Biology 1144 1/14 Notes
Biology 1144 1/14 Notes BIO 1144
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Bio II Notes Thomas Holder 1/14 Kingdom Fungi Ch. 31 +Possibly largest organism Over 2,000 acre area fungus was found All part of a large organism, researchers unsure of size, spread etc?? found in soil, or other material the part we see the mushroom head, mold, yeast, etc, is the “conspicuous” portion recyclers, decomposers +Heterotrophic can be parasitic can also be saprotrophic = secrete juices and absorb main body of organism is called Mycelium Mycelium is composed of mass of filaments called hyphae +Reproductive cells Use spores instead of seeds Blown by wind to spread colonies “fruiting bodies” the mushroom part, are where the reproductive cells are located +Composition rhizomorphs filaments for water transport cell wall with chitin hardening protein Kingdom Plantae Ch. 29+30 Roughly 300,00 species Multicellular + Eukaryotic most autotrophic = used photosynthesis primarily terrestrial +Composition food storage compounds starch (complex glucose) photosynthetic pigments chlorophylls a and b(greenish), bcarotene(yellowish) cell wall cellulose (most abundant carbohydrate in the world) internal support of cell +3 Characteristics Plant Kingdom Land Plants Kingdom Plantae Ancestor of land plants probably algae (green) Earliest fossils of this kingdom is 400 million years before present Life on Land can’t get water from just being in it, must get it from soil Mechanic developed for such predicament? Roots ★ 10 major groups Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts 6,500 species) Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts 100 species) Phylum Bryophyta (mosses 12,000 species) (first 3 groups most genetically related) ➔ Lumped into “Bryophytes” (mosses + allies) Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes 1,000 species) Phylum Pteridophyta (fern+allies 12,000 species) ➔ Lumped into “Pteridophytes” (ferns + relatives) Phylum cycadophyta (cycads 300 species) Phylum ginkgophyta (ginkgo 1 species) Phylum gnetophyta (gnetophytes 300 species) Phylum coniferophyta (cone bearing trees 500 species) ➔ Gymnosperms “naked seeds” (first group of seed plants!) Phylum anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plants appx. 300,000 species) ➔ Angiosperms “enclosed seeds” within a fruit/vessel *Enclosed seeds major advantage over naked* ❏ Bryophytes Reproduce by spores (not seeds) nonvascular (lack conducting tissuesxylem/phloem) smallest plants <½ meter require water for sexual reproduction ❏ Pteridophytes extensive fossil record small <10 m reproduce via sporesnot seeds +Contain vascular tissue: xylemconduct water plus minerals phloemconduct food have “TRUE” roots, stems, leaves also require water for reproduction ❏ Gymnosperms primarily cone bearing trees oldest organism is bristlecone pine (usually over 2,000 yrs old) biggest organism is giant sequoia tallest organism is redwood (160 m) vascular tissues xylem and phloem “naked seeds” + Advanced character within seed: embryo stored food protective covering (integument) All 3 still exposed seed not enclosed! seeds have “survival value”, won’t dry out like spores does not require external water for reproductive activity pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location ❏ Angiosperms enclosed seeds within fruit/vessel vascular tissue, more advanced, more complex seed contain: embryo stored food 2 protective covering (integuments) involved being enclosed in fruit itself better survival value only group to produce flowers flower attracts pollinators fruits enclosed and protect seed fruits also assist seed dispersal OVER 300,000 SPECIES YEH does not require external water for reproduction pollen tube delivers sperm to egg +Kingdom Animalia 1 ½ to 3 million species Majority insects One single ancestors flagellated protists? +35 Animal Phylum Share more similarity within animal genomes than other kingdoms + Characteristics Multicellular No cell wall Sexual reproduction mobile small sperm+larger egg +Hox genes: Nervous tissues (mostly) Cell junctionsanchoring/gap/tight Protein binding cells (provide more support) (stronger than plant’s carbohydrates cellulose) +Classification +Systematics Development (embryonic) Molecular genetics Morphology +Classification Body Plans: 4 1. Body Symmetry 2. Number of tissue layers 3. Presence/Absence of a “true” body cavity 4. Patterns of embryonic development +Metazoans (2) Parazoa(sponges) Eumetazoa (all others) Prefix”Eu” means true
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