Anatomy and Physiology II Midterm Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology II Midterm Study Guide BIO 2223-001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Slawson on Monday January 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2223-001 at Arkansas State University taught by Noelle Sanchez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Arkansas State University.
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Anatomy and Physiology II Study guide Chapter 16 What are stimuli? Change in a regulated variable; event that provokes a cellular response. Transducers? Device or organ designed to convert energy from one form to another; sensory receptors are considered transducers. Receptors? Components of the nervous system that provide us with information about our internal and external environment. What is a sensation? A stimulus that we are consciously aware of. Adaptation? Decrease in sensitivity to a continuous stimulus. Tonic receptors? Limited/slow adaptation to continuous stimuli (pain receptors). Phasic receptors? Rapid adaptation to a continuous stimuli (ex. deep pressure when sitting in a chair) Where are the receptors of the General Senses located? Throughout the body. Special senses? Only within the head. What are Exteroreceptors? Detect stimuli in the external environment. Interoreceptors? Detect stimuli within the body. Prorioreceptors? Detect stimuli within joints, skeletal muscle, and tendons that sense body or limb movement. What are Chemoreceptors? Detect chemicals dissolved in fluids. Thermoreceptors? Detect changes in temperature. Photoreceptors? Detect changes in light. Mechanoreceptors? Detect touch, pressure, vibrations, and stretch. Nociceptors? Detect painful stimuli. What are examples of general sense receptors? Somatic sensory receptors housed in the skin and mucous membranes (nasal cavity, oral cavity, vagina, anal canal). Visceral sensory receptors housed in the viscera (internal organs and blood vessels). What is referred pain? Pain sensed, not from the organ, but from an unrelated region of the body. Why does this occur? Many somatic and visceral sensory neurons conduct nerve signals on the same spinal tract so the somatosensory cortex is unable to accurately detect the source of the stimulus. Know the functional cell and tissue types of olfaction and gustation. Olfaction- Olfactory epithelium composed of olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells, basal cells; Olfactory glands are housed within the Lamina Propria; Olfactory hairs project from dendrites of olfactory receptor cells, axons of receptor cells form fascicles of the olfactory nerve and project through the cribriform plate to enter an olfactory bulb; Olfactory glomeruli are located within olfactory bulbs. Gustation- Papillae housed on surface of tongue (Filiform, Fungiform, Vallate, Foliate); Taste buds composed of gustatory cells, supporting cells, and basal cells; Dendrites of gustatory cells are composed of gustatory microvilli, which extend through a taste pore in the taste bud, up to the surface of the tongue. What are the accessory structures of the eye? Eyebrows, eyelids, palpebral canthi, lacrimal caruncle, eyelashes, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus (lacrimal gland, lacrimal puncta, lacrimal caruncle, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct). What are the 3 tunics of the eye? Fibrous tunic, Vascular tunic, Retina. What are their functions? Fibrous- eye shape, protects internal components, extrinsic location site for muscle attachment. Vascular- houses blood vessels, lymph vessels, and intrinsic muscles of the eye. Retina- neural layer of the eye houses rods and cones Know the components of the retina. Optic disc (blind spot), macula lutea, fovea centralis located within the macula lutea, cones located within the fovea centralis, rods located in the peripheral retina. What are rods? Most numerous, located in peripheral retina, activated in dim lighting. Cones? Located in fovea centralis, high intense light, color recognition, visual sharpness. How do they differ? Rods are activated by low light but produce blurry images, cones are activated by high intensity lighting and produce a sharp image, arranged in different regions of the retina. What are photopigments? Specific molecules that absorb light and that are embedded within the plasma membrane of the outer segment of both rods and cones, composed of opsin and retinal. What are the causes of hyperopia? Short eyeball. Myopia? Long eyeball. What are the structures of the ear (outer, middle, and inner). Outer- Auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane Middle- Tympanic cavity, auditory canal (Eustachian tube), auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) Inner- bony labyrinth, membranous labyrinth located within bony labyrinth, cochlea, cochlear duct, semicircular canals, semicircular ducts, vestibule, utricle and saccule contained within vestibule. What structures are involved in hearing? Cochlea Equilibrium? Vestibular apparatus (utricle, saccule, semicircular ducts) Chapter 17 What are the organs of the endocrine system? Hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries, testes. How do hormones reach their target? Hormones are released from glands and are distributed into the blood where they then travel to their target cells. What are the functions of the endocrine system? Regulating growth, development, metabolism; maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume; controlling digestive processes; controlling reproductive activities Study table 17.2 this gives a great summary of the organs, hormones you will need to know for the exam TABLE 17.2 Endocrine Glands and Organs Containing Endocrine Cells Gland Hormone(s) Produced Primary Function(s) Hypothalamus Regulatory hormones Control release of hormones from anterior pituitary Hypothalamus Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates both the kidneys to decrease urine output and (released from thirst center to increase fluid intake when the body is posterior pituitary) dehydrated; in high doses, ADH is a vasoconstrictor (thus, it is also called vasopressin) Oxytocin Contraction of smooth muscle of uterus; ejection of milk; increases feelings of emotional bonding between individuals Pituitary gland Thyroidstimulating hormone Stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone (anterior) Prolactin (PRL) Regulates mammary gland growth and breast milk production in females; may increase secretion of testosterone in males Folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) Controls development of both oocyte and ovarian follicle (spherical structure that houses an oocyte) within ovaries; controls development of sperm within testes Luteinizing hormone (LH) Induces ovulation of secondary oocyte from the ovarian follicle Controls testosterone synthesis within testes Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol) Growth hormone (GH) Release of insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) from liver; GH and IGFs function synergistically to induce growth Pineal gland Melatonin Helps regulate the body's circadian rhythms (biological clock); functions in sexual maturation Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones: Increase metabolic rate of all cells; increase heat T3 (triiodothyronine) and production (calorigenic effect) T4 (tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine) Calcitonin Decreases blood calcium levels; most significant in children Parathyroid glands Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increases blood calcium levels by stimulating both release of calcium from bone tissue and decrease loss of calcium in urine; causes formation of calcitriol hormone (a hormone that increases calcium absorption from small intestine) Thymus Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin Maturation of Tlymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) Adrenal cortex Mineralocorticoids (e.g., aldosterone) Regulate blood Na+ and K+ levels by decreasing the Na+ and increasing the K+ excreted in urine Glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol) Participate in the stress response; increase nutrients (e.g., glucose) that are available in the blood Gonadocorticoids (e.g., Stimulate maturation and functioning of reproductive dehydroepiandrosterone[DHEA]) system Adrenal medulla Epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine Prolong effects of the sympathetic division of the (NE) autonomic nervous system Pancreas Insulin Decreases blood glucose levels Glucagon Increases blood glucose levels Testes (gonads) Testosterone Stimulates maturation and function of male reproductive system Inhibin Inhibits release of folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) from anterior pituitary Ovaries (gonads) Estrogen and progesterone Stimulates maturation and function of female reproductive system Inhibin Inhibits release of folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) from anterior pituitary Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Functions primarily to decrease blood pressure by stimulating both the kidneys to increase urine output and the blood vessels to dilate Kidneys Erythropoietin (EPO) Increases production of red blood cells (erythrocytes) Liver Angiotensinogen Converted by enzymes released from the kidney and within the inner lining of blood vessels to angiotensin II; increases blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction and decreasing urine output; stimulates thirst center Insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) Functions synergistically with growth hormone to regulate growth Erythropoietin (EPO) Increases production of red blood cells (erythrocytes); note that kidneys are the major producers of EPO Stomach Gastrin Facilitates digestion within stomach Small intestine Secretin Regulates digestion within small intestine by helping to maintain normal pH within small intestine Cholecystokinin (CCK) Regulates digestion within small intestine by facilitating digestion of nutrients within small intestine Skin Vitamin D3 Converted by enzymes of liver and kidney to calcitriol; functions synergistically with PTH and increases calcium absorption from small