BIO Notes 1/19
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Monday January 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Bio II Notes Thomas Holder 1/19 +Classification Of Body Plans 1. Body Symmetry 2. Number to Tissue Layers 3. Presence/Absence of a “True” body Cavity 4. Patterns of Embryonic Development 1. Body Symmetry Relative proportions of the Body Phylum Porifera (sponges) lack symmetry, can’t be cut into equal pieces Eumetazoa have Radial Symmetry: one plane passing through the central axis produce same image Bilateral Symmetry distinct head and tail end 2. issue Layers Number of germ/tissue layers present Tissue: aggregation (collection) of functionally similar cells to form a tissue Metazoa +Eumetazoa +Parazoa (1 or more tissue types/organs) (hylum Porifera) 2 Types of of tissue layer: No organs or tissues ❖ Radial Symmetric Animals Sponges + Diploblastic (2 embryonic germ/tissue layers) Endoderm and Ectoderm ❖ Bilateral Symmetric Animals + Triploblastic (3 layers) Endoderm/Ectoderm/Mesoderm(middle) Major increase in complexity ➢ Tissue layers develop during an early development period called Gastrulation +Figure 32.6 3 Body cavity Bilateral ANIMALS ONLY Non existent inPhylum Porifera ❏ Coelom : fluid filled body cavity in animals + Advanced animals have a “true coelom”body cavity completely lined with mesoderm or mesoderm derived tissue a. Acoelomate; “without coelom” No cavity Not surrounded by mesoderm tissue ex. Flatworms ( hylum platyhelminthes) ★ True cavity MUST be completely lined with mesoderm b Pseudocoelomate; “false coelom” Body cavity present, well developed However, not completely lined with mesoderm! ex. Roundworm ( phylum nematoda ) cEucoelomate, “true coelom” Advanced Metazoa Mesoderm derived tissue for suspension or organs ex. Earthworm (phylum annelida) 4.Embryonic Development Fertilized egg>Zygote>Cleavage>Blastula >Gastrula>Embryo ❏ 2 Mechanisms Protostomes Deuterostomes 1st opening develops mouth 2nd opening develops mouth Mouth develops from blastopore Anus develops from blastopore Phylum: Phylum: Mollusca Echinodermata Annelida Chordata Arthropoda ● Other Classification Methods +Skeletons Exoskeletonmost invertebrates Endoskeletonvertebrates (echinoderms) +Notochord Only phylum Chordata +Metamerism Segmentation(repetition of body parts) +Cephalization Distinct appearance of a head end of the body, most often the brain Localization of sensory struds Molecular Views/Animal Diversity +New techniques DNA Ribosomal RNA mtDNA ++ADVANTAGES ❏ Similarities between 4 Classification Features+Molecular Phylogeny Metazoa share common ancestor > Protist True split between Parazoa + Eumetazoa True split between Radial + Bilateral symmetry Echinodermata +Chordata are closely related +2 Main Differences Protostomes Split into 2 lines clades (molecular) Body cavity Not a great character for splitting groups Invertebrates Ch. 3233 Fossils approx 1.2 billion years “without backbone” (vertebral column) 95% of animal species ➢ Phylum porifera Sponges Lack tissues and organs Multicellular? (usually blob of single cells that are different types with different functions) apprx. 8,000 species(mostly marine) “Pores” filter H2O/food + Reproduction: Hermaphrodites (produce both egg and sperm) Some sexual reproduction Some asexual reproduction ➢ Phylum Cnidaria +Phylum Ctenophora Jellyfishes Comb jellies (don't have stingers) Corals 100 species Anemones 9,000 species +Both Diploblastic (only 2 germ layers) Endoderm and Ectoderm, No Mesoderm Simple creatures, not too complex Mostly marine, some freshwater +Both have Mesoglea Gelatinous coating on outside animal +Both exhibit nerve net Lack brain! Instead an interconnected nerve system to send signals Both exhibit only one opening (mouth+anus) Both have Gastrovascular cavity Protostomes ❏ Phylum platyhelminthes Flatworms Flukes Tapeworms Mostly Parasitic appx. 20,000 species +Triploblastic (3 germ layers) Endoderm, Ectoderm, Mesoderm +Protostomes Organs +organ systems are simple yet developed Enhanced nerve net +2 Cerebral Ganglia Clumps of cerebral tissue, almost brains 1 opening(mouth+anus) + Gastrovascular cavity +Reproduction Asexual Sexual Hermaphrodites ❖ Phylum Rotifera Rotifers Corona Mostly freshwater Simple brain Pseudocoelom approx. 2,000 species + Alimentary Canal Digestive tube runs directly from mouth and anus + Triploblastic (3 germ layers) Endoderm, Ectoderm, Mesoderm +Reproduction Asexual Sexual Parthenogenesis: Egg develops without fertilization of sperm ➢ Phylum Mollusca Snails Slugs Oyster Barnacles Squid Octopi apprx. 106,000 species Protostomes Eucoelomate + 3 Part body Foot Visceral mass: internal organs Mantle: inside shell Pump H2O +Reproduction Mostly Sexual Egg/sperm released Male transfers the sperm directly to female ➔ Phylum Annelida Segmenter/Ringed worms approx. 15,00 species Segmentation Eucoelomate Protostomes +Enhanced/Developed Digestive system Nervous system +Reproduction Asexual Sexual (hermaphrodites) ● Phylum Nematoda Roundworms approx. 20,000 species Pseudocoelomate Ecdysis (shedding) Complete digestive tract Protostomes +Reproduce Mostly sexual ❖ Phylum Arthropoda Insects Spiders Crustaceans approx. 1.75 2 million species Segmented Appendages +Exoskeleton Hardened cuticle Protein Chitin Ecdysis(shedding) Protostomes Eucoelomate +Enhanced Brain and Nervous system Complex digestive system ❏ Phylum Echinodermata Sea stars Urchins Sea cucumbers +Deuterostomes Anus develops from blastopore first 7,500 species No brain Simple nervous system +Reproduction Sexual +Autotomy ability to regenerate parts/limbs Endoskeleton Series of plates ➢ Phylum Chordata Deuterostomes Few invertebrates Endoskeleton Mostly Vertebrates
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