Rhetorical Theory Final Exam (Cumulative)
Rhetorical Theory Final Exam (Cumulative) COMM 2101
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison DeLucia on Monday January 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2101 at University of North Carolina at Charlotte taught by Leeman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Intro to Rhetorical Theory in Communication at University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Philosophies of Rhetoric 1. what purpose does rhetoric serve for human society 2. what constitutes ethical rhetoric? Two roles for Public Speaking 1. Legislature (town council) 2. Law courts a. Juries: 501 people b. No lawyers: everyone is their own lawyer Sophist Philosophy 1. Gorgias --Ambassador from Sicily to Athens --Taught/practiced public speaking 2. “In Praise of Helen” -- Rhetoric is always depicted as a woman i. womenseductionpersuasionetc. --Speech is a powerful lord. i. music is creating a mood through words (eulogies) ii. witchcraft iii. powerful drug iv. like a lord v. like magic --Rhetoric is powerful --Cannot be “persuaded” if we perfectly know the past, present and future --Persuasion only operates where there is ignorance i. the truth is unknowable --Premise 1: Rhetoric is Powerful --Premise 2: Truth is unknowable Therefore: There is no ethical standard for judging good rhetoric vs. bad rhetoric. “To promote and defend your own interests” Socrates Philosophy 1. True Arts vs. Shadow Arts --True Arts – Astronomy, Medicine, Gymnastics (exercise) --Shadow Arts – Astrology, Cookery, Make-up (cosmetics --Premise 1: Truth is knowable --Premise 2: Rhetoric only works if one is ignorant --Premise 3: Rhetoric is Powerful Therefore: 1. Rhetoric is Dangerous. 2. The ethical person will speak the truth with regard to the rhetorical effects. Plato’s Philosophy Author: Plato Book: The Phaedrus Protagonist: Socrates The Phaedrus Outline Three Speeches 1. Phaedrus’ speech: Why lovers should not be in love with each other (emotions blind us) 2. Socrate’s first speech: same argument, better written, better organized. 3. Socrate’s second speech: lovers should be in love with each other Socrate’s second speech --Myth of the charioteer Charioteer – the person Light horse – spirit Dark horse – appetite Reins – reason o In society – rhetoric --Premise 1: Truth is knowable --Premise 2: Rhetoric only works if one is ignorant --Premise 3: There are always some who will be ignorant --Premise 4: Rhetoric can help those who are ignorant live intelligent lives Therefore: The purpose of Rhetoric is to help the ignorant to live intelligent lives. Aristotle’s Philosophy Author: Aristotle Book: The Rhetoric --Four reasons it is useful to study rhetoric 1. If all things are equal, the truth generally wins out (our system of law is based on this) John Stuart Mills’ Marketplace of Ideas Why Allow ideas that are false? 1. The false ideas may actually be true 2. The false ideas may be partially true 3. Ideas that are completely false will still give us a better understanding of what then is true. 2. Some people cannot be enlightened, they need to be lead (sounds like Plato) 3. Rhetoric helps us see what the issues and facts are on both sides of an issue 4. Rhetoric helps us defend ourselves intellectually (and human intellect separates us from the animals) --Premise 1: Most important truths are unknowable --Premise 2: But some guesses are better than others --Premise 3: Rhetoric can help us make better guesses Therefore: Rhetoric is ethical when it attempts to help us make better guesses. The Arts of Rhetoric 1. Are cooperative 2. People’s art 3. Temporary art (things change) 4. Limited art 5. Frustrating art, because it’s guesses, and guesses can be wrong 6. Generative art – Rhetoric generates ideas The Functions of Rhetoric 1. Unburdens – as you receive other perceptions it makes you feel better. 