FAD2230 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
FAD2230 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A lifespan development approach
Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Sung Bong Cho in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A lifespan development approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
Family Development Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 Family and Society Family – a relationship by blood, marriage, or affection, that may cooperate economically, may care for any children, and may consider their core identity to be intimately connected to the group. Thus, this definition may include unmarried homosexual or heterosexual partners. Why is it important to define family? Only married persons are eligible for federal benefits, such as Social Security benefits or the ability to file taxes jointly. What are the functions families provide? Marriage, regulation of sexual behavior, reproducing and socializing children, property and inheritance, economic cooperation, social placement, status, and roles, and care/warmth, protection, and intimacy. What is the difference between micro and macrolevel perspectives of families? Microlevel – focus on the individual and their interactions in specific settings. Macrolevel – focus on the interconnected ness of marriage, families, and intimate relationships with the rest of society. What is social structure and why is it important? Social structure – the patterns of social organization that guide our interactions with others. o Social structures shape our daily experiences, privileges, and constraints. Types of Marriage patterns: Monogamy – marriage between one man and one woman Polygamy – a system that allows more than one spouse at a time o Polygyny – in which husbands can have more than one wife Legal in several regions of the world (Africa, Middle East, and South America) and often supported by religious custom. o Polyandry – in which wives can have more than one husband Very rare and usually occurs only in these societies with fewer women to marry or harsh environmental conditions. Ex: rural parts of China where female infanticide is common Patterns of authority: Egalitarian – expectation that power and authority are equally vested in men and women Patriarchy – social organization in which the expectation is that men have natural right and authority over women Matriarchy – social organization in which women have natural right and authority over men o NOTE: theoretical alternative because no historical cases of true matriarchies are known Patterns of descent (who’s last name is used, how is property from deceased passed down to the next generation, who is considered legal relatives): Bilateral – Descent that can be traced through both male and female sides of the family o Ex: United States recognizes both mother and father’s parents are related to their child; they have two sets of grandparents Patrilineal – descent pattern where lineage is traced exclusively thru the man’s family line o Ex: last names almost always reflect father’s lineage than mothers, and sons are sometimes given their father’s fist names as well and referred as “Jr.” or by number (III, IV) Matrilineal – descent pattern where lineage is traced exclusively thru the woman’s family line Family Life in Colonial America: European Colonists Businesses – families were the central focus of economic production; each household was nearly selfsufficient and men, women, and children worked together to meet their needs. Schools – formal schooling away from home was extremely rare; instead, parents educated their children. Churches – families worshiped and prayed together at home because churches were usually far away. Bibes were a source of moral instruction. Correctional institutions – jails were rare and therefore courts sentenced criminals and idle people to live with more respected families in the community to encourage reform. Health and social welfare institutions – there were no hospitals and few doctors during this period; women took the role of caring for the sick. Families took care of the aging, homeless, and orphans. Nuclear families – composed of adults and their children Extended families – composed of parents, children, and other relatives such as grandparents Chapter 2 Sex and Gender Feminity is commonly associated with being dependent, emotional, passive, quiet, innocent, nurturing, graceful, weak, et cetera. Masculinity is commonly associated with being independent, nonemotional, aggressive, toughskinned, competitive, experienced, et cetera. Sex – biological characteristics (male and female anatomy) determined at birth Gender – culturally/social constructed characteristics (differences) associated with the two sexes Gender role – expected behaviors, attitudes, and obligation that a society assigned to each sex; expectations about appropriate masculine and feminine behaviors and attitudes; does not necessarily correspond with sex Agentic/instrumental role – traditionally masculine characteristics Communial/Expressive role – traditionally female characteristics Androgyny – “inbetween role” having both traditionally “masculine” and “feminine” characteristics Gender identity – the degree to which an individual sees him or herself as feminine or masculine based on society’s definition of appropriate gender roles Socialization – the process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes, beliefs, values, and expectations Agents of socialization – parents, schools, toys, peers, the media, etc. Nature vs. Nurture Many theories incorporate aspects of nature and nurture that influence gender expression: Social learning theory – (Bandura, 1977) children learn gender roles from parents, siblings, school and the media who serve as models for masculine/feminine behaviors Children imitate models and are rewarded for “sexappropriate” behavior (as well as punished for “inappropriate” behavior) Selfidentification theory – (Kohlbert, 