PHIL 325 MIDTERM study guide
PHIL 325 MIDTERM study guide PHIL 325
Cal State Fullerton
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theint Myint on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 325 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Richard Vulich in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see PHILOSOPHY ON SEX AND LOVE in PHIL-Philosophy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Dr. Vulich Love and Sex Midterm Study Questions 1) Explain why Socrates says that love is not beautiful. o Love is of something that desires o To desire means to not currently have it o Love desires beauty o Therefore, love lacks beauty 2) Explain why Socrates says that love is not a God. o God is perfect and lacks nothing, so cant be love bc love lacks beauty 3) Describe the ultimate object of love according to Plato and the process by which one comes to love it. o Stepping stone hierarchy – 5 stages i. Individual bodies – love specific ppl ii. All humanity – love all people iii. Laws and institutions –allow us to live together, live well, maintain peace iv. Fair sciences – love all things in universe and knowledge v. Beauty – any beautiful thing and find beauty in anything = ultimate object of love 4) Explain the sense in which love is a mean between extremes according to Diotima. o beautiful and ugly, god and mortal, wisdom and ignorance, poverty and plenty o beautiful and ugly i. love = not beautiful 1. desires to posses what it thinks is beauty and to desire beauty means it’s lacking beauty ii. to desire beauty shows you’re not foul or ugly o god and mortal i. god is perfect and love has deficiency where It wants beauty so unlike god love is not perfect ii. love= not mortal and is imperfect like us so its like messenger between divine and mortal realm o wisdom and ignorance i. love like philosopher bc love desires beauty and wisdom is one of the beautiful things and philosopher loves wisdom ii. to desire wisdom means that you lack it iii. and to even desire wisdom means you’re not ignorant bc ignorant ppl don’t desire wisdom o poverty and plenty i. poverty (penia) 1. desperate, needy, distressed ii. plenty (poris) 1. bold, fertile, alive, drunk on nectar iii. Zeus-‐ throws party for birth of Aphrodite goddess of beauty iv. plenty and poverty conceive a child which is love v. which is why love contains characteristics of both mom and dad (poverty and plenty) vi. love at times can make you feel so plentiful or empty, like it’s parents vii. never totally full or empty 5) Describe the three main reasons that Solomon believes Eros has not traditionally been considered a virtue. o 1. Erotic love is mere sex i. vulgar and beneath human dignity, not what upright people do o 2. Eros is an emotion i. emotions= impulsive, irrational, unstable & unreliable bc emotions comes and goes ii. cant control emotions and cant rationalize/ think way out of it= leaves you astray from right decision o 3. Eros involves self-‐indulgence of desire i. maybe too selfish and narcissistic 1. bc only trying to pursue own emotional and physical pleasure ii. distort views 1. bc takes away from ability to focus others and more important things 6) Explain why Kant denies the moral value of feelings. o Kant: o Love = emotion, emotion= unreliable bc cant be controlled/ commanded by will whenever you want (ex: cant command sympathy at any time) o If its not something we can control under our will, then we cant be morally obligated to those things— o only obligate and encourage you to things you CAN control 7) Describe the nature and historical significance of courtly love. o Nature i. Says/ does things think will win other person over (try so hard bc at time= arranged marriages, no autonomy, families choose) ii. Allow literary expression of eroticism/ gaining sexual satisfaction iii. Possibility of pursuing desires o Historical significance i. Paves way for romantic love bc start to pursue another person sexually and take happiness into own hands ii. Individuals make more decisions, not families iii. Introduce sexual gratification as virtue (ability to court and achieve person can be good) 8) Explain what the intention of love is according to Robert Solomon. o There’s a private and public self (self that only you see and a self that others see) o Learn about private self via forming shared identity (intention of love) and the intimacy of the shared identity allows us to learn about our private self 9) Describe what the three types of friendship are according to Aristotle. o 1. Friendship of usefulness i. mutually no love for who they are, but mutual exchange for usefulness to each other ii. self interest = motive for friendship o 2. Friendship for pleasure i. ppl pleased by each other / common interests ii. benefit of pleasurable purpose iii. when interest/ pleasure/ usefulness stop= so does friendship o 3. Friendship of good i. best/ more stable & rare ii. between 2 people who only care about each other’s sake, happy to be around each other & share activities iii. even if not useful/ pleasurable anymore, still friends bc friendship based on selflessness aka why It’s more stable and friendship lasts as long as both are good iv. selfless (rare quality)-‐ wish well on other for their sake, even if no benefit for you v. require time (build trust & know person is really good) vi. no slander (bc has your