KIN 150, Material for Final Exam
KIN 150, Material for Final Exam KIN 150
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by ronniejohnson13 on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 150 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Wesley Smith in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see General Nutrition for Health and Performance in Physiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
KIN 150 – General Nutrition for Health and Performance Hunter/Gatherer Diet 1 Calorie: Amount of heat required 70/80% whole fruits/vegetables to raise 1g of water 1°C 30/20% quality meats (after exercise) 1 plate: green vegetables 1 plate: color Study (8 years): 1 plate: sulfur rich vegetables -‐ Onions, Cabbage -‐ Seaweed/Organ meat Potatoes = Most weight gain -‐ Fish/Quality meat Yogurt/Nuts = Least weight gain Iodine ▯ Seaweed/Yogurt (probiotics) Not all calories are the same White Rice Brown Rice -‐ Addictive, low satiety -‐ Less addictive, high satiety -‐ No thermic effect -‐ Thermic effect -‐ High blood sugar, high insulin -‐ Low sugar, low insulin -‐ Little nutrient value -‐ High nutrient value Problems with BMI 2 2 BMI = weight (kg)/height (m ) 25 ▯ over Visceral Fat 30 ▯ obese Doesn’t take into account that some people are: Fit & Fat or LMOB (lean but metabolically obese) Diabetes 1 in 3 children/2 in 3 minority children are expected to develop diabetes (high blood sugar) in their lifetime. -‐ Leading cause of kidney failure, adult blindness, limb amputations -‐ Type 1: auto-‐immune disease -‐ Type 2: reversible by lifestyle -‐ Center for Disease Control Guidelines: 1. Improved eating and physical activity 2. Control total calorie intake 3. Maintain appropriate calorie balance 0.8g/kgbw protein daily Upper limit: 2g/kgbw RDA (recommended daily allowance) Proper amount of a nutrient so that 98% of the population will get enough and 2% wither need more or less. AI More scientific, subject to change Death Toxicity Adequate/Safe Intake AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range) UL PRO: 10% -‐ 35% ▯ 4 cals/g CHO: 45% -‐ 65% ▯ 4 cals/g Deficiency Diseases FAT: 20% -‐ 35% ▯ 9 cals/g RDA Death Omega 6 -‐ 10:1 -‐ Omega 3 Saturated <10% AMDR: not a good Females: 25g of Fiber/Males: 35g of Fiber indicator of quality of Sugar <25% of diet food. Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Amount Use Found in A F: 700mcg, M: 900mcg Retina pigment, Carrots, tomatoes, antioxidant peppers, animal fats D 15-‐20 minutes in the sun Bones, immune, heart Sun E 15mg Antioxidant Seeds, oils K F: 90mcg, M: 120mcg Anti blood clotting, bone Green leafy vegetables formation, liver B.A.C.K Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Amount Use Found In C F: 75mg, M: 90mg Synthesis of collagen, Citrus fruits, cabbage, greens, antioxidant sea vegetables B1 Thiamine 1.1 -‐ 1.2mg Energy production Asparagus, legumes, seeds/nuts, veggies F: 1.1mg, M: 1.3mg Energy production Spinach, mushrooms, B2 Riboflavin asparagus B3 Niacin F: 14mg, M: 16mg Lowers cholesterol Meats, mushrooms, asparagus B5 Pantothenic 5mg Energy production Mushrooms, sweet potato, Acid avocado 1.3mg Protein synthesis Tuna, spinach, cabbage, bok B6 choy, garlic, cauliflower B9 Folate 400mg Protein synthesis Lentils, beans, asparagus B12 4-‐7mcg (maybe more) Protein synthesis Sardines, salmon, tuna Choline F: 425mcg, M: Protein synthesis 450mcg B12 B9 – if CANNOT GET FROM pregnant: Folic Acid PLANTS 520mg/day ≠ à First Folate trimester CNS development Macro Minerals Calcium 1200mg / day Chloride Electrolyte balance Magnesium Used in getting energy in ATP Phosphorus Nuts, legumes, leafy greens Potassium 4700 mg/day (98% of Americans are deficient) <2400mg or <1500mg for African Americans, diabetes, kidney patients, high Sodium blood pressure Micro Minerals Chromium Insulin receptor Copper Helps antioxidant enzymes Fluoride Dental health (in water) Iodine Thyroid gland (burns a lot of calories) ▯ Yogurt Iron F: 18mcg/day, M: 8-‐10mcg/day Maganese Helps antioxidant enzymes Zinc Helps antioxidant enzymes Ingredient