1966) children become aware of being either male or female around age three; children categorize themselves by identifying behaviors that are appropriate to their sex Gender schema theory – (Bem, 1981) children develop a basis of knowledge about how girls and boys behave, from the culture in which they live; once the framework is developed, the schema influences how the child processes new information Schema – organized pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among their mental structure Race – implies a biological distinct group (mainly skin color) Ethnicity – represents shared cultural characteristics such as language, place of origin, dress, food, religion, and other values Minority groups – implies that persons in the groups experience some disadvantaged, exclusion, or discrimination in American society as compared to the dominant group Prejudice – negative attitude about members of selected racial and ethnic groups Stereotypes – Oversimplified sets of beliefs about a group of people Discrimination – behaviors, actions, or practices based on racial or ethnic preferences that have harmful impacts Individual Discrimination – one person exhibiting a negative behavior towards another person Institutional Discrimination – Social institutions such as the government, religion, and education create policies and practices that are systematically disadvantageous to certain groups Remember there is diversity within racial groups: Ex: Asians include Vietnamese, Indian, Japanese, Korean, etc. Black Families 13% U.S. Population Larger families than whites; more children and have extended families Higher proportion of black children (48%) than other ethnic groups live in femaleheaded families 31% of femaleheaded households are in poverty More than twice as likely as whites to suffer the death of an infant High rates of incarceration, poorer health care, etc. have caused disparity in gender ratio Latino/Hispanic Families More than half of the recent growth of Hispanic population is due to international migration 29% of Latino children are poor Education levels are low (57% graduated high school) Familistic values; larger households than any other ethnic group As likely as Whites to be married and less likely to be divorced; lower infant mortality rates than whites Females likely to be in the work force Asian/Islander Families Lower divorce rates; higher rates of intermarriage Lower infant mortality rates than whites; lower fertility rate Very low teen and nonmarital birth rates Less residentially segregated than other ethnic groups Often termed “model minority” because of strong educational attainment, high representation in upper management, and family incomes are the highest of all racial/ethnic groups Native Americans 1.5% of the population High infant mortality rate Tend to marry at young ages ETC. White Families 68% of the population; More likely to be a married couple On average, have lower fertility rates; less likely to ask family for help with children Less likely to take care of their elderly family; value “privacy” Privileged History/Trend of Immigration Immigration – moving to a new country to live there permanently Colonial Period – Englishmen, indentured servants (mainly from Britain and Germany) immigrated to U.S. Mid19 century – Northern and Western Europe (Irish/German & Chinese) th Mid20 century – Southern and Eastern Europe (Italians, Jews, Slavs, etc.) Post 1924 – Latin America and Asia Common assumptions of immigration: Immigrants steal jobs from citizens Drive down wages Strain public services Threaten our culture Immigration = illegal Immigration Why do immigrants come to the U.S.? Opportunity, Freedom, Social Equality, Escape Famine/War How do they come to the U.S.? Family Immigration Program (U.S. citizens can invite spouses, parents, and minor children) Employment Based (Skilled and religious workers and investors) Humanitarian (refugees and asylees) Visa Lottery (a green card lottery to welcome immigrants from countries from which the U.S. receives immigrants at lower rates) Illegal/Undocumented Immigration Why? Job opportunity, reunite with their families, or failed to pass the citizenship test Stricter immigration policies result in many arriving/remaining without proper documentation. President Obama has been denounced as the “deporter in chief” by Latino leaders; more than 2 million people have been removed from the U.S. since his presidency Pros for Legalization Criminality o Immigrants are motivated for better life of self and family, so NOT a threat to society o Many become contribution members of the U.S. Society Economy o Active participation in the economy and add to taxation o Fills the gap in the low end of the labor market o More cost efficient than deportation Integration o A more diverse and understanding society Cons for Legalization National Security o Only encourage more illegal immigration, possibly including terrorists Criminality o Distinction needed between those who obey and violate the law o Rewarding lawbreakers Economy o Deplete social services paid by U.S. citizens o A net fiscal deficit at the federal level Social Justice for Illegal immigrants? Limited access to social services including mental health services (ex: for domestic violence) Children had no choice and already assimilated with U.S. society Social Class – a social position based primarily on income and wealth, but occupational prestige and educational level may be relevant as well Upper class – 35% of the population, Very influential to the society (economy, politics), ~$1.2 mil/year, usually accumulated wealth through generations Upper Middle Class – 1520%, postgraduate degree, $100k200k/year, higher education is strongly valued; private institutions Middle Class – 40%, $40k$100k/year, college education is valued, white collar jobs and highly skilled blue collar jobs, may own home and save for retirement; support children’s college bills, influenced by economy Working Class – 20%, $2040k/year, factory