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UTA / Science / POLS 2312 / What is Populist?

What is Populist?

What is Populist?


School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Science
Course: State and Local Government
Professor: Kimberly harper
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Texas State and Local Government
Cost: 50
Name: Texas State & Local Government Exam Review
Description: Hey, y'all! This is a comprehensive review for the exam on Tuesday. There is literally NO WAY you can fail if you know everything on these sheets. Just in case, I also included a list of all the speakers who have been to class and what they do. Happy studying!
Uploaded: 01/18/2016
10 Pages 10 Views 10 Unlocks

Doris Koepp (Rating: )

Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Bridgette!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

EXAM #1 REVIEW: Texas State & Local Government

What is Populist?

∙ Judges are elected at the state/local levels

o President nominates judges at the national level

∙ Constitutional Convention

o Held by all states to discuss/make amendments to the Constitution (3/4 of the  states)

o Very rare

∙ Enumerated Powers – power to the states

∙ Populist – a member of a political party seeking to represent the interests of ordinary  people

∙ Beliefs on equality differentiates Liberals and Conservatives

o Liberals

▪ Want equality and fairness; spread the wealth

▪ Big government → the power of the government used to equalize things ∙ Ex: Obamacare, socialism Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the major players in the legal system?

o Conservatives

▪ More concerned with the individual and their family unit

▪ Small government → more power to the states

▪ Rich stay rich, poor have to “pull themselves up by the bootstraps” o Libertarians

When did they establish Texas Legistalive Council?

▪ States should only handle violent or big matters

▪ Individuals do what they want (within reason); “free will” or liberty ▪ Little government involvement

▪ Less restrictions on goods sold

∙ Ex: ending marijuana prohibition

∙ Two Chambers in Texas House

o Senate: 31 members

▪ 4-year terms

▪ No term limits

▪ Upper house of the Texas LegislatureWe also discuss several other topics like What is the bombay phenotype?
If you want to learn more check out what are the country that became independent from india in 1947?

o House of Representatives: 150 members

▪ 2-year terms

▪ No term limits

▪ Lower house of the Texas Legislature

∙ U.S. House of Representatives: 435 members

o Texas holds 36 house seats

o Based on population of the 50 states

∙ Texas Legislative Council (est. 1950) – nonpartisan agency that serves the legislature o Consists of:

▪ Lieutenant Governor (Dan Patrick)

∙ Elected statewide

∙ Succeeded David Dewhurst

Who is John F. Kenney?

∙ Most powerful state office

▪ Speaker of the House of Representatives (Joe Straus)

▪ Six senators appointed by the Lieutenant Governor

▪ The Chairman of the House Administration Committee

▪ Five other members appointed by the Speaker of the House of  


∙ Calendar – a list of bills and resolutions that are scheduled to be considered by the full  house or senate

o 7 people on a committee decide whether a drafted bill goes to the Calendar ▪ All 7 say yes → Local and Consent

∙ Goes to the house floor

▪ 5 people sign to kill a bill → goes to General Calendar

o Typically, if one person in the House/Senate committee says no, it goes to the  General Calendar Don't forget about the age old question of What is the implication of conflict theory?

∙ Selective Perception: the process by which individuals perceive what they want to; how  individuals see the world (while blocking out contradicting stimuli)

∙ Cognitive Dissonance: holding two conflicting opinions at the same time; the state of  having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral  decisions and attitude change

∙ Political History of Texas

o Population: approximately 27 million

o Largest continental state

o Used to be Democrat controlled 

▪ Conservative and liberal split within the party

o Oil & Gas

▪ 1930s – huge oil/gas find in East Texas (Kilgore, TX) → gas was 5¢ a  barrel

▪ Severance tax used to bring in 40% of the state’s income (currently 7%) o Railroad Commission (formed 1891)

▪ Regulate prices of oil (mostly) and gas

▪ Est. by the Texas Legislature

▪ Oldest regulatory agency in Texas

▪ Set world oil prices from 1930s to 1960s

o Spindletop (January 1901) → led to Texas Oil Boom (Beaumont, TX) ∙ Galveston, TX

o The Great Galveston Hurricane (The Hurricane of 1900)

▪ Stunted the city’s growth; Galveston was the “Jewel of Texas,” the “New  York of the South,” and the largest, most successful city in Texas prior to  the hurricane If you want to learn more check out What are the significant geochemical changes that occur during hydrothermal circulation of the ocean crust?

