BISC208 Exam 2 Study Guide
BISC208 Exam 2 Study Guide bisc208
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Ritchie on Monday January 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to bisc208 at University of Delaware taught by Catherine Safran in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology II in Biosystem Engineering at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
bio exam 2 review 11/04/2015 ▯ Chapter 29: Flowering plants nutrition and transport ▯ Know the basic properties of water crosses semipermeable membrane via osmosis polarity of water molecules forms hydrogen bonds with other molecules cohesion-each molecule attracts its neighbor via H bonds adhesion- polarity of water molecules attracts them to other polar substances surface tension-water takes a shape that minimizes its surface area> water droplets ▯ •Compare and contrast passive diffusion and active transport and explain how each is relevant in the transport of water, minerals and nutrients (organic compounds) in plants passive diffusion: no energy required, concentration gradient, osmosis (water) active transport: energy required, membrane potential is established through proton pumps which pump H+ ions out in order to form an electrochemical gradient leads to absorption of positive ions and cotransport of negative ions (passive) increase in intracellular solutes drives entry of water via osmosis (passive) or water channels called aquaporins ▯ • Describe the tissues that are specialized in transport of water and nutrients in a flowering plant be able to explain what is considered to be a typical structure of a flowering plant root, stem and ▯ leaf in respect to the internal system that specializes in transport of water and nutrients xylem (water and minerals from soil) and phloem (dissolved organic compounds from photosynthesis) root- water enters root stem- leaf- stomata open to release water via transpiration ▯ • Explain why we describe the movement of water within the plant in terms of water potential, explain what is meant by water potential, turgor pressure (=hydrostatic pressure) the moist soil has a higher water potential than dry air, so water flows up the plant via transpiration always flows from high to low water potential ▯ • Describe how solutes affect water potential (prediction of direction of water movement in or out of the cell) solutes lower water potential, which is why water flows toward the more hypertonic environment. water molecules cant interact as much ▯ • Explain the difference between a turgid, a plasmolyzed, and a ▯ flaccid plant cell turgid: water entered into the cell, in a hypotonic environment plasmolyzed: water moves out of the cell, in a hypertonic environment flaccid: no net movement of water, isotonic ▯ • Explain how to predict the direction of the movement of water based on solute concentration water moves from high to low concentration, so it will move to the side with more solute to even out the concentration ▯ • Explain the role root hairs have in water/mineral transport root hairs provide higher surface area for water to be absorbed into the roots, so more minerals can be taken in as well ▯ • Describe the internal structure of the primary root and the role of different parts and specific structures (hair, cortex, cell walls, endodermis, ion pumps, specific channels/carriers, plasmodesmata, casperian strips) in the transport of water and minerals until they reach xylem elements within the vascular cylinder hair: surface area, transmembrane transport cortex cell walls- give structure, endodermis-molecular filter, only essential mineral nutrients can cross ion pumps specific channels/carriers plasmodesmata- channels between cells for molecules to pass through (called cell junctions in animal cells) symplastic transport casperian strips- specialized part of cell wall that helps with impermeability ▯ • Describe apoplastic and symplastic forms of tissue-level water & mineral transport within the root by addressing the advantages and disadvantages of each apoplastic- through plant cell wall symplastic- through plant cell cytoplasm ▯ • Explain the role endodermis has and in particular the Casparian strips endodermis- functions as a molecular filter Casperian strips- ▯ *Explain the components of the “push-pull model” when it comes to the movement of water and nutrients in the plant push- root pressure pull- transpiration, negative pressure exerted by water potential ▯ • Explain the role of guard cells, their structure, transport and hormone (ABA) mechanisms that are involved in regulation of the opening/closing of guard cells stomata regulate gas exchange and H2O/nutrient uptake pores open and close mostly on bottom of leaves, some on top open to increase transpiration rate, decrease to conserve water ABA hormone (abscisic acid) presence makes guard cells close ▯ • Explain what is meant by the sink and source tissues in the plant source: leaf, site of photosynthesis where all the organic molecules are made sink: fruit, storage of photosynthetic products such as sugar, not photosynthetic, nutrients flow to fruit via the push from the phloem ▯ ▯ Chapter 28: plant behavior ▯ describe the signal transduction pathway and its significance in plant behavior behavior is a response to a stimulus 1. receptor activation (stimulus) 2. signal transduction to nucleus cellular responses (phototropism, defense, seed germination, flowering) 4. behavior ▯ • understand which type of stimuli plants are able to respond to in order to survive. plants respond to light, gravity, touch (directional, tropic movements) ▯ • list potential environmental cues that could trigger a signal transduction event in a plant cell ▯ • compare physical and biological stimuli that could trigger response in plants light, touch, gravity ▯ • explain the involvement of plant hormones in