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MGT 304, Exam 2 study guide

by: ronniejohnson13

MGT 304, Exam 2 study guide MGT 304

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About this Document

These notes cover everything you need to know for the second exam. This includes chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 of the textbook.
Management: Organizational Behavior
Cecily Cooper
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by ronniejohnson13 on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 304 at University of Miami taught by Cecily Cooper in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Management: Organizational Behavior in Business at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
MGT  304  Exam  #2     Chapter  7  –  Motivation     Motivation:  The  processes  that  account  for  an  individual’s  intensity,  direction,  and   persistence  of  effort  toward  attaining  a  goal.   -­‐ Intensity:  how  hard  a  person  tries   -­‐ Direction:  orientation  that  benefits  the  organization   -­‐ Persistence:  how  long  a  person  can  maintain  his/her  effort     Grit:  ability  to  stick  to  a  goal  and  not  give  up  even  in  the  face  of  adversity     Goal-­‐Setting  Theory  (proposed  by  Edwin  Locke)   -­‐ Specific  goals  increase  performance   -­‐ Difficult  goals,  when  accepted,  result  in  higher  performance   -­‐ Feedback  leads  to  higher  performance     SMART  Goals   Specific,  Measurable,  Attainable,  Relevant,  Time-­‐Based     Management  by  objectives  (MBO)   -­‐ Performance  appraisal  program  where  leaders  meet  with  their  direct  reports  and   set  specific  performance  objectives  jointly.   -­‐ Objectives:  overall  organization,  divisional,  departmental,  individual     Equity  Theory   Distributive  justice:  what  people  receive  as  a  result  of  knowledge,  skill,  and  effort   1. Inputs  and  outcomes  equal  inputs  and   outcomes  of  others   2. Negative  equity:  Inputs  and  outcomes  lower  than  inputs  and  outcomes  of  others   3. Positive  equity:  Inputs  and  outcomes  higher  than  inputs  and  outcomes  of  others   -­‐ Employees  will:     o Change  inputs   o Change  outcomes   o Distort  perceptions  of  self   o Distort  perceptions  of  others   o Choose  a  different  referent   o Leave  the  field     Organization  Justice :  members’  sense  of  the  moral  propriety  of  how  they  are  treated   -­‐ Distributive:  equity   -­‐ Procedural:  perceived  equity  of  decision  making  process   -­‐ Interpersonal:  how  employees  are  treated  by  leaders  (respect  &  propriety)   -­‐ Informational:  perceived  fairness  of  communication  made  by  leader     Expectancy  Theory   1. Expectancy:  employees  decide  to  put  forth  effort  when  they  believe  that  their  effort   will  lead  to  good  performance   Individual  Effort  ▯  Individual  Performance  ▯  Organizational  Rewards   ▯  Personal  Goals   Job  Characteristics  Model   1. Skill  Variety:  sense  of  meaningfulness  of  the  work   2. Task  Identity:  “”   3. Task  Significance:  “”   4. Autonomy:  increases  person’s  responsibility  for  their   work   5. Feedback:  provides  knowledge  of  results  of  work   -­‐ +Growth  need  strength:  person’s  need  to  grow,  learn,  develop  from  working   -­‐ Motivating  Potential  Score  (MPS)   o MPS  =  (Skill  Variety  +  Task  Identity  +  Task  Significance)/3  +  Autonomy  +  Feedback     Work  Redesign   -­‐ Horizontal:  adding  tasks  at  the  same  level   -­‐ Vertical:  adding  decision -­‐making  responsibility   -­‐ Job  rotation:  cross-­‐training  or  different  jobs   -­‐ Job  enrichment:  improving  meaningfulness  of  work     Job  Crafting:  extent  to  which  individuals  can  demonstrate  initiativ e  in  designing  their  work   -­‐ Changing  the  number,  scope,  and  type  of  job  tasks   -­‐ Changing  the  quality  and  amou nt  of  interaction  with  others  in  job   -­‐ Changing  cognitive  task  boundaries                                                           Chapter  8  –  Motivation:  Learning  and  Rewards     Schedules  of  Partial  Reinforcement     Interval   Ratio   Fixed   After  a  certain  amount   After  a  certain  number   of  time   of  responses   Variable  (Random)   After  an  average   After  an  average   amount  of  time   number  of  responses     Organizational  Behavior  Modification   1. Pinpoint  specific  behavior   2. Measure,  count  and  formulate  baseline  for  critical  behaviors   3. A-­‐B-­‐C  analysis   a. Antecedents:  what  is  the  cause?   