2. Distracts – language appeals distract you. Can’t hold any one idea in our mind at a time. 3. Enlarges – takes us places that we aren’t 4. Names – 5. Empowers – 6. Elongates – how did we get to this predicament. Rhetoric is everything: we are constantly trying to persuade people. Introduction to Rhetoric Definition: 1. The art of persuasion 2.The faculty of observing, in any given case, the available means of persuasion and choosing the best among these. a. In any given case - rhetorical is situational b. The available means of persuasion - Survey all means - Systematically c. Choosing the best among those - Need method for evaluating Three Elements of Rhetoric 1. The Rhetor 2. The Audience 3. The Situation The Rhetor Aristotle, Three types of persuasive appeals Ethos: speaker/writer credibility Pathos: emotional appeals Logos: logical appeals BItzer’s Rhetorical Situation Exigence – The problem that rhetoric seeks to resolve Constraints – limits as to what can be said rhetorically in a particular situation 1. Bitzer: helps identify what is nonsense (does not fit the exigence) or unacceptable (does not fit the constraint) 2. The rhetorical situation: can serve as a rhetorical resource a. As resource i. Prohibition and repeal women and children ii. “women’s issue” iii. passed prohibition in 1919 b. As Resource i. Civil rights lunch counter sit-ins c. Language i. Walmart protests 1. “Always low wages ” Definition of Humans 1. The reason-giving animal a. Topoi i. Argument ii. Reason iii. Point iv. Issue v. Topic vi. “Commonplace” b. Line of Argument i. Universal Topoi: Arguments that can be applied in a variety of situations 1. Health 2. Mone 3. Family ii. Specific Topoi: Arguments that apply to a particular situation 1. Cigarettes 2. Once specific, they are not transportable 3. We tend to repeat topoi; we develop “templates” 4. Determine which topoi work best in certain situations (or try to determine) c. Content i. Hermagoras, STASIS ii. Stasis: The point at which 2 arguments meet 1. Levels of arguments a. If on same lever: “stronger” argument wins b. If on different levels i. Cannot resolve the argument between the two arguers ii. Risk that audience will focus on opponents level iii. May be strategic to be on a different level. Hermagoras: 4 Levels of Stasis 1. Conjecture (fact): whether something exists, has existed, or will exist a. Facts are arguable b. Ex. Global warming – either it exists or it doesn’t c. Conjecture is often treated as fact d. Facts are privileged in rhetoric 2. Definition: what is the appropriate meaning of a word or lable a. Shape/mold the argument 3. Quality: what is something worth? What is it’s value? a. Most open to debate b. Is subjective c. Beauty is the eye of the beholder d. Used to prolong the debate e. Often confused with issues of fact 4. Jurisdiction: who should be the person/group who gets to decide? a. Can quickly shut down debate Jurisdiction 1. Nature: what the characteristic of the decision being made 2. Statute (policy): What are the laws/rules 3. Precedent 4. Custom (tradition) 5. Equity (fairness) 6. Agreement Abolition 1. For state control of slavery a. Statute (policy) i. Constitution: 3/5 compromise ii. Slave importation clause iii. 10 amendment b. Precedent 2. For federal control a. Nature i. The evil of slavery affected the entire US since the problem is national, the jurisdiction should be national b. Equity (fairness) i. Slave holders control the political power in states that have slavery 3. 1852 Fugitive slave law a. state courts, police, and individual citizens are legally obligated to help fugitive slave hunters find and return escaped slaves. 4. 1857 supreme court Dred Scott decision a. even through Dred Scott’s master had taken him to a free state, Dred Scott remained property of the master. Fallacies of Reasoning (Flow from inductive to deductive types reasoning) Why Study It? 1. Tradition: have been taught for a very long time 2. Useful: as a way of looking at persuasion 3. Illuminate the Reasoning Process: Analyzing peoples persuasive attempts Fallacy of Reasoning When the reasoning process is inappropriate for that particular situation -Not fallacy because it follows a particular situation Generalizations 1. Fallacy of Composition -Assuming that what is true of the part is true of the whole -Inductive Reasoning used poorly -Hasty generalization (Confusing color with size – buying a larger dark shoe example. Leeman’s son) -Insufficient number of examples 2. Fallacy of Division -Assuming that what is true of the whole is true of each part -Deductive reasoning used poorly 3. Suppressed Major Premise -A questionable major premise is not explicitly stated -Much abused -“The UN doesn’t work. It has not stopped wars from happening.” Major Premise: <The purpose of the UN is to stop wars from happening.