signal transduction pathway and plant behavior in general ▯ • be able to explain the general mechanism in flowering plants that enables them to sense and respond to light (use example of stomatal pore opening in the morning detailed under Chpt.29) ▯ • be able to describe differences in responses to gravity in different parts of the flowering plant sporophyte ▯ ▯ Chapter 25-Animals ▯ Be able to list main characteristics shared by all members of the animal kingdom get energy from breaking covalent bonds of organic molecules in food have nervous tissue for muscle response and movement most reproduce sexually multicellular cells are flexible (no cell wall) and can interact and adhere to one another sea slugs and algae photosynthesize ▯ • List and briefly describe critical innovations that have occurred in evolution of invertebrate and vertebrate animals ▯ • Explainthe difference between radial and bilateral symmetry and give examples of animals that display these two body plans radial symmetry: sea urchin, circular symmetry bilateral symmetry: human, left and right sides are symmetrical ▯ • Know that Mollusks, Annelids, and Arthropods are protostomes protostome: spiral and determinate cleavage, mouth develops from blastospore ▯ • Know that echinoderms (starfish) and chordates are both deuterostomes deuterostome: radial and indeterminate cleavage, anus develops from blastospore ▯ • Know that squids, octopi, mussels, snails belong to the Mollusca phylum Mollusca: can have a shell but don’t have to ▯ • Know that earthworms belong to the Annelida phylum Annelida: ▯ • Know that crustaceans (crabs/lobsters) and insects belong to the Arthropoda phylum (=most successful animal phylum) Arthropoda: ▯ • Describe the advantages of segmentation (use the information from the dissection of invertebrates) segmentation (repetition of compartments) is advantageous because ▯ • Know that all animals evolved from a single common ancestor (=monophyletic kingdom) ▯ • Understand the meaning of the terms chordates and vertebrates chordates: have a notochord structure present in embryos that defines body axis, dorsal hollow neural tube, not all chordates are vertebrates! vertebrates: chordates with a backbone, endoskeleton (cranium, vertebral column) ▯ • Be able to list at least five features that most vertebrates possess but invertebrates do not 1. jaws 2. calcified skeleton 3.lungs for O2-poor aquatic environment 4. four limbs (tetrapods) 5. hair, milk, specialized teeth ▯ • Know the order of appearance of critical innovations in vertebrates ▯ •Be able to distinguish cartilaginous fishes (shark) from bony fishes ▯ •List adaptations that permitted the transition from aquatic to land life and give an example of animal living between water and land (=semiterrestrial lifestyle) ▯ •Understand why a dessication-resistant amniotic egg permitted life on land ▯ •Know that reptiles include lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, and BIRDS! ▯ •Be able to list at least three features that separate mammals from ▯ other vertebrates mammary glands specialized teeth enlarged skull ▯ • Know different categories of animal tissue (epithelium vs. connective see examples listed Figs. 31.4 & 31.5), providing general functions and specific examples of each epithelial: connective: ▯ • Describe the structural relationship between cells and tissues, tissues and organs, and organs and organ systems tissue=group of cells, organ=group of tissues, organ system=group of organs ▯ •Understand the difference between gap junction, tight junction, and anchoring junction and the role they play in cell-cell contact/communication gap junction: tight junction: anchoring junction: ▯ • Explain the relationship between form and function, and provide several examples of anatomical structures that demonstrate this relationship/describe the importance of surface area-to-volume ratio when considering transport of substances into and out of cells and entire organisms ▯ ▯ 1.Describe similarities and differences between metabolic needs of animals and plants, know the difference between autotroph and heterotroph and list the three main types of feeding in ▯ animals (suspension/filtering; bulk; fluid) o autotroph: produces their own food (plants, algae, many bacteria) o heterotroph: needs to eat food to get nutrients (animals, fungi, many bacteria) o if a living organism belongs to the animal kingdom, it obtains all energy from the breaking of covalent bonds in organic molecules ▯ 2.Is mobility a necessary criterion for categorizing an organism as an animal? Explain ▯ 4. Explain the difference between a cavity (sponge) and a true body cavity (coelum in coelomates) cavity (sponge)=mesenchyme directly touches digestive tract true body cavity (coelom)=mesoderm-derived lining at its periphery (peritoneum) earthworm is coelomate ▯ 6.What is a tissue? What is an organ? What is an organ system? ▯ 7.List four types of tissues and provide at least 2-3 examples of each type of tissue ▯ 8.List few organs and explain the types of tissues that form each organ ▯ 9. What is the difference between an epithelial tissue and a connective tissue? ▯ 10. What is the name of the structures that permit communication between two animal cells? ▯ 11. What is the most abundant glycoprotein located in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of most animal cells? ▯ ▯ Cnidaria: soft bodied, stinging tentacles, radial symmetry, specialized tissues ▯ Echinodermata: spiny skeleton, internal skeleton, water vascular system, radial symmetry, deuterostome ▯ Annelida: segmented body separated by septa (internal walls), true coelom ▯ Arthropoda: jointed appendages, greater mobility and locomotion, tough exoskeleton (chitin), segmented in head, thorax, abdomen ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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