of age, four feet ten inches in height, dressed in her national costume, and her feet were but four inches in length, as a result of her having worn iron shoes throughout her childhood”. Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe's best known novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), changed forever how Americans viewed slavery, the system that treated people as property. It demanded that the United States deliver on the promise of freedom and equality, galvanized the abolition movement and contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War. “Young America” an American political and cultural attitude in the mid19th century. Inspired by European reform movements of the 1830s. It advocated free trade, social reform, expansion southward into the territories, and support for republican, antiaristocratic movements abroad. Proposal of the Democratic party and the idea of expanding territories that allowed slavery in the south by moving into central America (because North opposed). KansasNebraska Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory. The initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to open up many thousands of new farms and make feasible a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad; clause of the law led pro and anti slavery elements to flood into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down. Jane Johnson an AfricanAmerican slave who gained freedom on July 18, 1855 with her two young sons while in Philadelphia with her master and his family. She was allowed freedom in Pennsylvania, as mobs of abolitionists defended her, opposed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Homestead Act of 1862 enacted during the Civil War in 1862, provided that any adult citizen, or intended citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. government could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land. Claimants were required to “improve” the plot by building a dwelling and cultivating the land. After 5 years on the land, the original filer was entitled to the property, free and clear, except for a small registration fee. Dred Scott an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857. The Dred Scott Case ended the prohibition of slavery in federal territories and prohibited Congress from regulating slavery anywhere, overturning the Missouri compromise, enabling "popular sovereignty", and bloody Kansas. Dakota War of 1862 an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of Dakota warriors. Throughout the late 1850s, treaty violations by the United States and late or unfair annuity payments by Indian agents caused increasing hunger and hardship among the Dakota; a council of Dakota decided to attack settlements throughout the Minnesota River valley to try to drive whites out of the area. No hunting ground, farming land, or money led to starvation of Dakota people. Little Crow a chief of the Mdewakanton Dakota people. The US government broke its promises to provide food and annuities to the tribe, and Little Crow was forced to support the decision of a Dakota war council in 1862 to pursue war to drive out the whites from Minnesota. Robert Smalls an enslaved African American who, during and after the American Civil War, became a ship's pilot, sea captain, and politician. He freed himself, his crew and their families from slavery on May 13, 1862 by commandeering a Confederate transport ship, the CSS Planter, in Charleston harbor, and sailing it to freedom beyond the Federal blockade. His example and persuasion helped convince President Lincoln to accept AfricanAmerican soldiers into the Union Army. Stole a steamboat from the Confederacy and returned to Union lines. “Contraband” a term commonly used in the United States military during the American Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces. The Army (and the United States Congress) determined that the US would not return escaped slaves who went to Union lines and classified them as contraband (goods that have been imported or exported illegally). Mary Peake an American teacher, humanitarian and a member of the black elite in Hampton, best known for starting a school for the children of former slaves starting in the fall of 1861. Despite the risk, she secretly taught slaves and free blacks to read and write, which was prohibited by law. She believed education was important to the race. Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation, it captured the hearts and imagination of millions of Americans and fundamentally transformed the character of the war. Moreover, the Proclamation announced the acceptance of black men into the Union Army and Navy, enabling the liberated to become liberators. By the end of the war, almost 200,000 black soldiers and sailors had fought for the Union and freedom. Special Field Order 15 provided thousands of acres of land along the Atlantic coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida on which were to be settled approximately by 18,000 freed slave families and other Blacks in the area. They were intended to address the immediate problem of dealing with the tens of thousands of black refugees who had joined Sherman's march in search of protection and sustenance, and "to assure the harmony of action in the area of operations". Freedmen’s Bureau – established assistance to the poor and elderly, constructed schools, medical care, and attempted to improve working conditions and wages for freed people. Sharecropping was suggested by the Freedmen’s Bureau as a solution to jumpstart the economy (would become a oppressive system not different from slavery). Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Crops were sold cheaply, forcing tenants to work to pay back debt. Andrew Johnson – president of the United States during who favored white southerners. In 1866, Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill and the Civil Rights bill, legislation aimed at protecting blacks. That same year, when Congress passed the 14th Amendment granting citizenship to blacks, the president urged Southern states not to ratify it (the amendment nevertheless was ratified in July 1868). Under president Andrew Johnson, a series of restrictive laws known as “black codes,” which were designed to restrict freed blacks’ activity and ensure their availability as a labor force now that slavery had been abolished. 