ANTH 100 Quiz 1 Study Guide
ANTH 100 Quiz 1 Study Guide ANTH 10000
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Anthropology 100 Professor Richard Blanton Purdue University Spring 2016 Quiz 1 Study guide Natural selection: is the main process that increases the frequency of adaptive traits through time. (It is not always a uniform process). Example: The natural selection of the British Moth. In 1850 black moth was first spotted in Manchester. It was very unusual because most of the moth population had gray color. However, a century later, 95% of British Moth population had black color. Lichen was a natural camouflage for gray moth in the rural area, but it stopped growing as much due to pollution. Now, when there are more lichen-free trees, black moth find it easier to hide from birds on the dark surfaces of the tries. That’s why Black British moth became more common rather than grey British Moth. Principles of Natural Selection: 1. Variation – every species is composed of a great variety of individuals, some of which are better adapted to the environment than others (without variation, one kind of characteristics would not be favored over another). 2. Heritability – offspring inherit traits from their parents, at least to some degree and in some way. 3. Differential reproductive success – because better-adapted individuals generally produce more offspring over the generations than poorer-adapted individuals, the frequency of adaptive traits gradually increases in subsequent generations (a new species emerges when changes in traits or geographic barriers result on the reproductive isolation of the population). The gene is the basic unit of trait transmission (Genes are segments of chromosomes that made up of nuclear DNA molecules. There is another type of DNA called mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, which is also found in the cell but serves only in cell functioning and does not carry genetic information). Changes in species can be expected to occur as the environment changes or as some members of the species move into a new environment. Different traits become adaptive as environment changes. Example: Giraffes’ necks became longer. Initially the length of giraffes’ necks varied. But as time went on, the short-necked giraffes diminished, because they weren’t able to access food as easily as longer necked giraffes. There are two genetic sources of variation: genetic recombination and mutation. And there are two processes through which variations are shuffled through populations: gene flow and genetic drift. Gene flow – process by which genes pass from one population to another through mating and reproduction. (Decreases differences between populations). Cline - variation in gene frequency from one end of the region to another. Genetic drift (aka Wright Effect) – process that affects gene frequency in small, relatively isolated population. One variety of genetic drift is called founder effect; it occurs when a small group of organisms is derived from a larger population migrates to a relatively isolated location. Example: The population had travelled before Bering land bridge between Asia and North America got disconnected. It explains why Native Americans have a higher proportion of individuals with O type blood than other populations. Mutation – a chemical change in the genetic make-up of an individual’s genes. (Simply, change in DNA).
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