Vocabulary for Chapters 14, 15, 16
Vocabulary for Chapters 14, 15, 16 Geos 130 / English 130
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacqueline Morales on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geos 130 / English 130 at California State University Chico taught by Eric Willard/ Brenton Farrell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Geography/English Ucourse in Foreign Language at California State University Chico.
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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Jacqueline for help in class!
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Chapter 14 Wastewater ‐ used and contaminated water that is released after use by household industry or agriculture Fresh water ‐ dissolved ions water that has few such as salt. Water cycle the movement of water through various water compartments such as surface water, atmosphere, soil and living organisms Surface water any body of water found above ground, such as oceans, rivers and lakes. Transpiration‐ the loss of water vapor from plants. Evaporation ‐ the conversion of water from a liquid state to a gaseous state Condensation ‐ the conversion of water from a liquid state to a gaseous state Precipitation rain, snow, street, or any other form of water falling from the atmosphere Groundwater water found underground in aquifers Aquifer an underground, permeable region of soil or rock that is saturated with water Infiltrationthe process of water soaking into the ground Water table the uppermost water level of the saturated zone of an aquifer Saltwater intrusion the inflow of ocean (salt) water into a freshwater aquifer that happens when an aquifer has lost some of its freshwater stores. Effluent wastewater discharged into the environment coliform bacteria‐ bacteria often found in the intestinal tract of animals monitored to look for fecal contamination of water Wastewater treatment the process of removing contaminants from wastewater to make it safe enough to release into the environment Potable clean enough for consumption Wetland an ecosystem that is permanently or seasonally flooded Dam an ecosystem that is permanently or seasonally flooded Reservoir an artificial lake formed when a river is impounded by a dam Desalination the removal of salt and minerals from seawater to make it suitable for consumption Water footprint the water appropriated by industry to produce products or energy; this includes the water actually used and water that is polluted in the production process Rain garden runoff area that is planted with water‐tolerant plants to slow runoff and promote infiltration. Chapter 15 vocab Water pollution addition of any substance to a body of water that might degrade its quality Stormwater runoff water from precipitation that flows over the surface of land Point source pollution pollution from discharge pipes (or smoke stacks) such as that from wastewater treatment plants or industrial sites. Nonpoint source pollution runoff that enters the water from overland flow Dissolved oxygen the amount of oxygen in the water Hypoxia a situation in which a body of water contains inadequate levels of oxygen, compromising the health of many aquatic organisms Eutrophication a process in which excess nutrients in aquatic ecosystems feed biological productivity, ultimately lowering the oxygen content in the water Watershed the land area surrounding a body of water over which water such as rain can flow and potentially enter that body of water. Aquifer an underground permeable region of soil or rock that is saturated with water Biological assessment the process of sampling an area to see what lives there as a tool to determine how healthy the area is. Benthic macroinvertebrates easy to see arthropods such as insects that live on the stream bottom Clean water act federal legislation that regulates the release of point source pollution into surface waters and sets water quality standards for those waters. It also supports best management practices to reduce nonpoint source population. Pollution standards allowable levels of a pollutant that can be present in environmental waters or released over a certain time period. watershed management‐ management of what goes on in an area around streams and rivers. Riparian areas the land areas close enough to a body of water to be affected by waters presence. Chapter 17 Fertilizer a natural or synthetic mixture that contains nutrients that is added to the soil to boost plant growth Pesticide a natural synthetic chemical that kills or repels plant or animal pests Industrial Agriculture farming methods that rely on technology, synthetic chemical inputs, and economics of skills to increase productivity and profits Sustainable agriculture farming methods that can be used indefinitely because they do not deplete resources such as soil and water faster than they are replaced Organic agriculture farming that does not use synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, GMO’s, or other chemicals additives like hormones (for animal rearing) Monoculture a farming method in which a single variety of one crop is planted typically in rows or huge swamps of land with large inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and water CAFO a method in which large numbers of meat or dairy animals are reared at high densities in confined spaces and fed a calorie rich diet to maximize growth, Cultural eutrophication nutrient enrichment of an aquatic ecosystem that stimulates excess plant growth and disrupts normal energy uptake and matter cycles Pesticide resistance the ability of a pest to withstand exposure to a given pesticide it is the result of natural selection favoring the survivors of an original population that was exposed to the pesticide. Seed banks places where seeds are stored in order to protect the genetic diversity of the world's crops. Agroecology a scientific field that considers the area's ecology and indigenous knowledge and favors agricultural methods that protect the environment and meet the needs of local people. Polyculture farming method in which a mix of different species are grown together in one area. Integrated pest management (IPM) the use of a variety of methods to control a pest population, with the goal of minimizing or eliminating the use of chemicals toxins. Terracing the process of leveling land into steps on steep slopes; reduces soil erosion and runoff down the hillside Contour Farming farming on hilly land in rows that are planted along the slope, following the lay of the land, rather than oriented downhill. ReducedTillage Cultivation planting crops in soil that is minimally disturbed and that retains some plant residue from the previous planting Cover Crop a crop planted in the off‐seasons to help prevent soil erosion and to return nutrients to the soil. Crop rotation planting different crops on a given plot of land every few years to maintain soil fertility and reduce pest outbreaks. Strip cropping alternating different crops in adjacent strips, several rows wide; helps keep pest populations low. Biochar a form of charcoal that is produced when organic matter is partially burned and that can be used to improve soil quality. Food miles the distance a food travels from its of production to the consumer. Carbon footprint the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere by a person, a company a nation, or an activity. Greenwashing claiming environmental benefits about a product when the benefits are actually minor or nonexisting Annual crops crops that grow, produce seeds, and die in a single year and must be replanted each season. Perennial crops crops that do not die at the end of the growing season but live for several years, which mean they can be harvested annually without replanting.
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