Rhetorical Theory Final Exam (Cumulative) part 2
Rhetorical Theory Final Exam (Cumulative) part 2 COMM 2101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison DeLucia on Monday January 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2101 at University of North Carolina at Charlotte taught by Leeman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Rhetorical Theory in Communication at University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Exam 3 Notes Humans as the Symbol-Using Animal Symbolic Interactionism -Focus on humans as symbol using Definition of Man – Kenneth Burke 1. Symbol-Using, Symbol-Misusing Animal 2. Inventor of the Negative 3. Separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making 4. Goaded by a Spirit of Hierarchy 5. Rotten with Perfection Kenneth Burke “Definition of Man” – Talks about 5 clauses 1. Symbol-Using, Symbol-Misusing Animal: -Symbol: something that stands for (represents) something else (the referent) -Referent: the “thing” the symbol stands for Symbol (word): TREE (ex.) -Referent (Thing) [What does it stand for?] -Living Organism -Woody -Some Evergreen, some Deciduous -Denotative Meaning: regular, argued upon meaning (slang = denotative) -Connotative Meaning: the individual interpretations of a symbol (thinking of snow and you start thinking: “Oh, we might get out of school,” or “I’m going to catch traffic.”) Tree -Living Org -Woody -Evergreen (Connotative Meanings) -Large -Long-Living -Sturdy -Provides Shade -Hang a Swing Symbol- -Provides Firewood Using A. Interpret the Situation: -Think of the terms used when talking about abortions -Certain terms make you interpret the situation differently (fetus/unborn child) -Buying vs. Investing -Look at situations differently according to the terminology B. Accept the Situation: -To get ourselves/other people to accept the situation -Funerals (for ex) “got to accept it because this is the way it is” C. As a Corrective: -Try to make something good out of it -Child gets hurt, kissing it to make them feel better -(Kiss = referent to get the kid to feel better) D. Exerciser of Submerged Experience: -We end up having/using symbols that say things we aren’t completely aware of -Having a bad day at work so you beat the dog -really the fault of something else but it’s coming out in another way E. Emancipator: -Use symbols to liberate us from situations 1 -“Distractions” -Getting pulled over and talking your way out of trouble – what you did to get pulled over hasn’t changed -Putting on music during a road trip “makes the trip go faster” – time it takes to get there doesn’t change -“Tap Code” – concentration camps – no one taught them, they learned themselves so they could communicate. Made prison tolerable -Human drive to communicate with each other -Reality of the situation doesn’t change F. Vehicle for Artistic Effects: -Use it for play -Humor (simple word humor) -Movies/Music -Assembling symbols to tell a story in a certain way -Symbols are so much a part of who we are that we use them as play Symbol-Misusing -Does NOT mean using the symbol incorrectly (mistake meaning) -What Burke means is: -We use symbols for immoral, unethical, harmful purposes -Hitler never did flip a switch on a gas oven/or killed anyone physically, but he did because he used words -Emotional Abuse (Words hurt more) -Symbols are powerful 2. Inventor of the Negative: -Notice what the symbol does to the universe – divides the world into 2 categories - Not a Tree Tree Words from Last ex. -To use a system you have to be able to identify the negative - Furnitur e Chair Table Bed A. How the absence of something would improve our lives -Get rid of something that is now present -Root Canals hurt at first but then feels better once done -“If you just hold still, I can get it out and you will feel better” B. How gaining something now absent would improve or worsen our lives -Thinking of things that aren’t present -Sitting in class at 8am to one day get your degree. You don’t have that degree now but you go to school because you’ll get one – Promise of a degree/something in the future -Bipolar Thinking: Either/Or – Categorical: -Seed to the inventor of the negative -divide things into either/or -Either on pole or another -Positive -Negative -All -Nothing -Categorical Thinking -it’s either in/outside of the category -(It is either a tree or not a tree) -Advertising is big on bipolar thinking -“Coca-Cola – it’s the real thing” 2 -CHECK WRITTEN NOTES FOR DIAGRAM -“Nothing runs like a Deere” (John Deere) -Fits the symbol or doesn’t -Opposite