List – DO NOT WANT -‐ Long -‐ Hydrogenated: trans fat -‐ Corn + corn syrup: high sugar, GMO -‐ Soy bean oil -‐ Nitrites -‐ Flour (even whole wheat) Fiber -‐ Lowers cholesterol -‐ Lowers glycemic index -‐ Increases thermic effect of food -‐ Reduces exposure to carcinogens -‐ Increases intestinal health Upper Limit: Protein Requirements Body Builder 1.6 – 1.8g x kg (body weight) 2.0g x kg (body weight) Active Athlete 1.2 – 1.5g x kg (body weight) Sedentary/Aging 0.8 – 1.0g x kg (body weight) Infant 3.0g x kg (body weight) Essential Amino Acids *Isoleucine Branch Chain: large portion of muscle, *Leucine used when we run out of sugar *Valine Histidine (conditional) Immune system Lysine Connective tissue Methionine Protein synthesis Phenylalanine Making dopamine Threonine Burn sugar Tryptophan Competes with *, (serotonin, melatonin)= sleepy Arginine (conditional) Dilating blood vessels Complete protein: animals, soy, and quinoa Incomplete protein: plants High rated proteins: whey, casein, soy protein, and egg white Protein Complements Nuts/Seeds Vegetables Grains Legumes Monosaccharide: Glucose, Lactose and Fructose Disaccharides: Galactose = Glucose + Lactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose RMR = body weight x 11 RMR x activity factor = calories needed Coronary Artery Disease 1 Damage to the arterial lining, which leads to adhesion molecules 2 Small LDL particle will enter the sub High triglycerides (sugars, solid endothelial space fats, abdominal obesity) 3 Small LDL becomes oxidized by a free Lack of antioxidants/exercise radical 4 Macrophage eats LDL = foam Inflammation (lack of exercise, plants, cell omega 3 fatty acids) 5 Foam increases inflammation + free radicals = atherosclerosis Medical ABCs A Aspirin ▯ for inflammation Exercise, plants B Blood pressure medication ▯ for blood pressure Exercise, less sodium, weight loss, plants C Cholesterol medication ▯ for LDLs Less sugar, animal fats D Don’t smoke / get vitamin D Go outside E Exercise F Fish oil Seed oil, fatty fish G Glucose medication ▯ reduce blood sugar Exercise, low glycemic (high fiber) Risk Factors: • Coronary events/sudden death in first degree relative <55 male, <65 female • Smoking • 140 or 90 blood pressure or BP meds • LDL>130 mg/dl OR HDL<40 OR TCL over 200mg/dl OR cholesterol meds • Fasting glucose greater or equal 100mg/dl • BMI>30 or waist>40” male or >35” female • Sedentary (not exercising) at least 3x a week (minimum 150 mins walking) • *HDL >60 subtracts one risk factor Chemicals: Resveratrol – grapes/red wine • Don’t smoke Diallyldisulfide – onions • Low sodium Curcumin – turmeric spice/ginger • Weight loss/Exercise Catechins – green/black tea • High Omega 3s Quercitin – apples • Low sugars and solid fats (animals) Carotenoids – tomatos, peppers, carrots • High plants Sulforophane – broccoli, kale CAN NOT SPOT REDUCE Fat cells à Leptin à Brain à RMR/hunger Obesity Fat Patterning: Android Obesity (waist) – bigger fat cells Gynoid Obesity (thighs, buttocks, hips) – more fat cells Childhood Obesity Epidemic -‐ Ages when fat cell replication and differentiation is established 0 – 1: what the mother eats 3 – 5: sugar (way to fix tantrums) Adolescence: not enough activity, too much screen time Set point theory – Around 20 years old Pima Indians – thrifty genotype (very efficient at storing energy) Metabolic Syndrome 1. ▯ waist circumference 2. ▯ TG (150 mg) 3. ▯ HDL (<40) 3/5 = 240% higher risk of T2D 4. ▯ BP (SBP > 135) 5. ▯ Glucose (fasted > 109) Metformin – popular drug (exercise + weight loss is 40% more effective) Systolic Diastolic Normal <115 <75 Pre Hypertensive 120 – 139 80 – 89 Stage 1 140 – 159 90 – 99 Stage 2 >=160 >=100 -‐ Risk of CVD doubles with every 20/10 over 115/75 Obese sibling: 42% increased risk Obese friend: 171% increased risk Diabetes Symptoms: -‐ Always tired/hungry -‐ Wounds won’t heal well -‐ Frequent urination -‐ Sudden weight loss -‐ Sexual problems -‐ Blurry vision -‐ Vaginal infections -‐ Numb/tingling feet -‐ Thirsty Weight Loss -‐ eat breakfast -‐ eat for nutrient density -‐ avoid processed