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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Ashlyn delivered. Shoutout Ashlyn, I won't forget!
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Date Created: 01/16/16
Simplified Notation for Conceptually Understanding Experimental Design Research Methods in Psychology Using the notation below will help you develop a strong conceptual understanding of what experimental design is, how designs may vary, and how designs differ in terms of their strengths and weaknesses in isolating cause and effect relationships between independent and dependent variables. Included below is a sample of the many different forms of experimental design commonly used in psychological science. Notation Key: R = Random Assignment of Subjects to Groups M = Holding a Given Variable Constant Across Two Groups (Matching) B = Holding a Given Variable Constant Across Three or More Groups (Blocking) O = Dependent Variable (DV) Measure X = Manipulation of the Independent Variable (IV) Y = Manipulation of a Second Independent Variable Pretest = Taking a Measure of the Dependent Variable BEFORE the IV is Manipulated Posttest = Taking a Measure of the Dependent Variable AFTER the IV is Manipulated One-Group Designs (Weakest Forms of Experimental Design): Posttest Only One-Group Design X O Pretest-Posttest One-Group Design O X O Randomized Pretest-Posttest One-Group Design R O X O Two-Group Designs (Includes a True Control Group): Posttest Only Two-Group Design X O O Pretest-Posttest Two-Group Design O X O O O Randomized Posttest Only Two-Group Design R X O R O Randomized Pretest-Posttest Two-Group Design R O X O R O O Randomized Matched Pretest-Posttest Two-Group Design R M O X O R M O O (NOTE: Two-Group Designs have a very important advantage over One-Group Designs: The presence of a control group allows for comparison of how participants respond in the presence or absence of the IV, yielding a clear picture of how manipulation of the IV influences the DV.) Three-Plus Groups Designs (Sometimes Called Parametric Research Designs) (These Designs Typically Have Different Levels of the IV; ANOVA) Randomized Three-Group Posttest Only Design R X1O R X2O R X3O Randomized Three-Group Pretest-Posttest Design R O X1O R O X2O R O X O 3 Randomized Blocked Three-Group Pretest-Posttest Design R B O X1O R B O X2O R B O X O 3 (NOTE: Three-Plus Group Designs allow measurement of the effects of different IV levels on the DV.) Factorial Designs (Two or More IVs) Randomized Posttest-Only Factorial Design R X 0 R Y O R XY O Randomized Pretest-Posttest Factorial Design R O X O R O Y O R O XYO Randomized Blocked Pretest-Posttest Factorial Design R B O X O R B O YO R B O XYO (NOTE: Factorial Designs reveal not only the main effects of IVs but they also allow for the measurement of the interaction between or among 2 or more IVs.) Solomon Four-Group Design R O X O R O O R X O R O (NOTE: The Solomon Four-Group Design explicitly examines the effects of the pretest on how participants react to the independent variable.)
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