best interest in mind) 10)Explain what kinds of friendships bad people can and cannot be in and why. o Bad people CAN be in useful and pleasurable friendships i. Bc friendship based on self interest and once interest/ pleasure/ usefulness stop= so does friendship o Can NOT be in good friendship i. Bad ppl cant have good friends ii. Bc can only be good friends if BOTH has ability to care selflessly about other person for their sake, not your sake 11)In what sort of friendship does one avoid the possibility of slander and why? o (explain other 2 types of friendship-‐ o Friendship of usefulness i. mutually no love for who they are, but mutual exchange for usefulness to each other ii. self interest = motive for friendship o 2. Friendship for pleasure i. ppl pleased by each other / common interests ii. benefit of pleasurable purpose iii. when interest/ pleasure/ usefulness stop= so does friendship o friendship of usefulness and pleasure= possibility of sander bc friendship based on self interest) o 3. Friendship of good i. best/ more stable & rare ii. between 2 people who only care about each other’s sake, happy to be around each other & share activities iii. even if not useful/ pleasurable anymore, still friends bc friendship based on selflessness aka why It’s more stable and friendship lasts as long as both are good iv. selfless (rare quality)-‐ wish well on other for their sake, even if no benefit for you v. require time (build trust & know person is really good) vi. no slander (bc has your best interest in mind) o Good friendship= no slander bc motive is not to harm you and has your best interest in mind 12)Explain the sense in which it is both good and bad to be a lover of self, according to Aristotle. o Bad bc lover of self= egotistical= love nothing else, thinks better than others= bad actions i. By loving self, going to create harm bc has bad example o Good bc caring, noble, etc= good actions i. Beneficial to self and others o If good, then good to love self o If bad, then no shouldn’t love self 13)Explain the nature of love according to Nozick. o Infatuation i. Intense state of preoccupation ii. Always think about them, want to be with them, feel their touch, lose sleep, lose focus on more important things—person becomes dominate iii. If rejected= suicidal, depressed etc iv. Outcomes= break up or form lasting relationship and create “we” o We i. Ppl form new entity/ oneness with each other and presents themselves as that to world ii. Personality and lives intertwine iii. Don’t feel alone anymore; now its you + them 1. Form a shared well being a. Well being of lover is attached to well-‐being of loved thing b. Whatever happens to them directly affects you; good if good/ bad if bad c. Even if makes them happy but not good for them, hurts you bc it hurts their overall well-‐being d. Risks: If break up, you affected too (don’t feel indifferent anymore; youre burdened too) e. Gains: if good happen to them, you benefit too; insurance against harm 2. Shared autonomy a. When in love, decisions now made as a unit, not as individuals o Anxiety arise w/ distance (worry about well being) o No/less anxiety when together (bc know how they are bc near you) 14)Explain why it is impossible for someone in love to desire to trade up according to Nozick. o If in love= no desire to seek/ hope/ want for someone better o To want to trade up is like self destruction i. Bc have shared well being= it’d hurt you bc you’d be hurting them o Economic reasons: invest a lot of time so worry it might be sunken cause if you try tp pursue new person; better to try to make it work with the one you’re with now o In love, Don’t want to break “we” bc worked so hard and put so much time into creating it o When start thinking of you/ desire trading up, just the existence of that desire to trade up means = individualistic view= out of love= destroy “we” 15)Explain how Nozick would answer this question: “Of what value is love to an individual” o incoherent bc assumes that when in love, still individuals when not bc create a new identity and unity w/ joint interests = “we” o in love, you alternate self to fit boundaries of other person o like sperm+egg=zygote ( once combined, cant undo zygote to have individual sperm & egg anymore) 16)Describe the nature and significance of infatuation according to Nozick. o Infatuation i. Intense state of preoccupation ii. Always think about them, want to be with them, feel touch, lose sleep, lose focus on more important things—person becomes dominate iii. If rejected= suicidal, depressed etc iv. Outcomes= break up or form lasting relationship 17)Is the significance attached to love justified according to Schopenhauer and why or why not. o Loved based on need of reproduction/ survival of human race o Justifies how much people pay attention to love bc it’s purpose is for reproduction and there is nothing more important than that o Not important if you mistakenly thought love is based on individual happiness o Reproduction is what justifies loves 18)In what ways is love deceptive according to Schopenhauer and why is this deception necessary? o Everyone believe finding love for personal happiness, but its not for personal happiness but for reproductive o Think its gonna make you happy, but it’s actually going to make you unhappy bc all negatives and hurt that comes with it o Have to be deceived into thinking