> Minor Premise: The UN has not stopped wars from happening Conclusion: The UN is a failure -“You better take your umbrella. It’s raining.” Major: “When it’s raining, you should take your umbrella.” Minor: “It’s raining outside.” Conclusion: “You better take your umbrella.” 4. False Dilemma -Presented with only two choices, even though there may be more -“Take it or leave it.” -“Don’t settle for cheap plastic. It doesn’t take a genius.” (Samsung vs. Apple) Standards -Criteria by which we measure the worth/value/quality of something -Have the most fallacies (Most arguable level of stasis – Quality – most open to abuses to fallacies of reasoning) 1. Fallacy of Extension -Applying (i.e. “extending) a standard that’s appropriate in 1 situation, to a situation in which it’s fallacious -Fine Dining: quality of food -Daily Meals: Nutrition, Cost, and sometimes Ease of Preparation 2. Fallacy of False Consolation -Inappropriately using a comparison (e.g. better or worse) to make a judgment of quality (e.g. good or bad) -Confuses the term “average” -“SAT scores rise in Charlotte Region” -SAT scores… rose in Charlotte-Mecklenburg and surrounding districts, outstripping national and statewide gains… Test 2 FORM, ORGANIZATION AND GENRE Form -Form: the structure of something -Kenneth Burke: (defines form functionally – what form does) -Form: the arousal and fulfillment of expectation -4 types Burke’s Types of Form -1. Repetitive Form: Same thing over and over -AB AB AB A_ -Refrains in a song/Questions -2. Conventional Form: “Tradition” -Things that have been done for a long time -What you do at commencements -Thanksgiving dinner/Christmas/”So Help Me God” -3. Syllogistic Form: -A=B -B=C -C=A -4. Qualitative Form -The qualities (or characteristics) of the early part of the structure, shape the qualities (or characteristics) of the later part of the structure -Foreshadowing – how characters behave early, foreshadow how they’ll behave later on -Characters in a movie -Speech-Act is performative – PRES goes to scene of disaster to make it look like he cares: Serious problem merits a serious solution Burke’s Notions of Form -1. Violations of form will always attract attention -Showing up in a 3 piece suit to school and people violate your personal life by asking why you’re dressed so nicely. “Oh you have an interview today?” -2. Violations will not predispose audiences to being receptive to the message -3. Creative violations are appreciated -4. Creative fulfillment of expectations is also appreciated -Don’t have to be different to be successful -Just know the elements of form Message Design -Formulaic -Structured according to a formula, or a prescribed pattern -or what is taught to us -E.g., sandwich organization for a bad news interview -Positive – Negative – Positive -Starting something positive, then saying negative, ending positively -How you organize can make a difference -Formulas are attractive because they often work Rhetorica as Herrenium – Here’s how you organize a speech (We don’t use this to organize speeches today but they did back in the day because it works) 1. Proem (Introduction) -(Before a song = “overture”) -Sampling of what you are going to hear. -Foreshadowing: tells you where you’re going -Guy giving class Hershey Kiss and connecting it with AIDS 2. Narratio(n) -Overview of the facts, Context 1 Test 2 -What story do you use to contextualize what you’re saying? 3. Divisio(n) -Enumerate the key Arguments -“Talking Points” -What are the key ideas you want? (3-5) -Turning point on how you make your decision 4. Confirmatio(n) -Arguments – that confirm your point of view 5. Refutatio(n) -Arguments against 6. Peroratio(n) -Conclusion Message Design -Formulaic -Organic -The message is appropriately structured for the situation (The Exigence, The Audience, and The Constraints) -“Metaphor” -Idea that persuasion is a living thing and it adapts to its environment -Thrive or don’t thrive -Persuasion needs to fit a particular situation Jordan Speech 1. Proem: -Constitution: (What she focuses on) -How she wasn’t involved in the constitution at first. References she’s