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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camah Whitacre on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to a course at Emporia State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Camah Whitacre Chapter 9-11 study guide Chapter 9 1. Achievement tests – measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has acquired. Aptitude tests – are designed to measure an individual’s potential to perform well on a specific range of tasks. 2. Validity – measures what it claims it measures Reliability – the measurement of the degree to which a test produces consistent results Standardization – is a test that has a set of questions or problems that are administered and scored in a uniform way across large numbers of individuals. Norms – statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard score. 3. Standford-Binet – as a test intended to measure innate (genetic) intelligence. IQ test Wecshler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – is the most commonly used intelligence test used on adolescents and adults. Raven’s Progressive Matrices – an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are intended not to be bound to a particular language or culture. 4. Fluid intelligence – a type of intelligence that is used to adapt to new situations and solve new problems without relying on previous knowledge Crystallized intelligence – like an actual crystal, is a form of intelligence that relies on extensive experience and knowledge and, therefore, tends to be relatively stable and robust. 5. Charles Spearman – general intelligence – a concept that intelligence is a basic cognitive trait comprising the ability to learn, reason, and solve problems regardless of their nature. Robert Sternburg – Triarchic theory of intelligence – a model of intelligence consisting of three domains: analytical intelligence, practical intelligence, and creative intelligence. Analytical intelligence – is the verbal, mathematical problem-solving type of intelligence that probably comes to mind when we speak of intelligence that probably comes to mind when we speak of intelligence. Practical intelligence – is the ability to address real world problems that are encountered in daily life, especially those that occur in an individual’s specific work context and family life. Creative intelligence – is the ability to create new ideas to solve problems. Howard Gardner – multiple intelligence – a model claiming that eight different forms of intelligence exist, each independent from the others. Verbal/linguistic intelligence – The ability to read, write, and speak effectively Logical/mathematical intelligence – The ability to think with numbers and use abstract thought; the ability to use logic or mathematical operations to solve problems. Visuospatial intelligence – The ability to create mental pictures, manipulate them in the imagination, and use them to solve problems. Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence – The ability to control body movements, to balance, and to sense how one’s body is situated. Musical/rhythmical intelligence – The ability to produce and comprehend tonal and rhythmic patterns. Interpersonal intelligence – The ability to detect another person’s emotional states, motives, and thoughts Self/intrapersonal intelligence – Self-awareness; the ability to accurately judge one’s own abilities, and identify one’s own emotions and motives. Naturalist intelligence – The ability to recognize and identify processes in the natural world – plants, animals, and so on. Existential intelligence – The tendency and ability to ask questions about purpose in life and the meaning of human existence. 6. Behavioral genomics – the study of how specific genes, in their interactions with the environment, influence behavior. Gene knockout studies – involve removing a specific gene thought to be involved in a trait (such as intelligence) and testing the effects of removing the gene by comparing behavior of animals without the gene with those that have it. 7. Health influences intelligence by people who are healthy attend school more frequently and are able to spend more time on schoolwork. Income influences intelligence by children with affluent parents have higher IQs than children living below the poverty level. Birth order influences intelligence by people born during the first part of the calendar year have higher verbal and mathematical aptitude and also children who are oldest in their class get the most out of school because they are slightly more mature and prepared to learn. Education influences intelligence by children’s IQ scores are significantly lower if they are not attending school. 8. There is a lot of overlap but males are usually produce wider variability in test scores than females. Males are more likely to be found in the upper ad lower extremes. 