cards/sugar -‐ adequate hydration -‐ high fiber (25 – 35 grams) -‐ CHO (45%) -‐ Replacing fat with protein will increase T.E.F. -‐ Shoot for 500 kcals deficit/day -‐ Mindful eating Short-‐term regulation of adipose stores Ghrelin – makes you hungry (lowers metabolic rate) Cck – makes you full Triglycerides (sugar) have been shown to block Leptin receptors (affects set point) NIH: -‐ 300 calorie/day deficit (more ghrelin, less Leptin) -‐ Keep it off for 2 – 5 years -‐ Exercise best for visceral adipose -‐ Weight loss = improved insulin Female Athlete Triad 1. Eating Disorder 2. Osteoporosis 3. Amonorrhea Males = “Bigorexia” Healthy Weight Gain Muscle: 70% H O 2 22% protein 1 lbs. muscle = 100g protein 8% carbs & minerals +400 calories/day (not a lot of protein) 1.6 – 1.8g protein / kgbw Whey protein before/during training Chocolate/soy milk 30 mins post workout Creatine Healthy source 15 – 25 g/day Milk Whey + Casein 3:1 ratio of CHO to PRO Organic Soy Milk More Antioxidants Root Starchy Vegetables Restores Carbs Whey Protein Amino Acids HMB Catfish + Grapefruit Reduce muscle breakdown Beta Alanine Thistidine = Carnosine For greater anaerobic work Nutrition & Cancer Prevention The Anti-‐Cancer Diet: -‐ Adequate, not excessive caloric intake -‐ >10 servings of vegetables a day including cruciferous vegetables -‐ >4 servings of fruit per day (1cup of juice = 2 servings) -‐ High fiber diet -‐ No refined sugar and flour -‐ Low total fat, but with essential fatty acids -‐ No red meat -‐ Vitamin D -‐ APPLES -‐ Balanced ratio of Omega 3/ Omega 6 (2 meals of non-‐fried fatty fish/week) -‐ Rich in folic acid and B12 -‐ Rich in antioxidants Phytochemicals: Green Leafy Vegetables -‐ Quercetin (antioxidant + stimulant effects, improve health/athletic performance) -‐ Letei (antioxidant activity and benefits vision) -‐ Zeaxanthin (antioxidant activity and benefits vision) Brassicas: cabbage, broccoli -‐ Sulforaphane (reduced carcinogens) -‐ Indole (supports immune system, reduces cancer) -‐ Carotenoids (protection against free radicals + sugar damage) Alliums: onions, garlic, leeks -‐ Selenium (antioxidant) -‐ Allicin (anti-‐inflammatory and anti blood clotting) Red fruits + veggies -‐ Lower blood pressure, anti-‐inflammatory, neuropretective and pain-‐ numbing properties Purple/Blue plant pigments -‐ Ellagic acid (Antioxidant and anti-‐carcinogen) -‐ Flavanoids (Anti-‐biotic properties) Ginger/Hot Sauce/Curcumin Orange/Yellows -‐ Carotenoids Ted Talk – Eating to Starve Cancer: -‐ Angiogenesis -‐ Insulin-‐like growth factor 1 (IGF1) Osteoporosis (Most genetic) Oral contraceptives – increase bone mass by 2-‐3% Breast feeding – 2x calcium loss Smoking – 2x risk of menopause (causes osteoporosis) Calcium Sources: -‐ Almonds DO: -‐ Broccoli Strong bones before age 30 -‐ Oatmeal Weight baring exercise -‐ Black eyed peas Healthy lifestyle (no smoking, alcohol) -‐ Orange juice Bone density testing -‐ Figs Adequate sunlight -‐ Sesame seeds Calcium intake Performance 1. Energy to the Tissues Old recommendations: -‐ Aerobic: 8-‐10g/kgbw -‐ Anaerobic: 6-‐8g/kgbw *Fat Free Mass (kg) x 21.6 + 370 x activity factor Activity factor = 3-‐5 days/week 1.55 6-‐7 days/week 1.725 2x days 1.9 Nutrients: Endurance Anaerobic Protein – 1.4g/kgbw Protein – 1.7g/kgbw Carbs – 6-‐10g/kgbw Carbs – 45-‐64% diet Fat -‐ >20% diet Fat -‐ >20% diet Weight Maintenance: -‐ TDEE with 50-‐65% CHO -‐ 1.5 – 2.0g/kgbw protein (doses throughout day) -‐ Nutrient dense diet to aid recovery, adaptations, performance, health -‐ 3 balanced meals and CHO + PRO with every meal -‐ Sports drink during training/competition -‐ Recov: 40-‐50g of CHO, 15-‐20g of PRO within 30 min, balanced meal 2 hours post Weight Loss: Subtract 500 cals from TDEE Weight Gain: Add 500 cals to TDEE “Central Governor” Theory: Fatigue Desire Discomfort Low sugar increases discomfort Sports Drinks (Sugar) <30 min None 30-‐75 min Very small Mouth rinse 1-‐2 hours Small Up to 30g/hour 2-‐3 hours Moderate Up to 60g/hour >2.5 hours Large Up to 90g/hour
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