Sociology 201 (Anderson) FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Sociology 201 (Anderson) FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Popular in Department
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Frampton on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
Reviews for Sociology 201 (Anderson) FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/19/16
Exam 4 Review Chapter 6 Sexual orientation A person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person. Most likely derived from biology, but society plays a part. 5 sexes XX: Male XY: Female XO: Turner’s Syndrome XXY: Klinefelter’s Syndrome XYY Jacob’s Syndrome Heterosexism “The other of two”, Sexual attraction to someone of the other sex Rape as power Rape is not about sex, it is an expression of power. Most common form of rape is acquaintance rape Transgender appearing or behaving in ways that challenge conventional cultural norms concerning how females and males should look and act Primary sex characteristics genitals; organs used for reproduction Most common form of rape Acquaintance rape Secondary sex characteristics bodily development apart from the genitals that distinguishes biologically mature males and females. Queer theory the body of research findings that challenge the heterosexual bias in the US society. Our heterosexual culture victimizes a wide range of people including gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, intersexuals, transsexuals, and asexual people. Most people agree that racism and sexism is wrong, but heterosexism is widely tolerated and sometimes well within the law. Incest taboo a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives. Chapter 10 Intersection theory analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, which often result in multiple dimensions of disadvantage. Gender roles (aka Sex Roles) Attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex Main reason that women in the military is seen as problematic In American culture, women are still primarily seen as nurturers; not those who kill. (13% of military personnel are women) Superwoman image Women assume multiple roles and try to do all of them well, can lead to stress and psychological problems. Ex. Kelly Rippa (Electrolux appliances) Doing gender Routinely interacting with others in ways that recreate gendered norms and define how men or women should behave. Culturally relative. European vs. American women’s movements American women asked for exactly what they wanted and got less, European women asked for more than what they wanted and got exactly what they wanted. Why the wage gap is narrowing Men are making less, but this is still a problem for both genders. Gender o Personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male or female. o Gender is SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED. o No universal behavior for men or women. o Gender is a performance. Basic feminist ideas 1. Taking action to increase equality. 2. Expanding human choice 3. Eliminating gender stratification throughout society. 4. Ending sexual violence 5. Promoting sexual freedom Glass ceiling The higher in a company you look, the fewer women you find. People believe, but won’t say aloud, that women do not belong at top levels of a company. This can prevent women from being promoted. Engels on capitalism and patriarchy The approach of Marx with respect to women and the family was little different than that of conventional economics. In the Marxian model, women were part of the household, responsible for bearing and raising children and for maintaining the household. While there may have been a recognition that this was necessary work, it was not work that was valued through exchange and did not form part of the model of capitalist production. Friedrich Engels did pay more attention to this issue in his writings and a year after Marx died, in 1884, Engels published The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Until the 1970s, when Marxist feminist approaches began to be developed, this provided the main outlines of the Marxian approach to the oppression of women and the inequalities within the family and household. For Engels, the patriarchal family emerged with the development of agriculture, where males began to develop private property in animals, tools, and land, and attempted to control more of the surplus. In order to "ensure the legitimacy of their heirs" (p. 31) and perhaps to control women's sexuality, men established dominance within the household and society, and established patrilineal lines of inheritance. This resulted in the "world historical defeat of the female sex" and women were reduced to servitude and an instrument for the production of children. With the development of capitalism, this system continued and became especially important for property owners the bourgeoisie. Since the working class has no property, such control was not necessary, and Engels implies that male/female inequalities within the working class are minimal. Patriarchy a form of social organization in which males dominate females. Wage gap amount Men: $1 Women $0.77 The Beauty Myth Women should only measure their worth in terms of physical appearance, women should only value men who value her attractiveness. Chapter 15 Gesellschaft a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual selfinterest (need each other, larger urban areas) Immigration one of the two types of migration; moving into another country Limits to growth thesis Fecundity Maximum possible childbearing for a woman Malthus father of demography, predicted population increase would lead to social chaos, disease, famine, natural disaster, and war are needed to control population (imbalance correcting itself) Malthusian theory population increase would lead to social chaos, as a result, food production would increase, but there is only so much land to produce food on Distressing vision of the future: people are reproducing beyond what the planet can feed, ultimately leading to widespread starvation and war over what resources are left. **Flaws to Malthus’s prediction** by 1850, children became a financial liability rather than an asset, people began using birth control. Environmental deficit profound longterm harm to the natural environment caused by humanity’s focus on shortterm material affluence. Mechanical solidarity social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values (Gemeinschaft) White Flight When whites leave an area radically desegregated and take their resources with them leaving the area devastated. Selffulfilling prophecy. Problematic because people don’t live in the area, but go there. Megalopolis a vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs. Crude birth rates the number of live births in a given year per every 1000 people in a population. Migration the movement of people in and out of a specified area Zero population growth the rate of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level Emigration one of the two types of migration; leaving a country to live in another Sex ratio number of males per every 100 females in a nation’s population, sex ratios are usually below 100 because, on average, women outlive men. Logic of growth thesis technology will improve our lives, make the future better. Organic solidarity based on specialization and independence, do not necessarily share the same norms, values. How population is controlled naturally (Malthus) natural disasters, wars, famine, disease Chapter 16 Redemptive social movements targets specific individuals, but they seek radical change (AA) 4 characteristics of social change 1. *** Social change happens all the time 2. Social change is something intentional but often unplanned 3. ***Social change is controversial 4. Some changes matter more than others **Usually developed from latent functions 4 characteristics of social movements 1. Recognize the problem 2. Movement defines itself 3. Movement becomes established 4. End. A). Resources dry up B). Goal is met. C). Leadership bought out Causes of social change 1. Invention of new objects, ideas, and social patterns. 2. Discovery when people take notice of existing elements in the world 3. Diffusion creates change as people, products, and information spread from one society to another Otherdirectedness openness to the latest trends and fashions, often expressed by imitating others. People desperate to fit in. 3 sources of cultural change Deprivation theory social movements that arise among people who feel deprived of something, such as income, safe working conditions, or political rights. Crowds temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one another Mob highly emotional crowd that peruses a violent or destructive goal (lynching) Traditiondirectedness rigid conformity to timehonored ways of living David Riesman says preindustrialism promotes traditionaldirectedness. People model their lives based on what their ancestors did. Masculinity as Homophobia - Homophobia is a result of masculinity
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'