▪ Single deadliest natural disaster in the history of the United States

▪ Galveston never fully recovered

o German and Czechoslovakian immigrants moved into the hill country ∙ South Texas

o Colonia: unregulated settlements with abject living conditions

▪ Unincorporated area: areas outside a city

▪ Semi-rural settlements; agricultural 

▪ Poverty-stricken, lack of sanitary sewage, unclean water, etc.

o Charter: city constitution

o One of the poorest regions in the US

o Democratic for the past 150 years; most democratic part of Texas ∙ Partisanship is NOT a main factor in local government elections (except in Houston, TX) ∙ Texas Presidential Primaries: March 1st 

∙ Houston was the runner-up for capital of Texas

∙ Austin, TX – liberal/democratic

o Most likely due to the presence of UT Austin

o Central/southern Texas

∙ West Texas

o Big on ranches

o Republican/conservative

o Midlands – Odessa, TX

▪ Democrat → Conservative

o The movie Friday Night Lights explains football culture

∙ East Texas

o Known for their oil and gas

o El Paso, TX

▪ Very similar to San Antonio, TX (due to military bases)

o Liberal and conservative

▪ Split (conservative around military bases → ex: Fort Worth) Don't forget about the age old question of What is Silk roads?

∙ North Texas

o Our area (Arlington and Dallas)

o One of the fastest growing areas in Texas

o Republican → Democrat

▪ Due to changing demographic, but still mostly conservative

∙ Texas State Government

o Republican control

▪ Influenced by military bases

o Mostly heterogeneous 

∙ 1836 – Texas breaks away from Mexico

o 1836 – 1838: Texas vs. Mexico → we gain independence

▪ Texas was its own nation, or an independent state, for about 10 years ∙ 1845 – Texas becomes a part of the Union

o Primary goal: keep slavery around

∙ 1846 – 1848: Mexican-American War 

o Changed the demographic of Texas

o Determined how much of Texas the Union would get

▪ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 

∙ 1861 – Texas joins the Confederacy

∙ 1861 – 1865: American Civil War → Confederacy loses

∙ 1865 – 1877: Reconstruction: rebuilding the south and the nation

∙ 1877 – Reconstruction ends

o Texas readmitted to the Union

o Democratic party makes a comeback (1876 – 1870/80s)

▪ Segregation (Plessy v. Ferguson)

∙ “Separate but equal.”

∙ Lyndon Baines Johnson (D) [1963 – 1969]

o Civil Rights Act of 1964

▪ Originally proposed by President John Kennedy (JFK) who had been  assassinated recently

▪ Outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or  national origin → ended racial segregation

o Democrat from Texas

o Vice President of JFK

o Versus Barry Goldwater (R)

o Most lopsided US election in history in terms of the popular vote; stole election

∙ Regulatory commissions established in the 19th century

o Texas Banking Commission

o Texas Historical Commission

o Texas Public Utilities Commission

o Texas Railroad Commission

∙ 1876 – only the Texas hill country was Republican 

∙ Ferguson family (WWI era) : Democrats

o Jim (“Pa”) and Myriam (“Ma”)  

▪ Jim was a populist; cared about the common man

▪ Jim is the only governor to be impeached and removed from office ∙ Line-item veto → defunded UT Austin

o Made many elites angry

▪ Jim’s slogan: “Let’s get the rich!”

▪ Myriam runs with the slogan: “Two governors for the price of one!” ∙ Only governor in name; not the “real” first female governor

o First “real” female governor: Ann Richards

∙ Longest serving governor: Rick Perry (14+ years)

∙ 1928 – democrats nominate Al Smith 

o Yankee; Governor of New York

o His Roman Catholicism scared away voters, especially the Bible Belt South o Versus Herbert Hoover (R)

∙ 1932 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt or FDR (D)

o Served from 1933 – 1945, succeeded Herbert Hoover

o His wife, Eleanor, was the niece of Teddy Roosevelt

o First Vice President was John Nance Garner (D) (1933-1941)

▪ From Uvalde, TX

o Second VP = Henry A. Wallace (D) (1941-1945)

o Third VP = Harry S. Truman (D) (1945)

▪ Succeeded FDR

∙ 1960 – 1963: John F. Kennedy is president (D)

o Running mate: LBJ (Lyndon Baines Johnson)

▪ From Texas

▪ Older and more experienced than Kennedy

o Roman Catholic

o Stole the election; one of the closest races of all time

▪ Television → JFK looks handsome, confident and healthy

∙ Nixon looked like a sweaty, nervous dweeb

o Versus Richard M. Nixon (R)

∙ State Legislature meets for 140 days every odd-numbered year in January o Governor can call special sessions outside of regular sessions 

∙ Texas House of Representatives

o Members assigned to districts

▪ Redistricting: redrawing district lines in order to alter drawings of who  gets what districts (every 10 years)

∙ Also can alter who’s voted in for a district → favoring a party

∙ Also known as gerrymandering 

∙ State Legislature redistricts maps for three entities

o House of Representatives

o Senate

o U.S. Congress

∙ 14th amendment – Equal Protection Clause

o Every district in TX has to have approx. the same number of people so voting is  more fair

∙ Electoral College: 538 members

o 100 (senators) + 435 (representatives) + 3 (electors from the District of Columbia) ∙ Every state is bicameral, or has two chambers, except for Nebraska, who use a  unicameral system, or one chamber system