9. Entity theory – the belief that intelligence is a fixed characteristic and relatively difficult (or impossible) to change. Incremental theory – the belief that intelligence can be shaped by experiences, practice, and effort. Chapter 10 1. Developmental psychology – is the study of change and stability of human physical, cognitive, social, and behavioral characteristics across the life span. 2. Longitudinal design – follows the development of the same set of individuals through time. Advantages: avoids cohort effects Disadvantages: costly Cohort effects – which are consequences of being born in a particular year or narrow range of years. Advantages: convenient, cost efficient Disadvantages: cohort effects 3. Germinal stage – is the first phase development and spans from conception to two weeks. Zygote – a cell formed by the fusion of a sperm and an ovum (egg cell). Embryonic stage – spans weeks two through eight, during which time the embryp begins developing major physical structures such as the heart and nervous system, as well as the beginnings of arms, legs, hands, and feet. Fetal stage – spans week eight through birth, during which time the skeletal, organ, and nervous system become more developed and specialized. 4. The rooting reflex – is elicited by stimulation to the corners of the mouth, which causes infants to orient themselves toward the stimulation and make sucking motions. The rooting reflex helps the infant begin feeding immediately after birth. The moro reflex – also known as the “startle” reflex, occurs when infants lose support of their head. Infants grimace and reach their arms outward and then inward in a hugging motion. This may be a protective reflex that allows the infant to hold on to the mother when support is suddenly lost. The grasping reflex – is elicited by stimulating the infant’s palm. The infant’s grasp is remarkably strong and facilitates safely holding on to one’s caregiver. 5. Cognitive development – the study of changes in memory, thought, and reasoning processes that occur throughout the life span. Sensorimotor (0-2 years) – referring to the period in which infants’ thinking and understanding about the world is based on sensory experiences and physical actions they perform on objects. Object permanence – is the ability to understand that objects exist even when they cannot be seen on touched. Preoperational (2-7 years) – is characterized by understanding of symbols, pretend play, and mastery of the concept of conservation. Concrete operational (7-11 years) – when children develop skills in using and manipulating numbers as well as logical thinking. Formal operational (11- adulthood) – involves the development of advanced cognitive processes such as abstract reasoning and hypothetical thinking. 6. Attachment – is an enduring emotional bond formed between individuals. Secure attachment – The child is fine when mom is around but not fine when she is out of sight. Insecure attachment – disorganized – child does not have a consistent pattern of behavior either when the mother leaves or when she returns. Resistant – the child is upset when the mother leaves, but is angry when she returns. Avoidant – the child is not upset when the mother leaves, and does not seek contact when she returns. 7. Infancy trust versus mistrust – Developing a sense of trust and security toward caregivers. Toddlerhood autonomy versus shame and doubt – seeking independence and gains self-sufficiency. Preschool/early childhood initiative versus guilt – active exploration of the environment and taking personal initiative. Childhood industry versus inferiority – striving to master tasks and challenges of childhood, particularly those faced in school. Child begins pursuing unique interests. Adolescence identity versus role confusion – achieving a sense of self and future direction. Young adulthood intimacy versus isolation – developing the ability to initiate and maintain intimate relationships. Adulthood generatively versus stagnation – the focus is on satisfying personal and family needs, as well as contributing to society. Aging ego integrity versus despair – coping with the prospect of death while looking back on life with a sense of contentment and integrity for accomplishments. 8. Preconventional morality – characterized by self-interest in seeking reward or avoiding punishment. Preconventional morality is considered a very basic and egocentric form of moral reasoning. Conventional morality – Regards social conventions and rules as guides for appropriate moral behavior. Directions from parents, teachers, and the law are used as guidelines for moral behavior. Postconventional morality – considers rules and laws as relative. Right and wrong are determined by more abstract principles of justice and rights. 9. Identity statuses – are the process and outcomes of identity development that include elements of both crisis and personal commitment. Identity achievement – consideration of different identities, followed by commitment to a particular one. Identity diffusion – a reluctance or refusal to commit to an identity and respond to identity crisis. Identity foreclosure – a situation in which adolescents do not experience identity crisis and commit to the roles and values that are handed down by their parents. Identity moratorium – prolonged experimentation with different identities. This can involve delaying commitment to a single identity and frequent identity crises. 10. Authoritative parenting – is characterized by the expression of warmth and responsiveness to the needs of children, but also by exercising control over certain actions and decisions made by children. Authoritarian parenting – emphasizes excessive control over children and less expression of warmth. Indulgent-permissive parenting – are warm but indifferent and do not attempt to control their children, even in positive and helpful ways. Indifferent-uninvolved parenting – show neither warmth nor control toward their children. Chapter 11 1. Motivation – concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organisms toward specific goals. 