of Bipolar Thinking: -Continuum -“more or less” -Positive --- Negative -All --- Nothing 3. Separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making: -Completely different people because we have things that separate us A. Communication teaches us the instruments: -How to make/use them -[Communication] Allows us to pass down the ways to make these instruments B. Communication is the most important instrument: -Because it shapes who we are -The symbols we use influences us -Separates us from our natural conditions 4. Goaded by a spirit of hierarchy (rank order): -We like to be able to prioritize - Furniture Chair Table Rocking Recliner Kitchen Chair Table -We see hierarchy in companies – “Organizational Charts” -CEO on top floor/Janitors in Basement = how we prioritize 5. Rotten With Perfection: -Once we have a sense of hierarchy, where do we want to be on it? -The top. No one wants to come in second -Ability to get along with others -Leadership -Athletic Ability Figures of Speech Unusual use of words Reasons to Study Figures of Speech 1. Ornamentation 2. Cicero’s Offices of the Orator 3. The Subtleties (nuances) of Languages Persuasion 1. Ornamentation -Trying to make things memorable 2. Cicero’s Offices of the Orator (basically three functions of doing public speaking in each category) -Offices: Functions -Instructing (Educating) -Convincing (to change) -Stirring the Emotions -Style – how you’re assembling the words -Plain (Attic – not tested on) -Middle (bring in some figures of speech) -Grand [lots of figures of speech dressing] (Asiatic – not tested on) 3. The Subtleties (nuances) of Languages Persuasion -Small language choices can have major impact Schemes 3 -Figures of Speech which utilize the structure of language -Many: Parallel Structure A….B, A+….B+ A….A, B….B, C….C -Repetitive Form (Kenneth Burke’s 4 types of form) -You know where the figure of speech is headed after you plug everything in -Isocolon (type of scheme) – similar ideas -Tightly parallel structure, similar content -“I came, I saw, I conquered.” -“I <past tense verb>, I <past tense verb>, I <past tense verb>.” -Similar content in parallel form -Asks you to think in terms of implied equivalences 1. Emphasizes any repeated words (I, I, I) [Doesn’t always have to have repeating words) 2. Implies Equivalencies -Came, Saw, Conquered = all equivalent -Repeated Language -“So that the government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from this earth.” -Repeats the democracy -“Save money, live better.” – (Verb Object, Verb Object) -Equivalences -To live better – Save Money -Save Money – To live better -Antithesis – opposite ideas (plays off of Burke’s inventor of the negative – bipolar thinking) -Parallel structure in which contrasting ideas are juxtaposed. A….B, Reverse of A….Reverse of B A….B, -A….-B -Closing line in Lincoln’s second inaugural speech: -“With malice towards none, and charity towards all.” -“with malice towards none” -with (A) towards (B) ‘”and charity towards all” -and (-malice) towards (-none) 1. Heightens the Contrast -Presents two sharply divergent alternatives -Sharply divides the world into two (two choices, can’t be both) -Parallel structure/opposite ideas -“Up with hope, down with dope.” -“One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” -“Malice towards none; charity towards all” 2. Can indicate universal inclusiveness -Since both polar ends are included -“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” -MLK JR – “Sons of former slaves and sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down at the table of brotherhood together.” -Antimetabole -A special kind of Antithesis -Reverses the arrangement of the exact same words to create a contrast -(same words – just reversing the order) -A……….B -B……….A -“The first shall be last and the last shall be first” -“All for one and one for all.” -JFK Speech: “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” 1. Heightens the contrast found in traditional antithesis 2. Very Memorable -“When the going gets tough, the tough get going” 4 -“If you fail to plan, you plan to fail” -Anaphora -Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several units A…. A…. A…. -“I have a dream” 1. Unifies a text or a section of a text -e.g., the “I Have a Dream” section of MLK’s speech -Think of it as a unit -Someone can use the anaphora all the way through -Major idea you keep coming back to 2. Emphasizes the repeated language -“I have a dream” becomes the title of the speech -Can paraphrase in your own words -Epistrophe (reverse of