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Chapter 3 Study Guide

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by: Harley Parker

Chapter 3 Study Guide BIOL 3702 - 01

Harley Parker
GPA 3.88

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Major points of chapter 3 over bacterial structure used for quiz and exam
Chester R Cooper
Study Guide
Microbiology, Biology
50 ?




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"Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!"
Della Rempel Sr.

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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Harley Parker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3702 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Chester R Cooper in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Youngstown State University.


Reviews for Chapter 3 Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star

Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!

-Della Rempel Sr.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Chapter 3 Notes  Bacteria- generally lack membrane systems, smaller( 1-2µm x 2-6µm), simpler than eukaryotes  Shapes  Cocci-spheres  Streptococci – chain of cocci  Staphylococci – cluster (“grape-like”) of cocci  Tetrads – squares of four cells  Sarcinae (cubical) – packet of eight cells  Bacilli-rod shapes  Coccobacilli- very short rods  Vibrio-comma shaped rods  Spirilla (s., spirillum) – rigid helices  Spirochetes – flexible helices  Mycelium – network of long, multinucleate filaments  Pleomorphic – organisms that are variable in shape  Organization  Cytoplasm  Cytoskeleton(shape, cell division, protein localization)  Intracytoplasmic membranes-plasma membrane infoldings  Analogous to thylakoids of chloroplasts  Reactions centers for ATP formation  Inclusions-granules of material stockpiled for future use  Microcompartments-unbound storage compartment for a specific function  Ex. carboxysomes –contain the enzyme used for CO2 fixation  Gas Vacuoles- buoyancy  Magnetosomes-orientation to Earth’s Magnetic field  Ribosomes-protein synthesis  Nucleoid and plasmids-location of DNA  Plasma Membrane  Point of contact with environment (receptors, transport sites, metabolic processes)  Selectively Permeable Barrier  Comprised of an amphipathic lipid bilayer with floating proteins (Fluid Mosaic Model)  Peripheral proteins- loosely connected, easily removed  Integral proteins- amphipathic, embedded in membrane  Hopanoids- stabilize membrane  Cell Wall-rigid structure outside cell membrane  Function  Maintains shape of the bacterium  Protect cell from osmotic lysis and toxic materials  May contribute to pathogenicity  Site of action for several antibiotics  Peptidoglycan- helical polymer of NAG and NAM chains cross-linked by amino acid chains  Gram –Positive  Thick peptidoglycan layer, very small periplasmic space  Teichoic acid: maintains cell envelope, Protects from environmental substances, May bind to host cells  Gram-negative  Thin layer of peptidoglycan, large periplasmic space, outer membrane  outer membrane is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Consists of: Lipid A (toxic), Core polysaccharide, O side chain (O antigen)  Contributes to negative charge on cell surface  Helps stabilize outer membrane structure  May contribute to attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation  Creates a permeability barrier  Protection from host defenses (can change in response to immune system)  Can act as an endotoxin ( food poisoning)


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