b. Behavior:  Current  behavior?  Desired  Behavior?   c. Consequences:  Currently  reinforcing  the  behavior?   4. Action  plan  and  strategy   5. Plan  implementation  and  evaluation  of  critical  behavior     Social  Learning  Theory   -­‐ People  learn  by  watching  other  people   1. Attention:  must  be  paying  attention  to  another’s  behavior   2. Retention:  must  remember  what  was  observed   3. Reproduction:  imitates  the  behavior  t hey  recall   4. Motivation:  must  be  motivated  to  imitate     Self-­‐Determination  Theory   -­‐ People  prefer  to  feel  they  have  control  over  their  actions   -­‐ People  paid  for  work  fell  less  like  they   want  to  do  it  and  more  like  they  have  to     Intrinsic  Motivation:  Gain  satisfaction  from  the  task  itself   Extrinsic  Motivation:  Performance  ▯  outcome  expectancies     Pay  Dispersion   -­‐ If  pay  dispersion  creates  inequity,  it  may  result  in  litigation  under  the  Equal  Pay  Act     Performance  Management   -­‐ The  performance  management  meeting  is  an   opportunity  to  regularly  discuss  an   employee’s  performance  and  results   -­‐ 360  degree  performance  appraisal:  includes  ratings  from  higher  management,   peers,  employee’s  followers  and  customers     Problems  with  Performance  Reviews   -­‐ Perceptions  of  bias  in  the  proces s   -­‐ Fear  of  punishment   -­‐ Time  consumed  by  the  process   -­‐ Employees  don’t  like  negative  feedback   -­‐ Employees  may  tune  out  the  boss  once  the  rating  is  known     Chapter  9  –  Group  Processes  and  Teams     Team:  small  number  of  people  with  complementary  skills  who  are  committ ed  to  a  common   purpose,  performance  goals,  and  an  approach  for  which  they  hold  themselves  mutually   accountable.   Types:   -­‐ Problem-­‐solving   -­‐ Self-­‐managed   -­‐ Cross-­‐functional   -­‐ Virtual     Stages  of  Team  Development   1. Forming:  uncertainty  about  purpose,  structure  and  leade rship   2. Storming:  intragroup  conflict  as  members  resist  constraints   3. Norming:  group  is  cohesive  with  strong  group  identity   4. Performing:  group  fully  functional  and  working  toward  goals   5. Adjourning:  for  temporary  groups:  breaking  up   -­‐ Punctuated  Equilibrium:  there   is  a  transition  between  an  early  phase  of  inactivity   followed  by  a  second  phase  of  significant  acceleration  toward  task  completion.     Team  Effectiveness   Context:   -­‐ Adequate  resources   -­‐ Leadership  and  structure   -­‐ Climate  of  trust   -­‐ Performance  evaluation  and  reward   system   Composition:   -­‐ Abilities  of  members   -­‐ Personality   -­‐ Allocating  roles   -­‐ Diversity   -­‐ Size  of  teams   -­‐ Member  flexibility   -­‐ Member  preferences   Process:   -­‐ Common  purpose   -­‐ Specific  goals   -­‐ Team  efficacy   -­‐ Conflict  levels   -­‐ Social  loafing     Team  Norms:  informal  and  interpersonal   rules  that  team  members  are  expected  to  follow   -­‐ Deviant  workplace  behavior:   o Production:  leaving  early,  wasting  resources,  intentionally  working  slowly   o Property:  sabotage,  lying  about  hours  worked,  stealing  from  organization   o Political:  showing  favoritism,   gossiping  and  spreading  rumors,  blaming   o Personal  aggression:  sexual  harassment,  verbal  abuse,  stealing  from  peers         Group  Size   -­‐ Large  groups  are  good  at  gaining  input,  small  groups  better  at  doing  something  with   input     Social  Loafing   -­‐ Expend  less  effort  if   they  believe  others  aren’t  working  as  hard  (equity)   -­‐ People  may  “free  ride”     Cohesion   -­‐ Team  spirit  experienced  in  high -­‐performing  teams   -­‐ More  motivated  and  able  to  organize  tasks  around  a  common  goal     Team  Metrics:  assess  how  a  team  is  performing  over  time  /   to  provide  feedback   1. Task  Metrics  –  the  what   2. Process  metrics  –  the  how   3. Individual  development  metrics     Team  Decision-­‐Making  Methods   -­‐ Brainstorming:  produce  a  creative  solution   -­‐ Consensus:  everyone  supports  the  final  decision   -­‐ Multivoting:  voting  by  ranking   options   -­‐ Nominal  Group  Technique:  anonymous  ideas   -­‐ Stepladder:  add  members  one -­‐by-­‐one  to  discussion     Groupthink   -­‐ Team  decision-­‐making  challenge  that  arises  due  to  a  high  degree  of  cohesiveness   and  group  norms  that  result  in  conformity   1. Group  rationalization :  generate  explanations   2. Direct  pressure:  those  who  speak  out  against  the  group  decision  are  pressured   3. Suppression:  members  are  scared  to  share  differing  views   4. Illusion  of  unanimity:  team  members  believe  they’re  in  agreement  (but  they’re  not)                                         Chapter  10  –  Managing  Conflict  and  Negotiation     Conflict:  perception  that  another  party  has/will  negatively  affect  your  interest     1. Relationship:  ugly  interpersonal  conflict  (usually  dysfunctional)   2. Task  –  substantive  conflict  (usually  functional  unless  too  much)   3. Process  –  conflict  over  roles  and  resources  (almost  always  dysfunctional)     High  Performing  Teams   -­‐  Low  process  conflict   -­‐  Low  relationship  conflict   -­‐  Moderate  levels  of  task  conflict   Best  long-­‐term  solution   -­‐  Have  norms  around  conflict   *  Trust  is  important  ▯  buffers  conflict     Cooperativeness   Smoothing  or  accommodation  /   Collaboration  and  problem  solving  /  Integrates   (satisfy  others’   Obliges   concerns)   Avoids   Competitions  and  authoritative  command  /   Dominates     Assertiveness  (satisfy  own   concerns)     Dominates:  quick  action   Integrates:  gain  commitment  with  consensus   Avoids:  the  issue  is  trivial   Obliges:  when  you’re  wrong   Compromise:  equal  power,  mutually  exclusive  goals                                                 Chapter  12  –  Cross-­‐Cultural  Differences  and  Adjustments     Value:  taken  for  granted,  preferred  way  of  being   ▯  Culture  based,  genetics,  parents,  teachers,  friends,  environmental  influences     Hofstede’s  Values  Survey   116000  IBM  employees  surveyed  in  40  countries     Dimensions:   1. Power  Distance:  degree   to  which  people  expect  levels  of  power   2. Individualism  vs.  Collectivism:  prefer  to  act  as  individuals/group   3. Uncertainty  avoidance:  prefer  structure/unstructured  situations   4. Masculinity  vs.  Femininity   a. High  quantity:  value  assertiveness,  competition,  money   b. High  quality:  value  relationships,  concern  of  welfare  for  others   5. Long-­‐term  vs.  short-­‐term:  planning  ahead/not  thinking  of  the  future     Collectivism     Colombia,  Turkey,  Japan,  Mexico   Individualism   Canada,  U.S.,  G-­‐B,  Germany   Spain,  South  Africa,  France     Low  Power  Distance   High  Power  Distance     Criticisms:  limited  dimensions,  dated,  did  not  take  political  times  into  account,  only  IBM     Cultural  Intelligence:  individual’s  capabilities  to  function/manage  effectively  in  other   cultures   -­‐ Metacognitive:  strategies  to   learn  more   -­‐ Cognitive:  actual  knowledge   -­‐ Motivational:  enjoy  being  in  different  cultures   -­‐ Behavior:  exhibiting  behaviors  to  fit  in  


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