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Date Created: 01/17/16
Makaela Harmon Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 1. Sensation is the process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those events into neural signals. Perception involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense. 2. Absolute Threshold is the minimum amount of energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it be reliably detected at least 50% of the time it is presented. Difference Threshold is the smallest detectable difference between stimuli. 3. Signal Detection Theory states that whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory experience and judgment made by the subject. 4. Sclera Is the white outer surface of the eye. Cornea Is the clear layer that covers the front portion of the eye and also contributes to the eye’s ability to focus. Pupil regulates the amount of light that enters by changing its size; it dilates to allow more light to enter and constricts to allow less light into the eye. Iris Is actually a round muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil; it also gives the eyes characteristic color. Lens a clear structure that focuses light onto the back of the eye. Retina (include descriptions of cones and rods here too) lines the inner surface of the eye and consists of specialized receptors that absorb light and send signals related to the prosperities of light in the brain. Fovea is the central region of the retina that contains the highest concentration of cones. Optic nerve a cluster of neurons that gather sensory information, exit at the back of the eye, and connect with the brain. Light enters the eye through the cornea and passes through an opening called the pupil. The then regulates the amount of light that enters by changing its size; it dilates to allow more light to enter and constricts to allow less light into the eye. Behind the pupil is the lens which focuses light onto the back of the eye. The rear portion of the eye consists of a layer of specialized receptors that convert light into a message that the brain can then interpret. 5. Binocular cues are distance cues that are based on the differing perspectives of both eyes. Monocular cues are depth cues that we can perceive with only one eye. 6. The trichromatic theory maintains that color vision is determined by three different cone types that are sensitive to short, medium, and long wavelengths of light. The opponent-process theory states that we perceive color in terms of opposite ends of the spectrum: red to green, yellow to blue, and white to black. 7. Pinna is the Flexible outer flap of the ear, which channels the sound waves into the ear canal. Auditory canal conducts sound waves into the ear drum. Eardrum membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves. Ossicles (include the names of the 3 bones) Bones of the middle ear. Cochlea converts vibration into neural activity. Sound waves travel from the outer ear to the eardrum and middle ear, and then through the inner ear. The cochlea of the inner ear is the site at which transduction takes place through movement of the tiny hair cells lining the basilar membrane. The auditory cortex of the brain is a primary brain region where sound is perceived. 8. Place theory of hearing states that how we perceive pitch is based on the location along the basilar membrane that sound stimulate. Frequency theory states the perception of pitch is related to the frequency at which the basilar membrane vibrates. 9. Receptors for taste are located in the visible, small bumps (papillae) that are distributed all over the surface of the tongue. The papillae are lined with taste buds. The bundles of nerves that register taste at the taste buds send the signal through the thalamus and on to higher-level regions of the brain, including the gustatory cortex and the secondary gustatory cortex which processes pleasurable experiences associated with food. Chapter 6 1. Classical conditioning is learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimulus. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) is a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learning. Unconditioned Response (UR) is a reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is a once neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned Response (CR) is the learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus. 2. Acquisition is the initial phase of learning in which a response is established. Extinction is the loss or weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur together. Spontaneous Recovery is the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after some time has passed since extinction. Generalization is a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different, though similar stimuli. Discrimination occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulus. 3. Consequence Effect on behavior Positive Reinforcement Stimulus is added or Increases the response increased Negative Stimulus is removed or Increases the response Reinforcement decreased Positive Punishment Stimulus is added or Decreases the response increased Negative Punishment Stimulus is removed or Decreases the response decreased 4. Process Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Extinction A CS is presented Responding gradually without a US until the ceases if reinforcement CR no longer occurs. is no longer available Generalization A different CS that Responding occurs to a resembles the original stimulus that resembles CS used during the original acquisition elicits a CR. discriminative stimulus used during learning Discrimination A CR does not occur in There is no response to response to a different a stimulus that CS that resembles the resembles the original original CS discriminative stimulus used during learning 5. Continuous Reinforcement is every response made results in reinforcement. Partial (intermittent) reinforcement only a certain number of responses are rewarded, or a certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is available. Fixed-ratio schedule reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed. Variable-ratio schedule is the number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average. Fixed-interval schedule reinforces the first response occurring after a set amount of time passes. Variable-interval schedule is the first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time. Chapter 7 1. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model include three memory stores: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Control processes shift information from one memory store to another. Some information in short-term memory goes through encoding which is the process of storing information in the LTM system. Retrieval brings information from LTM back into STM. 2. Proactive Interference is where the first information learned occupies memory, leaving fewer resources left to remember the newer information. Retroactive Interference is where the most recently learned information over shadows some older memories that have not yet made it into long-term memory. 3. The working memory model is a model of short-term remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a short period of time. The working memory model can be subdivided into three storage components the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and episodic buffer. The phonological loop is a storage component of working memory that relies on rehearsal and stores information as sounds, or an auditory code. Visuospatial sketchpad is a storage component of working memory that maintains visual images and spatial layouts in a visuospatial code. An episodic buffer is a storage component of working memory that combines the images and sounds from the other two components into coherent, story-like episode. 4. The types of long-term memory are declarative memories, nondeclarative memories, procedural memories, and episodic memories. Declarative memories are memories that we are consciously aware of and can be verbalized, including facts about the world and one’s own personal experience. Nondeclarative memories include actions or behaviors that you can remember and perform without awareness. Procedural memories are patterns of muscle movements (motor memory). Episodic memories are declarative memories for personal experiences that seem to be organized around “episodes” and are recalled from a first-person perspective. 5. When trauma occurs in the brain, it might lead to retrograde amnesia which is a condition in which memory for the events preceding trauma or injury is lost. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to form new memories for events occurring after a brain injury. 6. Long-term potentiation means that there is an enduring increase in connectivity and transmission of neural signals between nerve cells that fire together. Long-term potentiation is not permanent and might not account for memories that may last days, week, or even years; lasting memories require consolidation which is the process of converting short-term memories into long-term memories in the brain. 7. Mnemonics are techniques that are intended to improve memory for specific information. An acronym is a pronounceable word whose letters represent the initials of an important phrase or set of items. The first letter technique uses the first letters of a set of items to spell out words that form a sentence. Dual coding occurs when information is stored in more than one form. The method of loci is a mnemonic that connects words to be remembered to locations along a familiar path. 8. A schema is an organized cluster of memories that constitutes one’s knowledge about events, objects, and ideas. 9. False memories are remembering events that did not occur, or incorrectly recalling details of an event. The misinformation effect which happens when information occurring after an event becomes part of the memory, for that event. Imagination inflation refers to the increased confidence in a false memory of an event following repeated imagination of the event. Recovered memories are memories of a traumatic event that are suddenly recovered after blocking the memory of that event for a long period of time.
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