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BIO Notes 1/19

by: Rocket

BIO Notes 1/19 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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Notes from 1/19 covering 4 body classification, invertebrates, protostomes, and more will upload 1/21 notes tomorrow! Thanks for the purchases guys!
Thomas Holder
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Monday January 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Bio II Notes Thomas Holder  1/19   +Classification Of Body Plans  1. Body Symmetry  2. Number to Tissue Layers  3. Presence/Absence of a “True” body Cavity  4. Patterns of Embryonic Development    1. Body Symmetry​ ­ Relative proportions of the Body      Phylum Porifera​  (sponges) lack symmetry, can’t be cut into equal pieces      ­ Eumetazoa have Radial Symmetry: one plane passing through the          central axis produce same image      ­Bilateral Symmetry­ distinct head and tail end    2. ​issue Layers​­ Number of germ/tissue layers present      ­Tissue: aggregation (collection) of functionally         similar cells to form a tissue                                      Metazoa   +Eumetazoa    +Parazoa    (1 or more tissue types/organs) (​hylum Porifera) ​  2 Types of of tissue layer:  ­No organs or tissues       ❖ Radial Symmetric Animals  ­Sponges  + Diploblastic  (2 embryonic germ/tissue layers)  ­Endoderm and Ectoderm  ❖ Bilateral Symmetric Animals  + Triploblastic (3 layers)  ­Endoderm/Ectoderm/Mesoderm(middle)              ­Major increase in complexity    ➢ Tissue layers develop during an early development period called Gastrulation    +Figure 32.6               3 Body cavity  ­Bilateral ANIMALS ONLY  ­Non existent in​Phylum Porifera    ❏ Coelom​ : fluid filled body cavity in animals  + Advanced animals have a “true coelom”­body cavity completely lined with mesoderm  or mesoderm derived tissue    a. Acoelomate;  “without coelom”        ­No cavity        ­Not surrounded by mesoderm tissue  ex. Flatworms (​ hylum platyhelminthes)  ★ True cavity MUST be completely lined with mesoderm         b Pseudocoelomate;  “false coelom”        ­Body cavity present, well developed        ­However, not completely lined with mesoderm!  ex. Roundworm (​ phylum nematoda​ )         cEucoelomate​, “true coelom”         ­Advanced Metazoa        ­Mesoderm derived tissue for suspension or organs  ex. Earthworm (​phylum annelida​)        4.Embryonic Development  Fertilized egg­­­>Zygote­­­>Cleavage­­­>Blastula  ­­­­>Gastrula­­­­>Embryo    ❏ 2 Mechanisms  Protostomes​                          Deuterostomes   ​ ­1st opening develops mouth              ­2nd opening develops mouth  ­Mouth develops from blastopore       ­Anus develops from blastopore      Phylum:​                             Phylum:  Mollusca                                              Echinodermata  Annelida                                              Chordata  Arthropoda    ● Other Classification Methods  +Skeletons  Exoskeleton­most invertebrates  Endoskeleton­vertebrates (echinoderms)    +Notochord  ­Only phylum Chordata    +Metamerism  ­Segmentation(repetition of body parts)    +Cephalization  ­Distinct appearance of a head end of the body, most often the brain  ­Localization of sensory struds      Molecular Views/Animal Diversity  +New techniques  ­DNA  ­Ribosomal RNA  ­mtDNA  ++ADVANTAGES    ❏ Similarities between 4 Classification Features+Molecular Phylogeny  ­ Metazoa share common ancestor  ­­> Protist  ­ True split between Parazoa + Eumetazoa  ­ True split between Radial + Bilateral symmetry  ­ Echinodermata +Chordata are closely related  +2 Main Differences  ­ Protostomes­ Split into 2 lines clades (molecular)  ­ Body cavity­ Not a great character for splitting groups                  Invertebrates Ch. 32­33  ­Fossils approx 1.2 billion years  ­ “without backbone” (vertebral column)  ­95% of animal species    ➢ Phylum porifera  ­ Sponges  ­ Lack tissues and organs  ­ Multicellular? (usually blob of single cells   that are different types with different functions)  ­ apprx. 