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Biology 1144 1/14 Notes

by: Rocket

Biology 1144 1/14 Notes BIO 1144

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > BIO 1144 > Biology 1144 1 14 Notes
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Notes on kingdoms and phylums from 1/14
Thomas Holder
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Bio II Notes                                                                        Thomas Holder  1/14  Kingdom Fungi Ch. 31  +Possibly largest organism   ­Over 2,000 acre area fungus was found   ­All part of a large organism, researchers unsure of size, spread etc??  ­found in soil, or other material  ­the part we see the mushroom head, mold, yeast, etc, is the “conspicuous” portion  ­recyclers, decomposers     +Heterotrophic  ­can be parasitic  ­ can also be saprotrophic = secrete juices and absorb  ­main body of organism is called Mycelium  ­Mycelium is composed of mass of filaments called ​ hyphae    +Reproductive cells  ­Use spores instead of seeds  ­Blown by wind to spread colonies  ­ “fruiting bodies”­ the mushroom part, are where the reproductive cells are located    +Composition  ­rhizomorphs­ filaments for water transport  ­cell wall­ with chitin­ hardening protein      Kingdom Plantae Ch. 29+30  ­Roughly 300,00 species  ­Multicellular + Eukaryotic  ­most autotrophic = used photosynthesis  ­primarily terrestrial    +Composition  ­food storage compounds­ starch (complex glucose)  ­photosynthetic pigments­ chlorophylls a and b(greenish), b­carotene(yellowish)  ­cell wall­ cellulose (most abundant carbohydrate in the world)­ internal support of cell     +3 Characteristics­  ­Plant Kingdom  ­Land Plants  ­Kingdom Plantae  ­Ancestor of land plants probably­ algae (green)  ­Earliest fossils of this kingdom is 400 million years before present   ­Life on Land­ can’t get water from just being in it, must get it from soil  ­ Mechanic developed for such predicament? Roots      ★ 10 major groups  ­Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts 6,500 species)  ­Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts 100 species)  ­Phylum Bryophyta (mosses 12,000 species)     (first 3 groups most genetically related)  ➔ Lumped into “Bryophytes” (mosses + allies)    ­Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes 1,000 species)  ­Phylum Pteridophyta (fern+allies 12,000 species)  ➔ Lumped into “Pteridophytes” (ferns + relatives)    ­Phylum cycadophyta (cycads 300 species)  ­Phylum ginkgophyta (ginkgo 1 species)  ­Phylum gnetophyta (gnetophytes 300 species)  ­Phylum coniferophyta (cone bearing trees 500 species)  ➔ Gymnosperms­ “naked seeds” (first group of seed plants!)    ­Phylum anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plants appx. 300,000 species)  ➔ Angiosperms­ “enclosed seeds” within a fruit/vessel  *Enclosed seeds major advantage over naked*    ❏ Bryophytes         ­Reproduce by spores (not seeds)         ­non­vascular (lack conducting tissues­xylem/phloem) ​         ­smallest plants­ <½ meter         ­require water for sexual reproduction    ❏ Pteridophytes         ­extensive fossil record         ­small <10 m         ­reproduce via spores­not seeds  +Contain vascular tissue:     ­xylem­conduct water plus minerals      ­phloem­conduct food  ­ have “TRUE” roots, stems, leaves   ­also require water for reproduction    ❏ Gymnosperms   ­ primarily cone bearing trees   ­ oldest organism is bristlecone pine (usually over 2,000 yrs old)  ­ biggest organism is giant sequoia  ­ tallest organism is redwood (160 m)  ­ vascular tissues­ xylem and phloem  ­ “naked seeds”  + Advanced character within seed:             embryo             stored food             protective covering (integument)             ­ All 3 still exposed seed not enclosed! ­        ­     seeds have “survival value”, won’t dry out like spores        ­     does not require external water for reproductive activity        ­     pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location    ❏ Angiosperms  ­ enclosed seeds within fruit/vessel  ­ vascular tissue, more advanced, more complex  ­ seed contain:              embryo              stored food              2 protective covering (integuments)              involved being enclosed in fruit itself  ­ better survival value  ­ only group to produce flowers  ­ flower attracts pollinators  ­ fruits enclosed and protect seed  ­ fruits also assist seed dispersal  ­ OVER 300,000 SPECIES YEH  ­ does not require external water for reproduction  ­ pollen tube delivers sperm to egg      +Kingdom Animalia   ­1 ½  to 3 million species  ­Majority insects  ­One single ancestors­ flagellated protists?    +35 Animal Phylum   ­Share more similarity within animal genomes than other  kingdoms  + Characteristics              Multicellular              No cell wall            Sexual reproduction­ mobile small sperm+larger egg  +Hox genes:  ­Nervous tissues (mostly)  ­Cell junctions­anchoring/gap/tight  ­Protein binding cells (provide more support)   (stronger than plant’s carbohydrates cellulose)    +Classification                                      +Systematics   ­Development (embryonic)                  ­ Molecular  genetics   ­Morphology    +Classification Body Plans: 4  1. Body Symmetry  2. Number of tissue layers  3. Presence/Absence of a “true” body cavity  4. Patterns of embryonic development    +Metazoans (2)  ­Parazoa(sponges)  ­Eumetazoa (all others) Prefix­”Eu” means true                         


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