anaphora) -Repetition of a word/phrase at the end of several units -Comes at the end …..A …..A …..A -Malcom X Speech – “As long as…., you bled, … you bled. ... you bled.” 1. Message: diverse starting points yield the same effect 2. Emphasizes the repeated language -“You bled”: so why not bleed now for your own rights? -Epanalepsis -Repetition of same word/phrase at the beginning and end of the unit A…..A -Ashes to ashes -Dust to dust (Put together = Isocolon [Ashes to ashes, dust to dust]) 1. Heightens message that the end will circle back around to the beginning -Ashes to ashes 2. Heightens the equivalency of 2 items -An eye for an eye -15 minutes could save you 15 percent -(if you do the min, you can do the %) -Beginning is the same as the end so they must be equivalent -15 min = 15% (poetic appeal = Epanalepsis) -Vets helping vets -Anadiplosis -Repetition of end term at the start of the next unit A…..B, B…..C, C…..D -DirectTV commercial (roadside dish) -Emphasizes cause and effect -Alliteration -Repeating consonant sounds, especially at the start of words -What’s in your wallet? -Niner Nation -“Let all know that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty.” JFK inaugural speech -Layers in Isocolon -Pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship -Antithesis -Support any friend, oppose any foe -Phrase still around -“pay any price” – gets attached to the Vietnam war -Novel on espionage 5 -Grave where Kennedy is buried at Arlington -Security “Pay any Price” – Iraq war -Reagan 1981: “Let terrorists know that retribution will be swift and sure.” Tropes -Unusual word meaning -Playing around with the meanings of words -Metaphor -To “Borrow” a word from its unusual meaning; an implied comparison between the borrowed word and what is literally meant -Leg of a chair -Like a rock -Runs like a Deer(e) -Microsoft Windows Vista 1. Often Overlooked -“Oh you stood up to her!” – “No, I sit down” (Leeman’s son – example) 2. Carries Associations from the Original Meaning of the Word -Samsung Galaxy -Android -Apple -The Beatles – Apple Record 3. May Carry Rhetorically Harmful or Inaccurate Associations -War on Drugs -Not literal war-metaphorical -Moral struggle -Battle of good vs. evil -Recquires mobilization of resources -Requires strategy/sacrifice -Should use the Army/Navy if it is a war -Synecdoche -The “part” stands for the whole -“Let’s count heads” – what you really mean is “let’s count people” -“I need a new set of wheels” – saying you need a new car -Most Important: when part of the discourse is used to represent/allude to the whole discourse -“Show me the money” -“I have a dream” 1. Created Synecdoche -“Catchy” phrase created specifically for that discourse -“What’s in your wallet?” -“15 min…15%” -“What can brown do for you?” -“Imported from Detroit” 2. Established Synecdoche -Using a phrase that’s identified with a previous discourse -Henry Highland Garnet – 1843 -“Let it no longer be debatable ? whether it is better to choose liberty or death. –reinforcing Patrick Henry – “give me liberty or give me death” (antithesis) – 1775 1. Can Focus Attention 2. Can Make Arguments Memorable 3. Can Add Enthymematic Meaning (inside jokes = enthymematic) -“If the glove doesn’t fit, you must acquit” -Creative synecdoche -“If the evidence doesn’t add up, you must acquit” -“Do the right thing” -Established Synecdoche -From Spike Lee Movie -“Keep your eyes on the prize” -Established synecdoche 6 -Popular in the Civil Rights movement -Metonymy -Substitute a concrete attribute associated with the word, for the word itself -“The buses are on strike” -You mean <the bust drivers are on strike> -“Let’s send Washington a message” -<Let’s send the Federal Government, located in DC, a message> 1. Highlights the Particular Attribute -Emphasizes loss of transportation (The buses are on strike) -Puts the Federal Gov’t in a remote location 2. Makes Message Memorable -What can Brown do for you? -Stake your claim (Pick Ax – UNCC) -Syllepsis (good in marketing) -Same word, two meanings -(Double entendre) -Enterprise -“we’ll pick you up” -John Deere -“Nothing runs like a deer” -Irony -Word/phrase that means the opposite of the literal meaning -Asks the audience to contemplate the figure of speech -“Sarcasm” -“Just sayin’” 1. Very Enthymematic -Unites the rhetor and the audience 2. Risk – the audience may take the irony literally -Paradox -An apparently contradictory statement, but with some truth in it -“The only problem with instant gratification is that it takes too long.” -“Imported from Detroit” (can’t be imported