black/woman -She’s for the constitution and she will defend it -She won’t be an idle spectator -Put forward and ethos statement. Never references herself again -Hasn’t mentioned Nixon yet -Says the constitution is the most important -Her unique history vis-à-vis the constitution -Personal statement that she intends to protect the constitution I. Congress has a constitutional duty to be a lawful check on the president II. Refutatio(n): There’s no reason to wait on deciding if the President should be impeached III. Confirmatio(n): Presidents actions are impeachable (“Nixon is guilty”) Message Structure – Hart & Daughton (also in book) 1. Message Design: the overall structure of the message 2. Message Emphasis: Pasts of the message made more important by the way the message is structured -How you’re structuring importance in the message 3. Message Density: the amount of stimuli/messages that are “fit” into the message -Jordan’s Speech is very dense -TV Commercials -Lots of them are set up so that they are undense -But some put in a bunch of stimuli 4. Message Pacing: The speed of the structure -Quick, Deliberate (Jordan’s Speech), Leisurely, Business-Like Genre -Conventionally formed message -Such as: -Eulogies/Commencement Speeches/Annual Reports to Stockholders/University Websites/Visits to a Doctor’s Office/Reality Show/Local News 2 Test 2 -You have a sense of how it is going to be organized -Hart and Daughton: -“A genre is a class of messages having important structural and content similarities and which, as a class, creates special expectations in listeners.” -Organized and structured in a way that will fit an audiences expectations -Karlyn Kohrs Campbell and Kathleen Jamieson: -“A constellation of substantive, situational, and stylistic elements” -Situational genres occur in reoccurring situations -Constellation -You just need to see enough of the elements to see that the genre is occurring Aritotle’s Genres 1. Deliberative Speeches: -Policy Speeches (Legislature) -Major Issue: Expediency (what’s going to be the most effective policy?) -Time-Orientation: The Future -(Organizational setting – what would be the results?) 2. Forensic Speeches: -Criminal Justice -Legal Speeches (Courtroom) -Major Issue: Justice (Civil or Criminal) -Time-Orientation: The Past -(You find peothe guilty based on things they have done) 3. Epideictic Speeches (4 of July Speech, Frederick Douglas) -Ceremonial Speeches -“A Rehearsal of Values” (Giving people a new way to look at an established value) -Major Issue: Virtue/Vice (What is praiseworthy or condemnable) -Time-Orientation: The Present -Recommit to a vale they already believe in Stages in the Development of a Genre 1. People react similarly to a similar stimuli: -Loved one passes away, same kind of grief -Similar Human Impulse on the kinds of healing you can get from a speech about them (Eulogy) 2. Later Persuaders copy Earlier Persuaders who faced a similar Exigence: 3. Audiences Begin expecting that Persuaders facing a particular Exigence will follow the “Copy”. (Conventional Form) -“Academics” on college websites Jeremiads (Henry McNeal Turner) Henry McNeal Turner -Situation: Speaking to Georgia State Legislature (Audience). Vote in GSL as to whether or not expel the black legislatures that have been elected in 1868 -Whites to vote them out -The Rhetor: Last to speak, delivers a Jeremiad -Born a free slave/”Royalty” – Free black family in SC -Learned to read at night under penalty of law (illegal to teach any blacks to read) -Bishop in the Methodist Church -Organized Church for slaves -Republicans hired to organize _____________ -Leading figure in Georgia Constitutional Organization -Ran for election/Was Elected Jeremiads 1. Judge, Rather than Persuade: -Focused on saying, “You’re screwing up!” -Belk tower preacher 2. Condemns the Immorality Being Committed by “The People” as a Community: 3 Test 2 -“GSL is going under because they want to kick him out of the legislature.” -Culture/Community rather than the individual 3. The Immorality is Greater because the Community is a “Chosen People” 4. The Rhetor is Part of the Community, but also Apart from it. 5. The Community will certainly be punished if they do not Change 6. The Rhetor Adopts a Prophetic Persona (i.e., Rhetor is a