13th Amendment – Formally abolishing slavery in the United States; declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." 14th Amendment – granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed. 15th Amendment – granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Radical Republicans – a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from about 1854; strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted exConfederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen Response to asshole Andrew Johnson and his approach to reconstruction. Redeemers – white southerners that worked to take back state government in Southern states to prevent reformation; organized violence against black people and set up Jim Crow system. Redeemers began to “take back” the government when northerns lost interest in protecting the rights of enslaved people. Minor v. Happersett (1872) – refused to register a woman as a lawful voter because that state's laws allowed only men to vote. Minor v. Happersett ruling was based on an interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court readily accepted that Minor was a citizen of the United States, but it held that the constitutionally protected privileges of citizenship did not include the right to vote. Campaign for women’s suffrage in a lawsuit (based on the 14 Amendment). Susan B. Anthony – an American social reformer and egalitarian who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Was arrested for voting in her hometown of Rochester, New York, and convicted in a widely publicized trial; used this to support her cause. The Gilded Age – era of cutthroat competition; leaders would purchase leading competitors (creating corporations). A few large corporations, called "trusts", dominated in steel, oil, sugar, meat and farm machinery. John D. Rockefeller became the world's richest man and the first American worth more than a billion dollars, controlling 90% of all oil in the United States at his peak. People referred to them as “robber barons,” people who gained wealth through unethical business practices. Sports and leisure – America was at the start of something new in the 1900s and overtime it’s progressed in it’s leisure time leaving us countless activities to participate in today; both men and women began engaging in sports. Jim Crow – state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. Plessy v. Ferguson – a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal". Plessy took a seat in a whitesonly railway car; he was asked to vacate and sit in the blacksonly car (Plessy refused and was arrested). Booker T. Washington – leader in the black community; his speech called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship. His message was that it was not the time to challenge Jim Crow segregation and the disfranchisement of black voters in the South. In order to achieve equality, they must educate themselves to be recognized. Ida B. Wells – also believed education was important to change the economic and social standing of African Americans; best known for her campaign against lynching. She documented lynching in the United States, showing that it was often used as a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites, rather than being based on criminal acts by blacks, as was usually claimed by white mobs. Pendleton Act – a federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation. The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation. It also made it illegal to fire or demote government officials for political reasons and prohibited soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property. Niagara Movement – organized by W.E.B. DuBois, opposed ideas of Booker T. Washington and his refusal to speak against equality; asserted their right to equality. Demanded equal economic and educational opportunity as well as the vote for black men and women. Members of the Niagara movement sent a powerful message to the entire country through their condemnation of racial discrimination and their call for an end to segregation. The spoils system a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system, where offices are awarded on the basis of some measure of merit, independent of political activity. “Waving the bloody shirt” – would be the tactic of Republicans against Democrats in the period after the Civil war; associate the republican party with the Union and democratic party with Confederacy. For example, presidential candidates were framed as representations of Union vs. Confederacy. W.E.B. DuBois – the first African American to earn a doctorate; became the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of AfricanAmerican activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment. His cause included people of color everywhere, particularly Africans and Asians in colonies. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory – remembered as one of the most infamous incidents in American industrial history, as the deaths were largely preventable–most of the victims died as a result of neglected safety features and locked doors within the factory building. The tragedy brought widespread attention to the dangerous sweatshop conditions of factories, and led to the development of a series of laws and regulations that better protected the safety of workers. Isaac Harris – owner of the Triangle Factory; people clamored for the owners to be held responsible for the disaster. Came from eastern Europe and seen as one of the entrepreneurs of the Gilded Age. On April 11, Harris and Blanck were indicted on seven counts of manslaughter in the first and second degree. Clara Lemlich – leader of the Uprising of 20,000, the massive strike of shirtwaist workers in New York's garment industry in 1909.
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