worker and semiskilled labor, insecurity due to limited income and savings; struggle with unexpected bills, need to plan for monthly bills, may not own home; modest neighborhoods Working Poor – 15%, minimum wage jobs, early slightly more than the poverty line, no job benefits (health insurance, sick pay), no standard work schedule, unstable jobs, hard to save money, single mothers and children Underclass – 35%, very poor and often unemployed, lack of education and jobskills, disability or mental problems, relying on government programs/assistance How does social class affect family and close relationships? Health; overall life expectancy Gender expectation Values that are taught to children by parents Higher education opportunity/values Dating/premarital sexual expectations and behavior Likelihood of marriage and age at first marriage Types of stress and coping mechanisms Poverty Guidelines – a way to measure the number of people living in poverty: based on a thrifty food budget, multiplied by three (sometimes called the “poverty line”) ** Children under 18, femaleheaded households, and Black/Hispanic families are more likely to be in poverty. Consequences of Poverty: Health and Nutrition, Quality of home environment, Parental stress and mental health, Fewer resources for learning, Housing problems, Poor quality neighborhood. Social mobility – movement from one social class to another; Poverty is intergenerational (passed from generation to generation) and difficult to escape Chapter 3 Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory is based on utilitarianism (individuals rationally weight the rewards and costs of their behavioral choices). In Exchange Theory, humans are motivated out of selfinterest. Motivation is what induces a person to act. The existence/endurance of social groups is explained by the selfinterest of individual members. Theory Assumptions: Level of analysis is individual (the individual is real) Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual’s motivation. o Based upon individual’s (ration) choices, not outside forces. Individuals are motivated by selfinterest and are rational (can calculate costs and rewards). Social life requires reciprocity (give and take in relationship). The more of something one has, the less value it has. All behavior involves cost; therefore, it anticipates achieving rewards or reducing other costs. Individuals are capable of longterm continuing investments with no immediate returns if the expectations of achieving more favorable outcomes eventually materialize. Theory Concepts: Reward – anything perceived a beneficial to an individual’s interests; satisfaction or gratification is received from participating in an interaction Cost – anything perceived as not beneficial to an individual’s interests; anything missed or forgone rewards or opportunities that are associated with a specific choice Costs make a behavior less likely to be repeated Profit – ratio of rewards to costs for any decisions; REWARDS – COSTS = OUTCOMES Comparison Levels: CL – how well you are doing relative to others in your position (ex: husband comparing his married life to other husbands) CL+ – how well you are doing relative to others outside of your position, but in positions that supply an alternative or choice (ex: husband comparing his married life to those who are single) Reciprocity – a mutual giving and receiving involving the equalization of exchanges between two individuals; exchange can be presented in present or future Exchange and Equity – humans have social interdependence; maximizing profit entails exchange with others A rational person is willing to incur some losses to maintain profitable relationships (ex: marriage) Equity – perceived sense of fairness and justice of the exchange (ex: giving elderly or mothers priority over others) Human capital – knowledge, skills, and techniques acquired by the individual; they are valuable for the individual because they increase the individual’s wages or opportunities Social capital – the network of relationships with others that facilitate the acquisition of human capital Principle of Lease Interest – the individual with the least interest in the relationship/exchange has the most power Principles of Resources and Power – the individuals with the most resources in the relationship/exchange has the most power Economics: The language of Love When we are in love, we are continuously making cost/reward analyses, which help us to decide whether or not to maintain the relationship (ex: saying “I love you” is economic) Chapter 4: Symbolic Interaction Symbolic Interactionism – theory focused on the meaning people make of events and situations Assumes that we cannot understand an individual’s behaviors unless we know the meaning the situation and stimulus had for individual The primary focus is on the acquisition and generalization of the meaning of certain things (ex signs, symbols, words, language). Humans are motivated to create meanings to help them make sense of their world. Human behavior must be understood by the meanings of the individuals. The explanation of human behavior is impossible without knowing the meaning such behavior holds for the person. Individuals define the meaning of context and situation. We define the situation we are in, what are problems, and actions/solutions we undertake. Individuals have “minds” that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine. Theory Concepts: Society precedes the individual; our values/sense of self are a result of society. The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me” (how others see me). Socialization is the process by which we acquire the symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our cultures. 