conduit, Messenger – not the originator of the Message) 7. The Rhetor is Optimistic that there can be a “Better Day”. Repentance and Forgiveness are Possible. -Turner follows 5 of 7 -Doesn’t do #7 (He knows they are going to vote to expel) and #2 -1. Efficient way of communicating to the audience that they are immoral (Why he chose a jeremiad and why it was effective) -2. A way of reminding the audience that they speak the same language regardless of race -“Rhetorically we are the same” -3. Reverse the Situation -Physically they are expelling the blacks -Morally they are expelling themselves (whites) from God STORY-TELLING Story-telling Animal -Humans as the “story-telling animal” (Narrative) -We like to tell stories -Courts of law (difference between reason giving and storytelling, look at to tell) -In front of a jury = storytelling -Making their own arguments (NOT a legal argument) -Advertising (used to be seen as reason giving) -In TV they look at it as “30 second movies -“What story do we want to tell people about our products?” Relevant Theories -Fisher’s Narrative Theory -Bormann’s Fantasy Theme Analysis -Burke’s Dramatistic Theory -Mythic Theory Native Features of Narrative 1. Narrative Occurs in a Natural Time-Line -Follows chronology -We expect stories to happen in a time frame we’re used to 2. Narrative Includes Characterization -We tell stories about people 3. Narrative Presents Detail -How much detail/what do you need so the audience will understand? -Choice making 4. Narrative is Primitive -Doesn’t mean it’s uncivilized -It’s basic/universal to who we are as humans -Most of our conversations are us telling stories and us listening to someone else tell stories 5. Narrative Doesn’t “Obviously” Argue -Stories create perspective (persuading people) -Arguing for a particular perspective Fisher’s Narrative Theory 1. Narrative Fidelity -Does the story fit the audience’s experiences? (External consistency – not tested on) -Are people going to find the story believable, given their experiences? 4 Test 2 2. Narrative Probability -Is the story consistent with itself? Is it “coherent”? (Internal consistency – not tested on) -Believable that the characters would do what they did? -Coherent and believable? -Basically echoes enthymeme and qualitative form. Bormann’s Fantasy Theme Theory -(Symbolic Convergence Theory) -Groups (i.e. communities) tell stories about themselves -Past, present, future -Fantasy Theme: reoccurring stories or types of stories -Sometimes the story seems true/sometimes not -As long as the group believes it’s true, doesn’t matter if it is or not Burke’s Dramatism (richest way about talking about narrative) -(The Pentad) (Nuts & Bolts) -5 elements we look for in theater to analyze -Scene: The situation, background -Agent: Characters -Protagonist (good guys/hero) -Antagonist -Audience (how do we involve them?) -Act: the central action of the drama -Turner’s Speech: the central action – the expulsion (everything revolves around this) -Jordan’s Speech = impeachment -Agency: the means (or vehicle) by which the Act is accomplished -Turner’s Speech = there’s going to be a vote -Jordan’s Speech = reason or passion -Purpose: The motivation for wanting the Act to occur (Not hidden) [Purpose in the DRAMA] -Or why you don’t want it to occur -Turner = Arguing Against -Jordan = for (uphold the constitution) Simpson’s Ad for MasterCard +Elements of the Pentad -Scene: getting his oil changed/barber shop/store. Basic Scene: things you need to get done (errands). Meant to be a scene to say it could be anyone -Agency: the card -Purpose: competing purposes – in ad- to drink a beer/to spend time with your family -Agent: Homer (major)/Narrator (major)/barber/clerk/bartender/old man Samsung Galaxy Ad -Scene: outside a competitors, Apple (enthymeme) store. Major cities. “Technological scene” -Agent: drama being pitched to younger people -Agency: if you want a Samsung, you can already get it... if you want an iPhone, you’ll have to wait in line. Getting a phone -Purpose: Have the coolest device. Be more up-to-date -Act: buying a new phone Hallmark School Ad -Scene: going back to school/bedroom/outside/bus/suburban community – bus going into the city at the end -Agent: Mother and daughter/guy singing (John