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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camah Whitacre on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to a course at Emporia State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Camah Whitacre Chapter 12-13 Study guide Chapter 12 1. Personality – is a characteristic pattern of thinking, interacting, and reacting that is unique to each individual, and remains relatively consistent over time and situations. 2. Nomothetic approaches – which examines personality in large groups of people, with the aim of making generalizations about personality structure. Idiographic approaches - meaning that they focus on creating detailed descriptions of individuals and their unique personality characteristics. 3. Five Factor Model (or Big Five) – McCrae and Costa created the Big Five. Acronym(s) – OCEAN/CANOE Factors – Openness – creative, artistic, curious, imaginative, nonconforming, or conventional, down-to-earth. Conscientiousness – ambitious, organized, reliable, or unreliable, lazy, casual, spontaneous. Extraversion – talkative, optimistic, social, affectionate, or reserved, comfortable, with being alone, introverted. Agreeableness – good-natured, trusting, supportive, or rude, uncooperative, irritable, hostile, competitive. Neuroticism – worried, insecure, anxiety-prone, or tranquil, secure, emotionally stable. 4. Traits – are used to describe an individual’s physical and psychological attributes. States – is a temporary physical or psychological engagement that influences behavior. 5. Behaviorist and social-cognitive traits Behaviorism is an approach to psychology that emphasized the need to focus exclusively on observable relationships between stimuli and responses. Reciprocal determinism – the idea that behavior, internal (personal) factors, and external factors interact to determine one another, and that our personalities are based on interactions among these three aspects. 6. There is a stronger correlation between identical twins then fraternal twins. 7. Men and women personalities differ but opposites attract but only when they have some stuff in common. 8. Humorism – was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body. Phrenology – the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities. 9. Freud’s theories are 1. Unconscious thoughts, memories, and emotions operate simultaneously and are major influences on our behavior. 2. Personality takes shape in early childhood and children learn to regulate their emotions during this period of development. 3. Mental representations of the self and others shape how the individual acts. Id – represents a collection of basic biological drives, including those directed toward sex and aggression. Ego – is the component of personality that keeps the impulses of the id in check. Superego – was thought to develop during our upbringing; it serves as an inner voice we hear when we shame ourselves for acting inappropriately or lavish praise on ourselves for doing something good. Oral stage (0-18 months) – actions of the mouth Anal (18-36 months) – bowel elimination, control Phallic (3-6 years) – genitals Latency (6 years until puberty) – sexual interests in period of dormancy Genital (puberty and after) – sexual experiences with other people 10. Abraham Maslow believed that all humans seek to fulfill a hierarchy of needs, which begins with satisfying basic motivations for food and physical safety, and progresses toward more psychologically complex experiences such as feeling a sense of security and love for others and by others. Carl Rogers held a more optimistic view of humanity. Person-centered perspective – people are basically good, and given the right environment their personality will develop fully and normally. Self-concept – that is, the collection of feelings and beliefs we have about who we are. Chapter 13 1. DSM – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders- the manual that establishes criteria for the diagnosis of mental disorders. 2. Categorical view of psychological disorders regards different mental conditions as separate types; that is, differences between normal and abnormal functioning are of kind, rather than degree. Dimensional view is the degree of matter. 3. M’Naghten rule – to establish a defense on the ground of insanity, it must be clearly proved that, at the time of committing the act, the party accused was laboring under such a defect of reasoning, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing, or if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong. 4. Personality disorder – as particularly unusual patterns of behavior for one’s culture that are maladaptive, distressing to oneself or others, and resistant to change. Paranoid personality disorder – is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that other’s motives are interpreted as malevolent. Schizoid personality disorder – is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression. Schizotypal personality disorder - is a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior. Antisocial personality disorder – is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others. Borderline personality disorder – is a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity. Histrionic personality disorder – is a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking. Narcissistic personality disorder – is a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy. Avoidant personality disorder – is a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Dependent personality disorder – is a pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder – is a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control. 5. Dissociative identity disorder – in which a person claims that his or her identity has split into two or more distinct alter personalities, or alters. Depersonalization disorder – is an anomaly of self-awareness. It can consist of a reality or detachment within the self, regarding one’s mind or body, or being a detached observer or oneself. 6. Anxiety is not only prominent, but it is the defining characteristic of the disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder – involves frequently elevated levels of anxiety that are not directed at or limited to any particular situation. Panic disorder – is an anxiety disorder marked by repeated episodes of sudden, very intense fear. Agoraphobia – an intense fear of having a panic attack or lower-level panic symptoms in public. Phobia – is a severe, irrational fear of a object or situation. Specific phobias – which involve an intense fear of an object, activity, or organism. Social anxiety disorder – is an irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, or embarrassed in public. Obsessive-compulsive disorder – a disorder characterized by unwanted, inappropriate, and persistent thoughts (obsessions); repetitive stereotyped behaviors (compulsions); or a combination of the two. 7. Major depression – is a disorder marked by prolonged periods f sadness, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and physical sluggishness. Bipolar depression – is characterized by extreme highs and lows in mood, motivation, and energy. Neurotransmitters for there are serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. 8. Schizophrenia – is a mental disorder characterized by chronic and significant breaks from reality, a lack of integration of thoughts and emotions, and serious problems with attention and memory. Hallucinations – which are false perceptions of reality such as hearing internal voices. Delusions – which are false beliefs about reality. Positive symptoms – refer to behaviors that should not occur, such as confused and paranoid thinking, and inappropriate emotional reactions. Negative symptoms – involve the absence of adaptive behavior.
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