2. The hypothalamus sends and receives signals throughout the body. When it comes to hunger, this area receives information about taste, textures, and smells through nerves coming from the mouth and nose, and it exchanges this information with the frontal cortex. 3. Social facilitation: Eating more – dinner hosts may encourage guests to take second and even third helpings, and individuals with a reputation for big appetites will be prodded to eat the most. Perhaps the strongest element of social facilitation is just the time spent at the table: the longer a person sits socializing, the more likely he or she is to continue nibbling. Impression management: Eating less – sometimes people self- consciously control their behavior so that others will see them in a certain way – a phenomenon known as impression management. For example, you probably know that it is polite to chew with your mouth closed. Similarly, the minimal eating norm suggests that another aspect of good manners – at least in some social and cultural settings – is to eat small amounts to avoid seeming rude. Modeling: Eating whatever they eat – at first exposure to a situation, such as a business dinner, a new employee may notice that no one eats much and everyone takes their time. The newcomer will see the others as models, and so he too will restrain his eating, Later, he may be introduced to his friend’s family reunion where everyone is having a second or third helping. In this case, he will be likely to eat more, even if he is already feeling full. 4. Obesity – is a disorder of positive energy balance, in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. One major problem in controlling obesity is the difficulty in ensuring long-term maintenance of weight loss. Anorexia nervous – an eating disorder that involves (1) self-starvation, (2) intense fear of weight gain and a distorted perception of body image, and (3) a denial of the serious consequences of severely low weight. Other problems associated with anorexia include consecutive loss of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), and for males a loss of sexual motivation. The disorder usually occurs dthing mid to late adolescence and has been on the rise during the 20 century. Bulimia nervous – an eating disorder that is characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge-eating, and purging. Binging involves short but intense episodes of massive calorie consumption marked by a lack of regulation of how many calories the body actually needs. The binging is followed by purging (self-induced vomiting, the most common type), fasting, laxative or diuretic use, or intense exercise. 5. Alfred Kinsey began his research on human sexuality by interviewing his students on their sexual histories. Kinsey reported that 37% of males whom he interviewed had at least one homosexual experience resulting in orgasm; this was absolutely shocking at the time. (13% for female) Masters and Johnson’s studies showed that males typically experience a single orgasm followed by a refractory period – a time during which orgasm cannot be physically achieved again. They they experience resolution, unless they continue sexual activity. Woman typically have a more varied sexual response profile than men. Here are a few examples. Line A indicated a woman who has multiple orgasms, Line B a woman who does not experience orgasm, and Line Ca woman who has a single orgasm. 6. Sexual orientation – is a consistent preference for sexual relations with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), same sex (homosexuality), or either sex (bisexuality). Sexual orientation is not exclusively determined by patterns of sexual behavior. It also includes aspects of identity and emotional connection. Scientists are discovering that sexual orientation is an outcome of complex gene and environmental interactions. 7. Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc. Safety needs: to feel secure and safe, out of danger Belongingness and love needs: to be with others, be accepted, and belong Esteem needs: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition Cognitive needs: to know, understand, and explore Aesthetic needs: Symmetry, order, and beauty Self-actualization needs: to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential 8. Mastery motives – are motives that reflect a desire to understand or overcome a challenge. Performance motive – are generally those motives that are geared toward gaining rewards or public recognition. 9. Approach goals – are enjoyable and pleasant incentives that are drawn toward, such as praise or financial reward. Avoidance goals – are unpleasant outcomes such as shame, embarrassment, or emotional pain, which we try to avoid. 10. James-Lange theory of emotion – our physiological reactions to stimuli (the racing heart) precede and give rise to the emotional experience (the fear). Cannon-Bard theory of emotion – which states that emotions such as fear or happiness occur simultaneously with their physiological components. 11. We rely on facial expressions and other nonverbal cues to decide whether a local was trustworthy or friendly.
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