1. Play – child plays at being something, like a police officer or mother 2. Game – incorporation one’s self into an organized activity through the generalized other (group/society) Role – the place of an individual, that they take within a situation, group, or in society To participate in a role means that is expected that one must follow the rules of that role. Roles should be clear. Role strain is when individuals do not have enough resources to enact a role or roles. Identity – formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays Society provides the social roles and meanings of those roles, and the individual organizes them into a hierarchy in each situation. Theory Propositions: The quality of an individual’s role enactment in a relationship positively affects individual’s satisfaction with the relationship. The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment. The more individuals perceive consensus in the expectations about a role they occupy, the less their role strain. The greater the diversification of a person’s roles the less consensus the person will perceive in the expectations about those roles. The greater the perceived role strain that results IN TEXT BOOK!!!! Chapter 5 Family Life Course Developmental Framework Family Life Course Developmental Framework contains 3 complementary theoretical approaches: Individual life span theory – individual ontogenetic development and the factors that affect it Family development theory – systemic and patterned changes family’s experience over time; emphasizes interaction of time and change Life course theory – how earlier life events influence later life outcomes in individuals Theory Assumptions: Developmental processes are inevitable and important in understanding families; individuals, interactions, family structure, and roles and expectations in family changes over time. The family group is affected by all the levels of analysis, such as: 1. Social norms of the larger society 2. Marriage and sibling relationships 3. Individuals Time is multidimensional; it is viewed and measured in different ways: o Monotonic: a moment cannot come back. o Periodicity: how time is measured by a recurring event. o Discrete time measures: an equal interval of time b/w every second. o Subjective experience of time: markers like “when you get married,” “when your sister was born,” or “going to college” Theory Concepts: Family change and development – individuals, families, and relationships grow and change in both predictable/normative, and unique ways Position – kinship structure based on gender, marriage, blood, or generational relations Norms – socially constructed rules that govern group and individual behavior; age and stage graded; proscriptive (what a family should do/be) or descriptive (how families are) Role – all the norms/rules/expectations attached to a kinship position Events – significant occurrences that carry meaning beyond just a date in time Family Stage – a time period when the structure and interaction of family are noticeably and qualitatively distinct from other time periods o Indicate a change in the membership of the family or the way in which members are spatially and interactionally organized. o Family Life Cycle Transitions – shifts from one stage to another; consists of paths taken and not taken. o “On time” or “off time” by social norms Developmental tasks – tasks specific to each stage that determine what needs to be accomplished at that stage to be “successful” Theory Propositions: When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of sync in family development, it is more likely that disruption will occur. Family members create internal family norms. Family disruption is likely to be greater when internal family norms deviate from institutional family norms. Interactions within the family group are regulated by the social norms constructing family roles. Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the current stage and the duration of time spent in that stage. Chapter 6 Systems Theory What is a system? A set of elements in interaction with each other so that what affects one element affects all other elements. A family is a system made up of individuals. Each individual is unique and serves his/her own functions to contribute to the overall family identity. Theory Assumptions: All parts of the system are interconnected. Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole. A system’s behavior affects its environment, and in turn the environment affects the system. Systems are “heuristics” (a way of knowing), not real things. Key Concepts: System – a set of objects and relations between these objects and their attributes. Boundary – a border between the system and its environment that affects the flow of information and energy between the environment and the system; boundaries have varying permeability (closed/open) and are physical, psychological, emotional, etc. Rules of transformation – rules that govern the relationship and interaction between two objects in the system (ex: certain behavior is acceptable between certain people) Feedback – process linking system output back to system input; positive = amplifying behavior and negative = minimizing behavior Variety – the extent to which the system has the resources to meet new environmental demands or adjusts to changes Equilibrium – balance between inputs and outputs; homeostasis – maintains a condition of equilibrium by feedback and control (neg. feedback); homeostasis as a dynamic rather than static state System Levels o First Order – “input filtered through the system’s rules of transformation and exiting as output into the environment” o Comparator (Second and Higher Order) – system that monitors output, assesses for error, and changes first order/lower level rules to correct for error Susbsystems And Suprasystesm – a part of a system that is analyzed separately as to its exchanges with the system and other subsystems (ex: school, church, other separate systems) Propositions The adaptability and viability of a system is positively related to the variety in the system. The adaptability and viability of a system is negatively related to conflict and tension in the system.
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