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Biology II Fungi and Plant Outline

by: TCU2461

Biology II Fungi and Plant Outline BIOL 10514

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About this Document

This is a quick overview of the different phyla/sub-phyla of plants and fungi along with their characteristics.
Intro Biology II
Dr. Misamore
Study Guide
biology ii, Biology, plants, fungi, Phyla
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by TCU2461 on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10514 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Misamore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology II in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Kingdom Fungi Phyla Chytridiomycota • “Chytrids” • About 900 species • Most primitive fungi • Parasitic or saprobic • Possess flagellated cells o Some cells are motile • Not all exhibit zygotic meiosis o Reproduce by spores ▯ Phyla Zygomycota • “Zygomycetes” • About 600 species • Includes common molds • Mostly saprobic, some parasitic • Hyphae coenocytic o Do not possess septae • Asexual spore from sporangium Born on sporangiophore o • Characteristic structure: zygospore o Thick-walled spore produced by sexual reproduction • Sporangia: used for asexual reproduction • Rhizoids: root-like hyphae that anchor the organism o Important for absorption ▯ Phyla Glomeromycota • “Glomeromycetes” • About 160 species • Participate in mutualism relationship: mycorrhizal association Mutualistic relationship between fungus and a plant root o ▪ Helps plant get water and nutrients (Phosphorus) ▪ Plant provides photosynthate (energy) ▪ Endomycorrhizae association o ~90% of all plants have mycorrhizal associations ▯ PhylaAscomycota • “ascomycetes” or “sac fungi” • Terrestrial and aquatic fungi with hyphae o Contain perforated septae • Sexual reproduction forms a saclike spore producing structure: ascus Sexual spore: ascospore o ▪ 8 inside each ascus • Group includes: powdery mildews, truffles, morels, cup fungi, and some yeasts o Yeast: reproduce through budding (asexual) • Saprobic or parasitic • Asexual reproduction: spores born on conidiophores • About 60,000 species • Ectomycorrhizae association ▯ Phyla Basidiomycota • “Basidiomycota” or “club fungi” • About 25,000 species • Saprobic or parasitic • Terrestrial • Complete cross-walls o Hyphae septaed • Sexual spore: basidiospore • Characteristic structure: basidium • Presence of pores or gills • Ectomycorrhizae association • Group includes: mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi, smuts, rusts, shelf fungi, earthstars, stinkhorns, pore fungi, some yeasts ▯ Duteromycetes • “Fungi imperfecti” • No known means of sexual reproduction • Reproduce asexually by pinching off spores (conidia) from the tips of conidiophores • Ex: Penicillium • About 25,000 species • Evolutionary lost • Important in medical sense: produces some antibiotics, produces cyclosporin o Also can cause some diseases (round worm) ▯ Lichens • Mutualistic relationship between an algae and a fungus o Algae: green algae or cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) • About 25,000 species • Ecologically important: found everywhere • Growth forms: o Fruticose: shrub-like o Foliose: leafy o Crustose: crust-like • Contains dense fungal layers, loose fungal layer, algal layer, and root-like rhizines ▯ Kingdom Plantae Bryophytes • Relatively small but diverse group • Gametophyte (haploid) generation is dominant o Sporophyte (diploid) generation is dependent on gametophyte generation ▪ Contains a foot, seta, and capsule • Do not contain well-developed vasculature system • Small in size • Phyla Hepatophyta: liverworts • PhylaAnthocerophyta: hornworts • Phyla Bryophyta: mosses ▯ Seedless Vascular Plants • “Pteridophytes” • Evolved 420 million years ago • Vasculature present o Xylem: move water and nutrients up the plant ▪ Tracheids, vessel members o Phloem: move organic molecules throughout the plant ▪ Sieve tube members • Contains leafs and roots • Sporophyte generation is dominant in terms of reproduction • Phyla Lycophyta: o Possess true leaves and true roots o Well-developed but primitive vasculature system o Includes: club mosses, ground pines, and quillworts • Phyla Pterophyta: ferns and their “allies” o Includes: ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails, and scouring rushes o ~~12,000 species o Whisk ferns: no true leaves or roots ▪ Psilotum o Leaves are referred to as fronds ▪ Clusters of sporangia (sori) on bottoms of leaves or on stem-like leaves ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Seed Plants Seed Plants • Evolved 365 million years ago • Seed had adaptive value: o Protection, nourishment of a sphorophyte, free water not needed • Gymnosperms Plants in which the seed is born naked o o Phyla: Coniferophyta ▪ Includes pines, spruces, cedar, redwood, larch, juniper, fir, cypress, yew • All plants with needle-like leaves o Phyla Cycadophyta ▪ “cycads” ▪ Superficially resemble palm trees that are short in stature o Phyla Ginkgophyta ▪ Single living species: Gingko biloba • Also called maidenhair tree ▪ Tolerant of atmospheric pollution o Phyla Gnetophyta ▪ Three living genera: • Ephedra • Welwitszchia • Gnetum ▪ Most closely related to angiosperms because of it’s vasculature system and female gametophyte • Angiosperms o All flowering plants are in PhylaAnthophyta o 250,000 species o Evolved about 140 million years ago o Specialized structures: flower and the fruit o Flower: 4 whorls ▪ Sepals, petals, stamen, and pistils • Stamen: anther, filament • Pistil: stigma, style, ovary Classes: o ▪ Monocots: grasses, orchids, palms, etc. ▪ Dicots: all flowering plants ▯ ▯


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