8,000 species(mostly marine)  ­ “Pores” filter H2O/food   + Reproduction:   ­ Hermaphrodites (produce both egg and sperm)   ­Some sexual reproduction   ­Some asexual reproduction    ➢ Phylum Cnidaria  ​             +Phylum Ctenophora  ­Jellyfishes                                      ­Comb jellies (don't have stingers)  ­Corals                                             ­100 species  ­Anemones  ­9,000 species  +Both Diploblastic (only 2 germ layers)  ­ Endoderm and Ectoderm, No Mesoderm  ­Simple creatures, not too complex  ­Mostly marine, some freshwater  +Both have Mesoglea­   ­ Gelatinous coating on outside animal  +Both exhibit nerve net­ Lack brain!   ­ Instead an interconnected nerve system to send signals  ­Both exhibit only one opening (mouth+anus)  ­Both have Gastrovascular cavity                Protostomes  ❏ Phylum platyhelminthes  ­Flatworms   ­Flukes    ­Tapeworms  ­Mostly Parasitic   ­ appx. 20,000 species  +Triploblastic (3 germ layers)  ­ Endoderm, Ectoderm, Mesoderm  +Protostomes  ­ Organs +organ systems are simple yet  developed  ­ Enhanced nerve net   +2 Cerebral Ganglia   ­ Clumps of cerebral tissue, almost brains  ­1 opening(mouth+anus) + Gastrovascular cavity  +Reproduction  ­ Asexual  ­ Sexual  ­ Hermaphrodites    ❖ Phylum Rotifera     ­Rotifers       ­Corona  ­Mostly freshwater  ­Simple brain  ­Pseudocoelom  ­approx. 2,000 species  + Alimentary Canal  ­  Digestive tube runs directly from mouth and anus   + Triploblastic (3 germ layers)  ­ Endoderm, Ectoderm, Mesoderm  +Reproduction  ­Asexual  ­Sexual  ­Parthenogenesis:  Egg develops without fertilization of sperm            ➢ Phylum Mollusca  ­Snails     ­Slugs     ­Oyster  ­Barnacles   ­Squid    ­Octopi  ­ apprx. 106,000 species  ­Protostomes  ­Eucoelomate  + 3 Part body   ­ Foot  ­ Visceral mass: internal organs  ­ Mantle: inside shell  ­Pump H2O  +Reproduction   ­Mostly Sexual  ­Egg/sperm released  ­Male transfers the sperm directly to female    ➔ Phylum Annelida  ­Segmenter/Ringed worms  ­approx. 15,00 species  ­Segmentation  ­Eucoelomate  ­Protostomes  +Enhanced/Developed  ­ Digestive system  ­ Nervous system  +Reproduction   ­Asexual  ­Sexual (hermaphrodites)    ● Phylum Nematoda  ­Roundworms  ­approx. 20,000 species  ­Pseudocoelomate  ­Ecdysis (shedding)  ­Complete digestive tract  ­Protostomes  +Reproduce   ­Mostly sexual    ❖ Phylum Arthropoda  ­Insects     ­Spiders      ­Crustaceans  ­approx. 1.75 ­ 2 million species  ­Segmented Appendages  +Exoskeleton  ­ Hardened cuticle  ­ Protein  ­ Chitin  ­Ecdysis(shedding)  ­Protostomes  ­Eucoelomate  +Enhanced  ­ Brain and Nervous system  ­Complex digestive system      ❏ Phylum Echinodermata  ­Sea stars     ­Urchins      ­Sea cucumbers  +Deuterostomes   ­ Anus develops from blastopore first  ­7,500 species  ­No brain  ­Simple nervous system  +Reproduction  ­Sexual  +Autotomy  ­ ability to regenerate parts/limbs  ­Endoskeleton  ­Series of plates    ➢ Phylum Chordata  ­Deuterostomes    ­Few invertebrates  ­Endoskeleton   ­Mostly Vertebrates                 


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