Mayer) [- enthymeme]/butterflies/other kids on bus -Act: going back to school -Agency: Hallmark card – helps you face a scary situation -Purpose: give people confidence Principles of Dramatism 5 Test 2 1. Identification: -the audience is persuaded to the extent that the audience empathize or “connect” with any or all of the elements of the drama (scene, agent, act, agency, or purpose) -[identifying with people in apple line, identification makes you want a Samsung instead] -The more you identify, the more you’re sold 2. Motive: -The “why” of an action is as important – or more important – than the action itself. -(Hallmark Ad – the desire of being a good mother/parent – motivation to do so) -(Simpson Ad – motive of doing errands – why do you do them?) -Motive in drama is a powerful rhetorical force 3 All Life is Drama: -We all play roles and we see ourselves and others as characters in a play (story) -We communicate in ways that embodies these roles 4. Rhetoric Promises Transcendence -Transcendence -Transcend, transcendence: to bridge 1. Constancy/consistency provides mechanism for handling change -Starting a new job -Use what you know when you face new situations -Principles you already know -Transcends change 2. Constancy/consistency provides enduring truths and values -a rock that we can hold onto -Although we play multiple roles, if I asked you who you are, you can answer because there’s consistency in who you are at the core. -Motives remain consistent across changes in actions, agents and scenes 5. Dramatism Searches for Agonistic Patterns (Conflict) -We particularly pay attention to conflict -By nature we do this Myths 1. A type of story – not necessarily true or false -We don’t care if it is -What matters is what the audience believes 2. Rooted in the Past – but adaptable to the present -Reoccurring/cultural story told over and over -Frame of the story gets told/communicates a truth to you. 3. Communicates a moral -Tells you something about the world -Educates us 4. Characters are larger than life -not a lot of nuance -good are very good -bad are very bad -tragic are very tragic Myths -David and Goliath 1. Smaller beats larger 2. Smaller has moral right on his/her side (God) 3. Smaller is more ingenious/creative (slingshot) 4. Those expected to fight/take of the cause are reluctant or refuse to do so. -Rudy/Remember the Titans/We are Marshall -Erin Brokovich (movies) -Facing Your Giants – Max Lucado (self-help books) -American Revolution 6 Test 2 4 categories of Myths (Hart and Daughton) -Categorizing in terms of function depending on how you use the myth Types of Myths 1. Cosmological -Where we came from? -What are our origins? -What is our nature? -What were our ancestors like? -Garden of Eden (having paradise, and messing it up) -Star Trek -This Side of Paradise (Season 1) -The Apple (Season 2) -The Way to Eden (Season 3) -Pioneer Myth (The Frontier) [Traditional Myth – traditional language] -Endure hardship, some make it some don’t -Western movies/Westward Ho/Wagon Train -The Oregon Trail 2. Societal -How does our culture “work” or “operate”? -Robin Hood (steal from the rich to give to the poor) -Person becomes an outlaw by circumstance not by choice – outlaw in order to help the common person) -When the government (power structure) gets oppressive, it’s okay for civil disobedience to occur -Guy Fawkes (wanted to blow up British Parliament) -V for Vendetta -Horatio Alger (rags to riches) -Writer for “books for boys” -No matter where you’re from, you can build yourself up -The Pursuit of HappyNess -Hardwork will get you ahead 3. Identity -Which ones do we take on for ourselves? Where can we say, “Oh that’s me” -Intentional or unintentional? -Who are we as a person? -Cinderella – “good things come to those who wait” -Who are we as a people? (Culture taking it on for a people) -Sleeping Giant -“Courtesy of the Red, White, and Blue” Song -Big dog will fight when you rattle its cage 4. Eschatological -Where are we going? -Where we’re headed into the future -Machine vs. People -Divergent (individual vs. the system)/Brave New World -Armageddon -Independence Day/Mad Max -(How do you survive in an animalistic existence?) -Hunger Games – can’t make up its mind… could be both. 7
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