because it’s domestic) -“The next big thing is already here” 1. Highlights contradictory tensions -“It was the best of times. It was the worst of times” 2. Very Enthymematic -Challenging the audience to hold two contradictory ideas -Can unify the rhetor and audience -Can puzzle and distract the audience -Oxymoron -2 terms that are apparently contradictory -jumbo shrimp -light beer -virtual reality -working vacation -fun class 1. Heightens the paradoxical contradiction 2. Makes message memorable -The Silent Scream – Abortion video Figures of Speech 1. Ornamentation – dress the language 2. Cicero’s Offices of the Orator 3. The Subtleties of Language Persuasion 4. Contributes to Eloquence Eloquence -Powerful, elegant persuasion 7 Longinus, On the Sublime 1. Full-Blooded Ideas 2. Vehement Emotions -Stirring emotions 3. Proper Construction of Figures of Speech (defines eloquence) 4. Nobility of Phrase 5. General Effect -Eloquence – Unity of thought and Diction (Summarizes the 5 parts) Unity of Thought and Diction -Thought -Ideas(1) and Emotion(2) -Diction (language) -Figures(3) and Phrase(4) -Unity -General Effect(5) Metaphorical Analysis Metaphors -Reveals the Speakers world view -Relief pours in for Tsunami victims -This would cut the heart out of the health care reform law Burke: Exerciser of the submerged Experience -Use the Familiar to Characterize New Experiences -Computer virus -Bug in the software -Mouse Computers (not literally these things – business – computer is a tool for business -File -Document -Folder -Log-in Metaphors Reveal -Patterns -Metaphorical Clusters -Root metaphors Metaphors -Three Types of Metaphors 1. Personal – individual or small group of users – [almost like an inside joke] -“Dead Crab” 2. Cultural – within a culture, country, larger group of users (e.g., profession, organization) -“revolving door justice” (criminal justice system) -American cultural metaphor’ -Right on the money -You owe me one -I’m in your debt -The bank stops here -He upped the ante -Tried to cash in on his good looks -What’s the payoff? 3. Archetypal Metaphors – universal metaphors -Use the metaphors in any culture -Cross-cultural -Light/Dark Metaphors -Light = Good -Darkness = Bad -“You are the sunshine in my life” -“The twilight of our lives” 8 -“It’s always darkest before the dawn” -“We need to shed some light on the situation” -Storm Metaphors -Storms = Danger, change -“Problems are just raining down on me” -“It never rains, it pours” -“The winds of change” -“Don’t worry lightning never strikes twice in the same place” -“The customer stormed out” -Spacial Metaphors (metaphors of “space”) -indicate relative status of things -use space to organize -Froward and Back (rooted in the human experience) -Forward = Good -Bad = Back -“It’s a forward looking company” -“That’s a backwards town” -“He’s ahead of the curve” -“She’s lagging behind in her training” -Up and Down -Up = Good -Down = Bad -“A higher power” -“Things are looking up” -“You seem a little down” -“Earnings are much lower this quarter” a. Identify a Community (Shared Space) [if you are a shared community, you share space] -“We’re all in this together” -“Blest be the ties that bind” b. Represents qualities that are “located” In a particular place -He’s stuck in the disco era. Ultimate Terms Richard Weave’s 3 Ultimate Terms: -God Terms -Devil Terms -Charismatic Terms God Term/Devil Term -A term that contains within itself a system of language. (Divides the world into two) -Can’t be plural – Can’t tolerate someone being in the middle -Subordinate Terms: Those terms that support the God term or devil term. -That is: They’re the elements of the “system of language” Cold War Discourse between US and USSR Prohibition -(Bar = metonymy) -Unrealistic expectations that you will have heaven/wealth/virtue if you give up alcohol -Redefined the term alcohol from being defined as food to being a drug 9 Terrorism Rhetorical Tension -A contradiction that resides within the Rhetoric -UNI – talking about educating people but then making it business by talking about the money -Can find it in any terms 2 Rhetorical Tensions in Terroristic Discourse Charismatic Discourse -Opposite of God/Devil terms -Doesn’t necessarily have a meaning -We just like it – sounds good -Terms that carry very positive connotations -Progress (moving forward) -America (depends how the discourse -Science (sounds good – ) handles it – American sale.. cultural -Facts (conjecture – how much we like term) them) -Family -New (ad novarrum) 10
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