intestine Adipose connective Leptin Helps regulate food intake tissue Placenta Estrogen and progesterone Stimulates development of fetus; stimulates physical changes within mother associated with pregnancy including those in the uterus and mammary glands What are the different types of hormones? Steroids- lipid soluble and formed from cholesterol; Biogenic amines- water soluble and formed from modified amino acids; Proteins- water soluble and formed from amino acids. Local hormones? Large group of signaling hormones that do not circulate in the blood, released from the cell that produced them and bind with either that same cell or a neighboring cell. How do they differ from endocrine hormones? They do not circulate in the blood and are not released from ducts. How are hormones regulated? Hormone synthesis and elimination Ch. 18 What are the primary functions of blood? Erythrocytes transport respiratory gases in the blood, Leukocytes help defend the body against pathogens, Platelets help clot the blood and prevent blood loss from damaged vessels. What is the composition of blood? 55% Plasma, <1% Buffy coat (platelets and leukocytes), 44% Erythrocytes Know all the blood cell types, identifying features, and functions TABLE Characteristics of the Formed Elements 18.5 Formed Element Size Function Life Span Density (Diameter) (Average Number per mm3of Blood = μL) Erythrocytes 7.5 μm Transport ~120 days Females: ~4.8 oxygen and million Males: carbon ~5.4 million dioxide Leukocytes (e.g., neutrophils, 1.5 to 3 times Initiate Varies from 12 4500–11,000 eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and larger than an immune hours lymphocytes) erythrocyte; response; (neutrophils) to 11.25–22.5 defend years μm against (lymphocytes) potentially harmful substances Platelets < ¼ the size Participate ~8–10 days 150,000–400,000 of an in erythrocyte; hemostasis ~2 μm What proteins are found in blood? Hemoglobin- transports oxygen and carbon dioxide What are the ABO blood types? What surface antigens are found on each? What antibodies are found in each serum? What is hemopoiesis? Formation and development of blood cells. Erythropoiesis? Formation of erythrocytes. Where does each of the processes occur? Hemopoiesis- red bone marrow primarily in axial skeleton; Erythropoiesis- forms from myeloid stem cell and eventually transforms into a reticulocyte, which then matures while circulating in the blood vessels. What is hemoglobin? Red-pigmented protein contained in erythrocytes. Its function? Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. What is hemostasis? A stoppage of bleeding. Know the process of platelet plug formation. As chemicals are released, the following processes occur: Prolonged vascular spasms, attraction of other platelets, stimulation of coagulation, repair of the blood vessel. Chapter 19 What are the general functions of the heart? Transport blood throughout the body; allow adequate perfusion of all body tissues. What is the pericardium? The fibroserous sac in which the heart is located. What are the layers of the pericardium? Fibrous pericardium, parietal layer of the serous pericardium, visceral layer of the serous pericardium. What are the layers of the heart? Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium. What are the chambers of the heart? Right and left atria, right and left ventricles. What are AV valves? Right AV valve is the tricuspid valve. Left AV valve is the bicuspid/mitral valve. Where are they located? Located between right atria and right ventricle. Between left atria and left ventricle. Seminlunar valves? Pulmonary semilunar valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Aortic semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta. Locations? Located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Between left ventricle and aorta. Know the major coronary vessels What is the SA node? “Pacemaker”, initiates heartbeat, located in posterior wall of the right atrium. Bundle fibers, purkinje fibers? Extend from right and left bundles, beginning at apex of heart and continue into the walls of the ventricles. Understand the conduction system of the heart. SA node, AV node, AV bundles, Purkinje Fibers. What is a RMP, AP? Resting membrane potential- electrical charge difference when the nodal cell is at rest; Understand the electrocardiogram. Electrical changes within the heart. What does the P wave, QRS, and T wave represent? P wave- atrial depolarization; QRS- ventricular depolarization; T wave- ventricular repolarization. Know the segments of the ECG and what they represent. The P-Q segment is associated with the atrial plateau at the sarcolemma when the cardiac muscle cells within the atria are contracting, and the S-T segment is the ventricular plateau when the cardiac muscle cells within the ventricles are contracting. What are the events of the cardiac cycle? What is HR, Stroke volume and cardiac output? HR- heart rate, number of beats per minute; Stroke volume-the volume of blood ejected during one beat and is expressed as milliliters per beat; Cardiac output-the amount of blood that is pumped by a single ventricle (left or right) in 1 minute and is typically expressed as liters per minute. How is cardiac output calculated? Heart rate multiplied by stroke volume. What factors can influence these measures? Size of heart, physical exercise Chapter 20 Know the three major types of blood vessels and their functions. Arteries- carry blood away from the heart; Capillaries- microscopic, relatively porous blood vessels for the exchange of substances between blood and tissues; Veins- drain blood from the capillaries, transporting it back to the heart. What are the 3 layers of the vessel wall? Tunic intima- innermost layer; Tunica media- middle layer; Tunica externa- external layer. Be able to understand the compositions of each layer What are the 3 types of arteries? Elastic arteries- largest type; Muscular arteries- distribute blood to specific areas of the body; Arterioles- smallest type. Capillaries? Continuous- most common, continuous lining around the lumen; Fenestrated- porous areas; Sinusoids- incomplete lining with large gaps. Veins? Venules- smallest type What is blood hydrostatic pressure? The force exerted per unit area by the blood as it presses against the vessel wall. Blood hydrostatic pressure promotes filtration from the capillary. Interstitial hydrostatic pressure? The force of the interstitial fluid on the external surface of the blood vessel. Net filtration pressure? The difference between the net hydrostatic pressure (difference between the blood and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressures) and the net colloid osmotic pressure (difference between the blood and the interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressures). What is bulk flow? The movement of large amounts of fluids and their dissolved substances in one direction down a pressure gradient. local blood flow? The blood delivered locally to the capillaries of a specific tissue and is measured in milliliters per minute. Perfusion? The specific amount of blood entering capillaries per unit time per gram of tissue What is arterial blood pressure? Blood flow is pulsing, or pulsatile, in arteries as a consequence of the ventricles contracting and relaxing. Systolic? The artery is maximally stretched during ventricular contraction. Diastolic? The vessel recoils no further, which occurs during ventricular relaxation. Pulse pressure? The additional pressure placed on the artery from when the heart is relaxing to when it is contracting. Mean arterial pressure? The average (or mean) measure of the blood pressure forces on the arteries. How is blood pressure regulated? Dependent upon three primary variables: cardiac output, resistance, and blood volume. Regulation of these variables is critical in maintaining homeostasis and occurs through short-term mechanisms of the nervous system, long-term mechanisms of the endocrine system, or both. Understand the characteristics of both pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. Pulmonary- responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then returning the newly oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart. Systemic- includes the pumping of blood by the left side of the heart to the systemic cells and the return of blood to the right side of the heart. Major vessels involved systemic circulation of the Head and Neck, Upper limbs, trunk, and lower limbs. Hepatic portal system what vessels are involved? Within the hepatic portal system, blood from the digestive organs drains into three main venous branches: 1. The splenic vein, a horizontally positioned vein 2. The inferior mesenteric vein, a vertically positioned vein 3. The superior mesenteric vein, another vertically positioned vein on the right side of the body Blood from all three of these drain into the hepatic portal vein, which drains blood to the liver. Some small veins, such as the left and right gastric veins, drain directly into the hepatic portal vein. What are key differences in fetal circulation vs. adult circulation? Oxygenated blood from the placenta enters the body of the fetus through the umbilical vein. The blood from the umbilical vein is shunted away from the liver and directly toward the inferior vena cava through the ductus venosus. Oxygenated blood in the ductus venosus mixes with deoxygenated blood in the inferior vena cava. Blood from the superior and inferior venae cavae empties into the right atrium. Because pressure is greater on the right side of the heart as compared to the left side, most of the blood is shunted from the right atrium to the left atrium via the foramen ovale. This blood flows into the left ventricle and then is pumped out through the aorta. A small amount of blood enters the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk, but much of this blood is shunted from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta through a vessel detour called the ductus arteriosus. Blood travels to the rest of the body, and the deoxygenated blood returns to the placenta through a pair of umbilical arteries. Nutrient and gas exchange occurs at the placenta, and the cycle repeats.
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