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C OF C / History / HIST 115 / Who is the head of the Egyptian state?

Who is the head of the Egyptian state?

Who is the head of the Egyptian state?

Description

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The emergence of civilization

  • 3000 BC
  • Egyptian (along the Nile) civilization
  • Tigris, Euphrates of Mesopotamia (land between the rivers)
  • Civilization (characteris)
  • Presence of cities
  • Specialization of labor
  • Development of writing
  • A complex religious structure
  • Organized government
  • Monumental architecture
  • Class structure
  • Representative art
  • Why did they develop where they did?
  • The rivers (and all that it provided)
  • Geography (climate)
  • Natural barriers. (the deserts surrounding Egypt for protection
  • Scarcity of land theory (for a civilization to emerge, there must be a scarcity of arable land (land that can produce) forces people to live closer to each other. Not everyone can make a living off the land - forces division of labor
  • Adversity Hypothesis: for a civilization to emerge, there must be some adversity thrown in. focus people to come together to figure out how to move forward. Not too much adversity or that can cause the opposite effect
  • 3rd civilization: Minoan (on the island of crete)
  • Herodotus described the Egyptians as a “Gift of the Niles”

Egypt:

  • Dynastic Era ~ 3000 BC. The Era of the Old Kingdom. AKA. the pyramid age (where dynasties ruled ancient Egypt)
  • Old kingdom ~3000 BC        3100 - 2181 BC

IntermediateDon't forget about the age old question of What does the word "pseudo" mean?

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We also discuss several other topics like humboldt state class schedule

Intermediate

New Kingdom ~ 1000 BC

  • Pharaoh (“House of”) Head of the Egyptian state
  • Term did not arrive until the new kingdom
  • Seen as a chief who looked after them and cared for them
  • Owned all the state, all of the land
  • Chief priest (head of religion)
  • Theocracy - no separation between church and state
  • A god
  • “Divine kingship” (the pharaoh was everything)
  • Believed he was an intermediary between the earth and the gods
  • Egyptians were polytheistic (believed in multiple gods)
  • Mythopoeic (they came up with myths to explain everything)
  • Egyptians were obsessed with the idea of immortality
  • In first dynasty it was believed that only the pharaoh was immortal (initially) it was believed that when the pharaoh died, his servants had to go with him (were killed) was not continued after the first dynasty
  • Nobles protested that they should have the right to go to the other side as well
  • By the time of the middle and new kingdom, everyone was “immortal”
  • Had elaborate death rituals and ceremonies
  • Believed that Osiris judged if you could pass over to the otherside
  • This needed elaborate death rituals - mummification
  • Mummification because if the body remained intact and with the essentials of life, this would please Osiris for a good judgement
  • Process of mummification (70 days)
  • Death
  • Take body to river and clean it up (cleansed)
  • Priest makes incision on left side of the body and removes the organs
  • Put organs in containers and looked over by gods to ensure safety (Gods of North, South, East, and West look over body parts)
  • Take brain out through the nose
  • Heart isn’t taken out (thought heart was seat of intelligence)
  • Substances put into the body cavity. (natron (dries bodies) and pine resin (control smell)
  • Have to wait for body to dry out
  • After dry, body is wrapped in cotton strips
  • Body can never be left alone. (watched by the wife and the women relatives)
  • Pyramids were built to entomb the pharaons

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