its for our own sake not for reproduction or else we wouldn’t be motivated to pursue relationships 19)Explain the role of instinct in love according to Schopenhauer. o Instinct = behavior set by nature for the good of the species o There to protect overall health of species so they can collectively survive and reproduce o Sexual impulse= human instinct o Desire to pursue mate emplaced in us by nature to find someone suitable for reproducing, but not for our individual interest o If pursue love out of individual interest, we would end up unhappy and disappointed o Doesn’t matter unhappy bc purpose is to reproduce 20)Explain why Schopenhauer says that adultery in a woman is worse than adultery in a man. o Love based on reproduction = give men and women different drive o Men can father more children i. Natural impulse to seek variety to make max amount of children = what nature wants o Women instinct i. Be faithful and keep man to protect child o Women adultery worse bc goes against women natural instinct to be faithful whereas men being unfaithful is seen as natural instinct 21)Explain De Beauvoir’s claim that no man is a great lover. o Different mind of sexes o Women i. Want to be totally devoted to man and show sensitivity ii. Make him main centerpiece of life o Men i. Want to possess her ii. Expect/ want to receive total devotion from her, iii. But doesn’t show devotion to women o No men great lover bc has passion, but cant be completely devoted to lover, which is quality of great lover o Women great lovers bc can be completely devoted, focused, attentive to lover, and not just themself 22)Explain De Beauvoir’s disagreement with Sigmund Freud. o Freud i. Girls attracted to father = why they seek a man similar to father o De Beauvoir i. Seek man similar to father not bc sexually attracted but bc represents safety, taken care of, avoid abandonment and hes the first man she had relation with and she wants to restore those feelings of protection, love, and guardianship under care of a strong man = reason she seeks a man like dad 23)Explain De Beauvoir’s claim that only in love can a woman reconcile her narcissism and eroticism. o Narcissism = feeling of self worth o Eroticism= desire of sexual satisfaction o If not in love, women can only have one or the other; not both o Flattery and attention helps her to see herself as he sees her= boosts ego bc feels validated in beauty -‐ can go from feeling unappreciated, abandoned etc to feeling wanted, treasured etc. women cant validate their own beauty so seeks a man to do so o If just sex, can feel unworthy and used sexually bc the man had sex with her but doesn’t love her = lower self esteem, higher sexual satisfaction o If her self esteem is so high, she may not reject sex unless there is love, but then there is no sexual satisfaction bc no sex o Only having sex with a man she loves doesn’t diminish her self esteem bc she knows its about shared affection and mutual care for each other, not just empty sex to feel sexually satisfied 24)Explain what qualities attract young women to men according to De Beauvoir. o Boys early on seen as subjects/ dominate and girls seen as lacking (objects) bc its how society conditions gender roles, presented through media and films o boys= guns, strength, bravery, etc o girls= dolls, babies, domestic stuff o to be more equal, women more attracted to men who have qualities the girl lacks: i. strength, fitness, wealth, status 25)Explain these two concepts as they pertain to love, appraisal and bestowal. o Appraisal i. Conditional love that’s rational and value is based on features ii. Value based on what other’s (the market) wants and how much it’s worth to you iii. Not real love bc If features change, values change too o Bestowal i. Unconditional love that’s irrational and given regardless of features and how suitable it is to your interests and needs ii. Person may change for better or worse, but it doesn’t make you love/ value them any less/ it stays same = real love iii. Supports your needs even if no benefit to them iv. Still loves you regardless of negatives 26)Explain Singer’s analogy between love and attending a play. o Appraisal and bestowal o When love, give bestowal o Don’t see negative features bc perceives beloved as perfect o When go to play/ movie, you get emotional even though its not real, but you can feel bc you use your imagination to relate to it , not real but provoke real feelings o Feeling lover is real= real feeling o We know lover is not perfect but in love, use imagination to feel like lover IS perfect (think perfect by imagination not self deception ) 27)Explain the difference between objective and individual appraisal. o Objective appraisal i. Value based on social norm standards/whole market’s interest o Individual appraisal i. Value based on personal standard-‐ how much individual values thing ii. Can value more/ less than the market 28)Explain Singer’s claim that in love morality becomes more erratic(subject to change) . o You love them unconditionally and attached through bestowal o So things you thought were bad before, you excuse or overlook them when your partner does it o Sometimes even make excuses for lover and don’t see as negative bc you accept them whether they’re good/bad bc love them unconditionally 29)According to Soble what is wrong with Singer’s account of love? o Singer: 2 ways