∙ Most Important State Level Offices

o Unlimited terms for all positions 

o Speaker of the House

▪ Joe Straus 

▪ Assigns bills to committees, creates and appoints committees

▪ Chosen by the 150 members of the House of Rep.

o Lieutenant Governor

▪ Dan Patrick 

▪ Presiding officer of the Texas Senate

∙ Not one of the 31 members of the Senate

▪ Most powerful office 

∙ Powers of the governor + the Speaker of the House

o Governor

▪ Greg Abbott 

▪ Vetoes or passes bills

o Secretary of State

▪ Carlos Cascos 

▪ Chief elections officer 

▪ Appointed by the governor with the approval of the Texas Senate

∙ Sore-loser law: a law that says the loser in a primary election cannot run as an  independent in a general election

∙ Most prestigious committee in Texas: Board of Regents

o University of Texas system

o A&M system

∙ Taxation pays for roads, hospitals, schools, etc.

∙ Texas does NOT have a state income tax, but there is a federal income tax o Most states have an income tax; Texas is one of the lucky puppers

▪ Extra 14% or 15% for a state income tax

▪ Lack of an income tax → regressive tax 

∙ Sales tax: principle source of income for Texas

o 6.25% for the state, ±2% for cities

∙ Property tax 

o Local entities that can utilize the property tax

▪ Community colleges

▪ Hospitals

▪ School districts

▪ Counties

▪ Road districts

∙ A large chunk of $ goes to education

∙ Nevada makes a lot of money from gambling (Las Vegas, NV)

∙ Business tax used to be called the “franchise tax”

∙ State Executive branches

o 4-year terms with no limit

▪ Governor

▪ Lieutenant Governor

▪ Secretary of State

▪ Comptroller

∙ State equivalent of IRS

∙ Control taxes

∙ Brings in money and invests money

▪ State Agriculture Commissioner – Sid Miller (R)

∙ In charge of agriculture

∙ Weights and measures of agricultural products

▪ Attorney General – Ken Paxton

∙ Chief law enforcement officer

∙ Only handles civil disputes 

o Criminal cases → local/district courts

∙ State Courts

o Texas courts elect their judges

▪ Most states elect judges

▪ Vote for judges like we would any other state office ▪ Partisan

∙ Federal Courts

o Appoint judges for life

o Picked by President → U.S. Senate approves or disapproves

∙ Judicial System

o Two major courts (at the state level; both located in Austin, TX) ▪ Court of Criminal Appeals 

▪ State Supreme Court 

o At the federal level, both civil and criminal cases are handled

▪ Civil → divorces, failure to pay something, crashes, family court ▪ Criminal → murder, sexual offenses, kidnapping

o State Supreme Court

▪ 9 members (all Republican at the moment)

▪ Handle civil cases

▪ 6 year terms, no limit

o Court of Criminal Appeals

▪ 9 members

▪ Handle criminal cases

▪ 6 year terms (1/3 must stand for election every 2 years), no limit o The two main top courts are appellate courts 

▪ Hear cases on appeal ONLY 

o 13 Courts of Appeals

▪ Varying number of members

▪ Handle both criminal and civil cases

o District courts

▪ Each court handles civil OR criminal cases, never both

o County Courts

▪ Each court handles civil OR criminal cases, never both

▪ 100s across Texas

o Justice of the Peace courts

▪ Lawyer not required

▪ Criminal and civil cases handled

▪ 4 year terms with no limit

o Specialized courts

▪ Domestic relations (i.e. divorce/family court)

▪ Juvenile courts

▪ Drug courts

∙ District-level

∙ Some counties do not have them

o Big counties, like Travis and Harris, tend to have them

o Democratic party may dominate Texas eventually

SPEAKERS WE’VE HAD IN CLASS: January – early April

∙ 94th district seat → Andrew Piel (R) vs. Tony Tinderholt (R)  

o Tony Tinderholt – incumbent for 94th district seat (House of Representatives) ∙ Chris Turner (D) – state representative for Grand Prairie (District 101) o One of 55 democrats in the Texas House of Representatives

∙ Patti Diou

o Head of Levitt Pavilion

▪ Building community through music

▪ Free, but funded by the wealthy of Arlington and donations at the concerts ▪ Serve underserved communities

▪ Downtown Arlington

▪ 1 of 6 across the nation

▪ The LP has changed the politics of the city of Arlington

∙ Arlington is becoming more like Austin in recent years

∙ Mark Davis

o Libertarian-Conservative talk-show host and political commentator o His station is 660AM

∙ Mac Engel

o Writer for the Star Telegram

o Talks about sports and sports’ politics

▪ How do sports relate to politics?

∙ Sports bring in $$$ for universities (mostly football and basketball) ∙ Universities are typically liberal

∙ Debrorah Peoples (D)

o County Chair of Tarrant County

▪ Gets the message out to people about the Dem. Party

▪ Find candidates for ballots

▪ Encourage people to volunteer; raise money

o 60-40 split: approx. 1 million voters in Tarrant w/ the majority being Republican

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