of valuing things: appraisal (conditional based on attributes relative to your interests) and bestowal (unconditional grant of love regardless of features/ benefits to you ) o Singer: says bestowal= real key feature of love o Soble: found fault that bestowal is real characteristic of love bc if don’t say appraisal is necessary, then not considering concept of erotic love (physical attraction) which needs appraisal to attract person in first place o erotic love-‐ physical attraction/ possession of other person =based on attraction/ desirable feature of other person o singer: Appraisal should be thought of as separate from real nature of love o soble: thinks wrong appraisal at least necessary if talking about eros love bc need appraisal to even find people attractive, so singers analysis fails bc it unifies all types of love under one definition 30)What are two possible interpretations of Singer’s view of the role of appraisal in love? o 3 various ways of interpreting love; inconsistent o appraisal necessary for bestowal o soble criticizes singer bc singer doesn’t specify the role of appraisal and it’s confusing 31)Explain whether God’s love for mankind is based on appraisal or bestowal and why. o Bestowal bc god is perfect and lacks/ desires nothing, so we have no interest to god o God loves man/ humanity unconditionally w/o appraisal 32)Explain whether man’s love for God is based on appraisal or bestowal and why. o Appraisal bc we recognize god as perfect and we love god whether or not he changes = implies that he’s not perfect = we cant love him based on bestowal bc bestowal thinks loved one is perfect o We don’t love god unconditionally but we love him bc of the fact that he’s not lacking anything 33)Why is love inherently frustrating according to Sartre? o Love ends up getting divided o Goal= balance other person between being subject and object o 1 person end up being dominate and follower= balance gets ruined and now neither is happy bc neither wanted to objectify other 34)Explain Sartre’s claim that in love we would like to act on our partner’s freedom. o Thinks when love, thing they want is like contradicting bc want other person to be free, but be their’s too o Make sure that they CHOOSE you bc they want to freely on their own o We want them to be free, but we want to control/influence them in a way that chooses us o If we have our way, we’d want to force them into freely choosing us 35)How is seduction like a language according to Sartre? o Love want both subject and object (explain whats subject and object)(control their choice in choosing us) o Seduction – way to get them to freely chose us by appealing to them o Seduction and language: i. Both have communication: intended to pass a message of thoughts/ feelings ii. Both can be miscommunicated and misinterpreted intended message 36)Explain why the masochist is unable to achieve his goal according to Sartre. o Explain subject( dominating person) and object o Masochist likes pain and want to be hurt o On surface, they’re submissive and make it seem like they’re object by being whipped, etc bc tired of trying to balance roles of subject and object so just says they’ll be object o But by taking charge and directing other person to play out their fantasies, they are being the subject bc they chose to be there and giving commands to get what they want, which is to be the object 37)Explain Fox’s example of the observant neighbor. o Cathy and steve – steve break up, cathy want to confront him but cant get ahold of him and decide to drive to him ; cost her job and negative impact on life o Friend come and interfere with her decision – like paternalism interference (interfere with autonomy/ someones life and their freedom of action for their own welfare) -‐ and takes purse ok she did it bc has best interest in life o Focus less on when its ok and focus more on WHO its okay for them to do o Observant neighbor = has same information that friend Elizabeth has regarding cathy and steve o Knows its not good for her, negative effect on her live o And takes it upon himself to take her things to stop her from leaving and ruining her career o Know all same info but interference unacceptable bc they don’t know each other o Ok for friend bc intimate relationship justifies for interference not with stranger bc no intimacy even though has all same info o Intimacy makes difference in justifying interference 38)Explain and describe Simmon’s five conditions of tacit consent. o Tacit consent to something: i. proposed action has to be something appropriate you can consent to, ii. in reasonable time period to descent, iii. know in advance how long before time to dissent / period expires, iv. means/ way of dissent must be reasonable like raising hand,(nothing outrageous like backflips) v. consequence of descent cant be too harmful or else person feel pressured to consent, which is not free 39)Explain subsequent and hypothetical consent. o Subsequent i. “you’ll thank me later” – imagine will consent later on ii. interfere with something someone does even if they don’t want you to iii. know someone so well that you know them so well you’ll know that they’ll consent later o hypothetical i. imagine they will consent right now if they were not currently impaired ii. think they’ll approve of what you’re doing right now
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